• Title, Summary, Keyword: Clinical Mastitis

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THE PHENOTYPIC RELATIONS BETWEEN SOMATIC CELL COUNTS AND MILK CONSTITUENTS OF CLINICAL AND NON-CLINICAL MASTITIS MILK OF DAIRY COWS

  • Kobayashi, S.;Ohtani, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.293-298
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    • 1990
  • Pathogen infections or mastitis inflammations usually develop differently on each udder of lactating cow. Although healthy udders will be attacked by the mastitis pathogens or the pathogens from blood in a long term, they would not be always inflamed. Somatic cell counts (SCC) in milk, which is utilized as an index of mastitis diagnosis, and the relation among SCC and milk constituents will have to be examined on each udder individually. Twelve cows of a Holstein cow herd in Nasu Research Station, which were suffering clinical or non-clinical mastitis, were selected, and SCC and milk constituents on each udder milk were measured. The effects of mastitis infection on udder milk components were relatively small except lactose content on udder milks of non-clinical mastitis (SCC< $10.0{\times}10^5$ per ml milk). On udder milks of clinical mastitis, however, high negative correlations were recognized between SCC and milk components. On different sampling days, high contents of fat and protein corresponded to that of total solids.

Evaluation of Ascorbic Acid Treatment in Clinical and Subclinical Mastitis of Indian Dairy Cows

  • Naresh, Ram;Dwivedi, S.K.;Swarup, D.;Patra, R.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.905-911
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    • 2002
  • A study was carried out to assess the therapeutic effect of ascorbic acid in mastitis of dairy cows. The herd with a population of 250-275 lactating cows was screened for clinical and subclinical mastitis for a period of 5 months. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, eighteen animals each with clinical and subclinical mastitis in one quarter only were selected as study population. Twelve cows (group A) with normal udder and health were also selected as a healthy control. Clinical mastitis cows were grouped as B (n=12) and C (n=6). Cows of group B were treated with ascorbic acid at 25 mg/kg, subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days and intramammary infusion (Ampicillin sodium 75 mg and Cloxacillin sodium 200 mg/infusion) based on antibiotic sensitivity test, till complete recovery. Group C cows received only intramammary infusion till the complete recovery. Eighteen subclinical mastitis cows were divided in group D (n=12) and E (n=6). Cows of group D were treated with ascorbic acid at 25 mg/kg subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days while group E did not receive any treatment. California mastitis test (CMT), somatic cell count (SCC), physical changes of udder and milk were used to diagnose and classify the mastitis. Evaluation of the therapy was based on CMT score and physical changes of udder and milk. Sample size calculation was also performed but was not followed for control groups due to scarcity of cases. Adequate blinding was done when and where required to avoid the biases. Confounding variables like herd, age of the cow, stage of the lactation, season and geographical region were duly considered and adequate blocking was followed. Ascorbic acid was administered in clinical and subclinical cases even after cure considering its immunostimulatory and healing inducing effects. The recovery rate was faster in cases of clinical mastitis treated with ascorbic acid along with an intramammary infusion (group B) than the quarters of group C cows. Quarter wise the average duration/number (3.16${\pm}$0.11 days) of antimicrobial intramammary infusion was significantly (p<0.01) less in group B than that of average duration/number (5.33${\pm}$0.20 days) of group C. Subclinical mastitis cows treated with ascorbic acid showed 83.33% recovery while 16.77% did not respond to treatment till last day of study. Cows of group E (untreated) did not recovered from the mastitis. Subjective parameters viz. swelling, pain reflex of udder and physical changes in milk from quarter of ascorbic acid treated cows (group B) disappeared earlier than that of group C cows. It is concluded from this study that the ascorbic acid might be useful as an adjunct in case of clinical mastitis to get quick recovery with less number of intramammary infusions. High recovery rate in subclinical mastitis quarters of group D cows is appreciable and opens a new avenue to conduct further trials in a larger population in various field conditions. However, the pharmacology of ascorbic acid with particular reference to health of mammary gland needs to be investigated.

A retrospective study of the incidence of clinical mastitis found in large-scale dairy herds in Korea (대규모 젖소목장의 임상형 유방염 발생에 관한 후향적 연구)

  • Kang, Ju-Hoe;Kim, Seon-Deuk;Park, Jun-Young;Cho, In-Young;Hur, Tai-Young;Jung, Young-Hun;Choi, Chang-Yong;Jung, Ji-Young;Shin, Sung-Shik;Son, Chang-Ho;Ok, Ki-Seok;Suh, Guk-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.369-378
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    • 2011
  • Incidence of mastitis is highest in dairy cows and it is a leader of all diseases and the economic losses, in dairy farms. The objective of this study is to analyse the incidence of clinical mastitis using the lactation number, lactation month and season of calving. In this study, we used 3,779 lactation data and animal health records collected from 1990 to 2006 at the National Institute of Animal Science. Out of 3,779 cows, a total of 1,721 cows were reported with clinical mastitis, which was 46.3%. The frequency of mastitis increased from 36.9% from first lactation to 56.0% by the fifth lactation. As many as 766 cows (46.9%) showed a recurrence of mastitis after 14 days, apart for two or more and chronic mastitis that were recorded for 657 cows (20.3%). This came to a total of 3,010 cases that had clinical mastitis in the herd for sixteen years. The distribution of incidence of clinical mastitis was highest during the first month of lactation at 24.4%, and it reached to 43.4% by the third month. The incidence of mastitis was even higher for cows in first lactation, showing 28.6% in the first month, and 42.9 percent by third month of lactation. Cows calved during the summer and winter months showed higher rate of incidence with 59.9% and 57.9% within 30 days of lactation, respectively. It is urgently needed to establish a preventative management for heifer cows during their expected first lactation and the clinical specific dry-period management strategies that influence the rate of clinical mastitis during the next lactation. The aim of this study is to present information that might be useful to improve clinical mastitis prevention.

Patterns of mastitic pathogens and antibiotic susceptibility of bovine clinical mastitis (유우의 임상형 유방염 원인균과 항생제 감수성의 변화양상)

  • Kim, Doo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.397-404
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    • 1988
  • A total of 593 mastitic pathogens were isolated from the clinical mastitic milk of dairy cattle in Gyeonggi area from March 1984 to February 1988. The mastitic pathogens were further studied bacteriologically and examined for susceptibility patterns to 10 antibiotics. The results obtained were summerized as follows: 1. One hundred and seventy three pathogens were isolated in the first year of studies, 205 pathogens in the second year, 122 pathogens in the third year and 93 pathogens in the last year. 2. The pathogens isolated from clinical mastitis were more in summer than other seasons. 3. Staphylococcus spp (50%) and Streptococcus spp (18%) were the main pathogens in the first year of studies but coliforms (15%) and other bacteria (40%) were the main pathogens in the last year of studies. 4. Coliform mastitis was occurred only in summer and autumn. 5. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the same genuses from clinical mastitis infections in different herds and in different years varied greatly. Therefore, treatment should be selected on the basis of susceptibility test results.

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Incidence and Causes of Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows on Smallholder and Large Scale Farms in Tropical Areas of Tanzania

  • Shem, M.N.;Malole, J.M.L.;Machangu, R.;Kurwijila, L.R.;Fujihara, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.372-377
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    • 2001
  • A study on the prevalence and causes of sub-clinical mastitis was conducted on ten smallholder and large-scale dairy farms in Morogoro urban and peri-urban areas. A total of 65 lactating cows were screened using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Confirmatory tests used included; the direct microscopic somatic cell count (DMSCC), culture, bacteriological and biochemical tests. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information on management aspects. Results showed 62% and 4% cows as sub- clinical and clinical mastitis cases respectively. Levels of infection were higher on smallholder farms (75%) than on large-scale farms (25%). All tested cows had high cell counts (>500,000) per ml of milk. Incidences of mastitis were significantly (p<0.05) related to milking practices. The dominant bacterial isolates in the same order were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp, and Escherichia coli. Other organisms isolated included Pseudomonas spp and Klebsiella spp. It was concluded that the high rates of sub-clinical mastitis in the research area were mainly due to poor management and unhygienic milking practices.

Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows

  • Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda;Piroon, Tipapun;Chaisri, Wasana;Suriyasathaporn, Witaya
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.580-585
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI) and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM). Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1), during the dry period (P2), and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3), using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS) in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows.

Genomic Fingerprinting of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis Milk by PCR (젖소 유방염 유래 Staphylococcus aureus의 PCR을 이용한 Genomic Fingerprinting)

  • Kim, Doo;Kwon, Soon-Tak;An, So-Jeo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 1999
  • A total of 137 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from dairy cow's milk with subclinical mastitis from 33 herds in 5 provinces and 36 strains of S aureus from clinical mastitis from 4 herds where the mastitis were severe problem. Arbitrary primed polymerase chain reactions with 10 bp oligonucleotide primer were performed and the PCR products were analysed with image analyzer, The S aureus strains were genotyped into 20 distinct DNA fingerprinting profiles. The size of PCR products ranged from 163 to 2,479 bp and PCR products of 506, 770, 784 and 2,479 bp were the most prevailing bands. Genotype 3 was founded in all 5 provinces. The various genotypes were identified in newly founded dairy herds, however, only one or two genotypes were identified in the closed herds. In clinical mastitis, only a limited number of different S aureus genotype was founded in each of the herds in comparision with subclinical mastitis. The results demonstrated that PCR-based DNA fingerprinting analysis of S aureus strain can be used to study epidemiology of mastitis, in addition, common genotype in geographic region can be useful for the development of an effective S aureus bacterin.

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Detection and Characterization of PCR-SSCP Markers of the Bovine Lactoferrin Gene for Clinical Mastitis

  • Zhou, Lei;Yang, Yuan-Yuan;Li, Zhong-Hao;Kong, Li-Juan;Xing, Guan-Dong;Di, He-Shuang;Wang, Gen-Lin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1399-1403
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    • 2006
  • A total of 80 cows, including 40 top mastitis resistant and 40 top mastitis susceptible animals as Group I and Group II, were selected from a population of 520 cows based on clinical mastitis occurrence. PCR-SSCP analysis on four fragments within the 5'region and two fragments of Exons 4,15 of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) revealed that four fragments-P1,P4,E4,E15-had polymorphisms which totally included six base mutations, and only two of them had significant differences in allele frequencies between resistant and susceptible groups, P1 (53.7% vs. 70.0%, p<0.05) and P4 (55.0% vs. 68.8%, p<0.05). Further study on these two promising markers combined with the milk performance traits of cows demonstrated that their selection would result in higher fat percentage (p<0.05), lower Somatic Cell Score (SCS) (p<0.05) and Clinical Mastitis Residuals (CMR) (p<0.01) indicating higher mastitis resistance and lower milk yield (p<0.05). The putative transcription factor binding sites in the 5'region were also studied by using MatInspector 7.2.2 software, and two signal pathways regulating the expression of bLF including the NF-${\kappa}B$ pathway and nuclear hormone receptor pathway were predicted.

Studies on Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Udder Infections I. Biochemical Properties of Staphylococcus aureus (젖소유방염유래(乳房炎由來) 포도구균(葡萄球菌)에 관한 연구(硏究) I. Staphylococcus aureus의 생화학적특성(生化學的特性))

  • Park, Cheong-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 1982
  • The biochemical properties of strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cattle with peracute gangrenous mastitis, acute systemic mastitis and chronic mastitis were examined. Of 261 strains of Staphylococci isolated from quarters with clinical mastitis, 140 (53.6%) were classified as Staphylococcus aureus and 121 (46.4%) were coagulase-negative staphylococci. All the strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from quarters with peracute gangrenous mastitis and acute systemic mastitis showed production of alpha heamolysin, coagulase, lipase, phosphatase, nuclease and gelatinase, and fermentation of mannitol. However, of 114 strains of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from quarters with chronic mastitis, 64 (56.1%) possessed alpha lysin, and 43 (37.7%) produced lipase in egg yolk medium. The most common hemolytic pattern of the strains associated with chronic mastitis was ${\beta}{\delta}$ type.

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Efficacy of the AHI Mastitis Detector for the Diagnosis of Bovine Mastitis (전도율측정법(傳導率測定法)(AHI Mastitis Detector)을 이용(利用)한 유방염진단(乳房炎診斷)의 야외적용시험(野外適用試驗))

  • Park, Yong-Ho;Kim, Keum-Hwa;An, Soo-Hwan;Kim, Dong-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.273-278
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    • 1982
  • A total of 136 dairy cows were subjected to test for bovine mastitis by AHI mastitis detector, microbiological test (MT) and California mastitis test (CMT). The results obtained were summarlized as follows: MT indicated that the most important causative microorganisms isolated from mastitic milk were Staphylococcus aureus (59.3%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (16.4%), Streptococcus agalactiae (12.4%) and Streoticoccus uberis (4.4%). In Holstein breed, the critical threshold of electrical conductivity values of normal and mastitic milk were found to be less than $6,900{\mu}S$ and above, $7,700{\mu}S$, respectively. Although there was goad agreement (92.0%) between AHI mastitis detector test and CMT for the diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the diagnostic efficiency of AHI mastitis detector (80.0%) was higher than that of CMT (74.0%) when compared with microbiological findings. In addition, handiness and objectivity of AHI mastitis detector for the detection of mastitic milk suggested that this could effectively be used for the diagnosis of both clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis in field.

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