• Title, Summary, Keyword: Clear cutting

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Growth Characteristics of Trees following Different Types of Cutting in Quercus acutissima Stand (상수리나무 임분 내에서 벌채 유형에 따른 조림목의 생장 특성)

  • Shin, Yu-Seung;Song, Sun-Hwa;Yang, A-Ram;Hwang, Jaehong;Park, Yong Mok
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.1075-1083
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cutting types on microclimate and growth characteristics of afforested tree in Quercus acutissima stand after different types of cutting. The difference in temperature reaching $5.2^{\circ}C$ was shown in between clear cutting and selective cutting treatments. On July and August days with temperatures more than $35^{\circ}C$ often appeared in clear cutting stand. The values of VPD in July and August were higher than those in other months. Maximum VPD of 3.99 kPa was shown in clear cutting stand on May 23 as a prolonged rainless days appeared. However, VPD in selective cutting stand always stayed under 3.0 kPa throughout growing season. A higher intensity was shown in clear cutting and strip clear cutting stands, reaching to more than $1,600{\mu}mol\;m^{-2}s^{-1}$ at midday on early August, while that in selective cutting stand stayed about 1,500. In relative growth rate selective cutting stand showed a significantly higher relative growth rate in plant height than those in other cutting stands (p<0.05). The number of leaf in current-year branches significantly increased in selective cutting stand, whereas no increase was shown in clear cutting and strip clear cutting stands (p<0.05). In addition, relative elongation rate of current year branch also showed higher values in selective cutting stand compared with that in strip clear cutting stand (p<0.05). However, leaf mass per unit area (LMA) was higher in order of strip clear cutting, clear cutting, and selective cutting stands. From these results it is concluded that environmental conditions in clear cutting and strip clear cutting stands during growing season are more stressful to afforested tree species, resulting in lower relative growth in plant height, elongation of current-year branches, and leaf number per branch compared with those in selective cutting stand. Consequently, more data must be accumulated in the field to find out best cutting type in plantation considering the adaptational characteristic of each tree species varies with species and life span of tree is long.

Change of Butterfly Communities After Clear Cutting in Gwangneung Forest (광릉숲에서 개벌 후 나비군집의 변화)

  • Lee, Cheol Min;Kwon, Tae-Sung
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.347-354
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to clarify the change of butterfly community after clear cutting. Butterfly survey was conducted in clear cutting area, forest road, and forest using line transect method from May to November in 2011. A total of 32 species and 398 individuals of butterflies were observed. Abundance of food niche breadth and habitat type was significantly higher in clear cutting area than in forest. Estimated species richness and species diversity were significantly higher in clear cutting area than in forest. In clear cutting area, Leptidea amurensis and Argynnis niobe, vulnerable species, were abundant. This result suggests that grasslands formed by clear cutting play an important role to increase butterfly diversity in forest ecosystem.

Ecological Indicators of Forest Degradation after Forest Fire and Clear-cutting in the Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica) Stand of Mongolia

  • Park, Yeong Dae;Lee, Don Koo;Stanturf, John A.;Woo, Su Young;Zoyo, Damdinjav
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.98 no.5
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    • pp.609-617
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate ecological indicators of forest degradation after forest fire and clear-cutting in the Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) stand of Mongolia. The species abundance and biodiversity indices were higher in burned and clear-cut stands than those of reference stand, but boreal understory species, such as Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola incarnata, Linnea borealis and Maianthemum bifolium, completely disappeared and was replaced by sedge species, such as Carex duriuscula, C. lanceolata, C. pediformis, Poa attenuata and P. pratensis. During the research period, temperature increased by an average of $1.6^{\circ}C$ in burned stand and $1.7^{\circ}C$ in clear-cut stand compared to reference stand, but RH sharply decreased up to 15.7% in clear-cut stand. This result indicates that Larix sibirica stand became warmer and drier after forest fire and clear-cutting, and contributed to the abundance of sedge and grass species in the understory. Moreover, intense occupation of tall sedge grass after forest fire and clear-cutting had a vital role as obstacle on natural regeneration of Larix sibirica. The similarity of species composition between reference and burned stands was higher (73.6%) than between reference and clear-cut stands (63.8%). Soil moisture significantly decreased after forest fire and clear-cutting, and the extent of decrease was more severe in the clear-cut stand. The chemical properties at soil organic layer were significantly affected by forest fire and clear-cutting but not the mineral horizons. Inorganic nitrogen of the forest floor significantly decreased in the clear-cut stand ($1.1{\pm}0.4mg{\cdot}kg^{-1}$) than that of the burned ($4.5{\pm}2.3mg{\cdot}kg^{-1}$) and reference stands ($5.0{\pm}2.3mg{\cdot}kg^{-1}$). Available P of the forest floor significantly increased after fire, whereas it decreased after clear-cutting. These results indicate that existence of boreal understory vegetation, and changes in soil moisture and available P are distinct attributes applicable as ecological indicators for identifying forest degradation in Mongolia.

Effects of Clear-cutting on Forest Arthropod Communities at Two Different Vertical Levels (Crown and Ground Surface) (산림 벌채가 산림의 수관 및 지표 절지동물 군집에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Young-Seuk;Park, Young Kyu;Yang, Hee Moon
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.271-278
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    • 2016
  • Forest clear-cutting operations influence biodiversity through habitat changes and food resource availability for inhabitant species. This study examined the effects of clear-cutting on forest arthropod communities. Arthropods were collected from two different forest treatment areas (clear-cut and control) in summer and autumn. In each treatment area, arthropods were sampled from both crown and ground surfaces using sweeping and pitfall trap methods, respectively. Then, the taxonomic order of the collected arthropod specimens was easily identified. Results indicate that arthropod abundance and number of taxa present were higher at ground surface than at crown levels in both clear-cut and control areas. At crown level, more homopteran species were present in clear-cut areas than in control areas in summer. At ground surface, populations of Isopoda and Opiliones were higher in control areas than in clear-cut areas, whereas numbers of Araneae, Orthoptera, and Hymenoptera were greater in clear-cut areas. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed distinct differences between clear-cut and control communities at crown level in summer and at ground surface in autumn. Thus, our results indicate that clear-cutting significantly influences arthropod communities, and higher taxa are valuable for conducting rapid biological assessments of ecosystem disturbances.

Analysis of Cutting Mechanism by Image Processing on Micro-Cutting in SEM (전자현미경내 마이크로 절삭의 화상처리에 의한 절삭 기구 해석)

  • 허성중
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.89-95
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    • 2003
  • This research analyzes the cutting mechanism of A1100-H18 of commercially pure aluminum by image processing in SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope) for the measurement of strain rate distribution near a cutting edge in orthogonal micro-cutting. The distribution is measured using various methods in order. The methods are in-situ observations of cutting process in SEM, inputting image data, a computer image processing, calculating displacements by SSDA(Sequential Similarity Detection Algorithm) and calculating strain rates by FEM. The min results obtained are as follows: (1)It enables to measure a microscopic displacement near a cutting edge. (2) An application of this system to cutting process of various materials will help to make cutting mechanism clear.

Chip Formation of WC-Co on Micro-cutting in SEM (SEM내 미소절삭에 의한 초경합금재의 칩 생성 기구)

  • 허성중;김원일
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.604-607
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    • 2003
  • This study investigates the micro-cutting of cemented carbides using PCD(polycrystalline diamond) and PCBN(polycrystalline cubic boron nitride) cutting tools are performed with SEM direct observation method. The purpose of this study is to make clear the cutting mechanism of cemented carbides and the fracture of WC particles at the plastic deformation zone in orthogonal micro-cutting. And also to achieve systematic understanding, the effect of machining parameter on chip formation and machined surface was investigated, including cutting speed. depth of cut and various tool rake angle.

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Natural Regeneration of Tree Species after Clear-cutting in a Coniferous Plantation (침엽수(針葉樹) 인공조림지(人工造林地) 개벌(皆伐) 후의 교목류(喬木類) 천연갱신(天然更新))

  • Sin, Chang-Seop;Kim, Hong-Eun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.95 no.4
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    • pp.501-506
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    • 2006
  • To study the regeneration process of tree species after clear cutting, we investigated the density of seedling occurred after 1 year in the coniferous forest of Sikotuko Hokkaido, northern Japan that was clearcut after windthrow damage due to typhoon. As the results, 25 species of tree seedlings were growing and the density of seedlings and sprouts was $9.8trees/m^2$ ($1.25tres/m^2{\sim}54.44trees/m^2$) in the area of clear cutting. The 87% ($8.6/m^2$) of all seedlings was current seedlings and non-animal dispersal seedlings (average density $7.2tree/m^2$) were about 5 times more than animal-dispersal seedlings ($1.4tree/m^2$). The seedling density was beyond $6tree/m^2$ within 10m and $2{\sim}9tree/m^2$ in 150~250m from a natural forest. Number of non-animal dispersal seedlings were decreased along the distance from a natural forest but there was not such a tendency in animal dispersal seedlings. The variation in seedling density was higher in non-animal dispersal seedling than in animal dispersal seedling. In natural regeneration of tree species after clear-cutting, the possibility that pioneer species like Betula spp. etc. will be composed of the major species is high. Therefore, in order to maintain the species diversity, the nurture work for reducing competition among the individuals is necessary.

Initial responses of vegetation regeneration after strip clear cutting in secondary Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) forest in Samcheok, Gangwon-do, South Korea (강원도 삼척 지역에서 소나무 이차림의 대상 벌채에 따른 초기 식생 재생 반응)

  • Jeong, Se-Yeong;Cho, Yong-Chan;Byun, Bong-Kyu;Kim, Hye-Jin;Bae, Kwan-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Seop;Kim, Jun-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.785-790
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    • 2015
  • As an alternative to large-scale clear cutting silviculture, strip clear cutting (SC) is being considered as a system compatible with ecological conservation and forest regeneration. In South Korea, application and effectiveness of SCC in varying forest types were rarely found. In this study, under the subject of strip clear cutting lands of pinus densiflora forest at Samcheok, Gangwon-do Province, the developmental aspect of low vegetation prior to and after deforestation and the correlation between environmental factor and pine regeneration were analyzed. The cover rate of understory vegetation was appeared to be increased after deforestation and rapidly increased two years after deforestation, and it was evaluated to be affected by vigorous tree species and photophilic species. From the perspective of relative importance value, Quercus mongolica, Artemisia keiskeana, and Rubus crataegifolius that influence the cover rate showed the inclination of continuous growth. The diversity of species showed increment inclination as well due to introduction and settlement of early transient species. As a result of analyzing the correlation between vegetation and environmental factor and generation of pine tree size, the soil exposure rate, intensity of light, and canopy openness showed positive relationship, and the understory vegetation cover and woody debris cover rate showed negative relationship.

The Effect of Cutting Edge on the Surface Roughness In Cutting Brittle Materials (취성재료의 가공시 절삭날이 표면거칠기에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Joo-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 1996
  • A clear understanding of the surface formation mechanism due to cutting is very important to help produce a good quality surface. Much of the roughness along the length of a bar being cut in a lathe can be explained in terms of macroscopic tool shape and feed rate. However, the roughness along the direction of cutting requires a different explanation. The formation of surface roughness is a problem in flow and fracture of materials in the vicinity of the tool edge. On a microscopic scale the cutting edge is rounded because it is impossible to grind a perfectly sharp cutting edge. Even if a perfectly sharp cutting edge were obtained it would soon become dull as a result of rapid breakdown and wear of the cutting edge. A research project is proposed in which in the main object is to model the surface formation mechanism due to cutting. The tool was assumed to be dull, that is, its edge has a finite radius. In order to study the effect of the radius of cutting edge on the surface formation, tools having different cutting edges were used. For orthogonal cutting experiment, cast iron and glass were chosen as brittle materials. Plowing forces acting in the cutting edge were estimated and its effect on the surface roughness was studied by observing the machined surface using optical microscope.

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Recovery Process of Forest Edge Formed by Clear-cutting Harvest in Korean Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) Forest in Gangwondo, South Korea (강원도 남부 지역에서 소나무림 벌채 후 형성된 숲 가장자리의 회복 과정)

  • Kim, Jun-Soo;Cho, Yong-Chan;Bae, Kwan-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.106 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2017
  • Forest harvest as large scale artificial disturbance makes edge environment in both clear-cutted and forested habitat. To clarify the development and recovery process of forest edge after disturbances is essential to understand vegetation responses and landscape level consequences such as edge-distance. In Korea, after clear-cutting, edge-related changes of environment and vegetation was not clarified yet. In Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) forest, by applying space-for-time approach (sites with undisturbed and 1, 3, 10, 16 yr after cutting), the edge-related change of plant abundance and abiotic factors were determined for 20 line-transect (60 m) and 340 ($1m{\times}5m$) quadrats, and clarified depth and duration of the disturbance. Immediately after edge formation, within 15m form the edge, biotic and abiotic factors such as cover, richness, canopy openness, temperature and moisture content exhibited larger changes compared to forest interior. Plant abundance and abiotic variables were stabilized at the level of forest inside within 16 yr and 10 yr after edge creation, respectively. Woody (tree and shrub) species generally was showed larger increment with proximity to edge than did herb or graminoid species. In addition, negative interactions between woody and herbaceous species were detected during the period of forest edge closure. Our results suggested that depth of forest edge formed by clear-cutting of Korean red pine forest was at least from 15 m to 20 m and edge effect were likely sustained more than 16 years. As the first empirical study on edge-distance between two contrast habitats of clear-cutted and adjacent forest in South Korea, the analytical reality on landscape structure and habitat patches can be improved.