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How community-specific sponsorship of a traditional market creates brand equity: The interdependent relationship between POSCO and the Jukdo Market (전통시장에 대한 기업의 지역사회 특화 스폰서십이 브랜드 자산에 미치는 영향: 포스코와 포항 죽도시장의 협력사례를 중심으로)

  • Rha, Hye-Su;Lee, Kwang-Keun
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 2011
  • The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) was first introduced sixty years ago in the academic field. However, the phrase CSR was not explicitly stated before the 1990s in Korean business and academic researches. Recently CSR is more considered a corporate strategy than a philanthropic donation. CSR comprises contributions to local communities as well as using environmentally beneficial and humane practices. Sponsoring is one available marketing tactic used in order to communicate with the market. This study of sponsorship has concentrated on developing brand asset by accessing potential values of sporting events or star-players. However, sponsorship includes providing funds or goods to non-profit institutions as well as sports or entertainment organizations. Accordingly corporate community-specific sponsorship is defined as firms offering to provide money, goods and/or services to individuals and/or institutions within a particular community, thus establishing an interdependent relationship between the partners aspiring to gain social and economic assets. National sponsorship is typically targeted toward commonly recognized individuals and/or organizations with the intent to maximize exposure of a sponsor's brand, and is known to positively affect brand equity(community-specific sponsorship is committed to a limited local area) that a firm could benefit from by gaining a specific asset. POSCO sponsors the Jukdo Market, locate dinthe city of Pohang, tohelp revive their traditional market. Inreturn, the Jukdo Market merchant suni on display sflags with the POSCO embleminfrontof stores with in the market intending to make shopper sand merchant saware of POSCO's sponsorship. POSCO has succeeded in acquiring public support from the citizens of Pohang. However, the economic effects resulting from the cooperative relationship between POSCO and the Jukdo Market have yet to be measured by any empirical research. The purpose of this study is to assess the economic effects created by the community-specific sponsorship from the groups of merchants and shoppers, measuring its influence on the corporate image and subsequent brand loyalty, as parts of brand equity. The result of the study shows that the community-specific sponsorship of POSCO of the Jukdo Market had different influences on its corporate image and the brand loyalty of shoppers and merchants. First, the merchant group who was more frequently exposed to POSCO's flag recognized the sponsorship of POSCO more than the shopper group, and, therefore, had a better image of the company. Second, the recognition of POSCO's sponsorship had a positive influence on its corporate image, and that positive corporate image had a positive effect on brand loyalty development. However, the recognition of the sponsorship did not have a direct influence on brand loyalty. The friendly corporate image developed by the recognition of the sponsorship consequently could have had an effect on brand loyalty. Therefore, companies should not relinquish investments to corporate image development if they require more brand loyalty. Third, the influence of corporate image on brand loyalty shows stronger results in the shopper group rather than in the merchant group. Psycho-graphic factors of shoppers and merchants might give rise to the difference between the two groups.

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A Study of Efficient Measures for Installing and Managing Traditional Market Arcades (전통시장 아케이드의 설치 및 관리 효율화 방안 연구)

  • Kim, Young-Ki;Kang, Heon-Soo;Kim, Seung-Hee
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.15-30
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    • 2012
  • It has been 10 years since the facility modernization projects of traditional markets was rigorously undertaken. Although more than 835 traditional Korean markets nationwide have already completed these projects, there does not exist a specific set of standards of installation, future maintenance, and management. As a result, the complaints made by civil stakeholders in accordance of the actual facility installation caused problems and delays of related projects. In addition, while some local governments secured and implemented their own differing standards, others have not yet established their own separate standards for maintenance and management. Specifically, 694 traditional markets nationwide were supported for the cost of installing arcades by 2010. For the short period of time after the arcade-supported projects were deployed, the number of the traditional markets had been rapidly growing as a prime example of the facility modernization projects. The arcade facilities are being planned and installed merely for screening the rain or the sun. Without fundamental data for the newly landscaped environments or information on the actual conditions of usage and assessment, there is a lack of comprehensive approaches that could possibly organize the public environments. Furthermore, the amount of support needed for repairs, maintenance, and management from the central and local governments is gradually increasing. Thus, it becomes both crucial and necessary to complement the current set of standards. The purpose of this study is to examine the actual conditions of usage, maintenance, and management among those traditional market facilities that were installed with the supports of the facility-modernization projects, especially for arcades. This will be carried out through investigating the local problems, issues, and considering international case studies. The results of this study will provide measures for effective and efficient installation and management of traditional market arcades. Improvements in the use of public resources could be directed towards transforming public business, as well as public enhancement and functional maintenance and reinforcement. Under this condition, the arcade is not a simple area to avoid rain or sunlight; it becomes a public space. It is highlighted that the arcade should establish its public business not only to activate markets but also to refine street environments and revitalize local communities. A more specific way to improve is introduced through systematic supplementation. This is needed to attract effective participation from local residents and is done so by conducting a fair procedure from the first stage of business and by providing guidelines for establishing arcades as public facilities. The study points out to the problem of merchants-centered plans and street use. It presents the need to expand to involve residents and customers. Given that the arcade is a public facility and merchants' ability to maintain it is limited, manuals and systems for its maintenance needs to be introduced through multi-party agreement of merchants, government, residents and customers.

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Ahn Jeong-Bok's idea of country village community (18세기 향촌사회와 유교공동체 - 순암 안정복을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Bo-kyoung
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.35
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    • pp.415-445
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    • 2009
  • A well-known historian, Ahn Jeong-Bok(Sun-Am, 1712~1791) was an expert on the country village community. He was a scholar of the "Nam-In" group, who was excluded from the corridors of power in those days. He kept on the move in various parts of country villages from his childhood. After settling down in Deok-Gok, Kwang-Ju, he stayed in the place devoting himself to the self-culture and the literary works. By his surrounding of environment, he had an academic interest in a concrete science rather than metaphysics and country villages rather than the central city. He considered the country villages as the link holding between a family and a country and had the conception of a confucianist community based on country villages, emphasizing the practice of confucianist virtues in everyday life. First of all, his confucianist community was the community based on country villages. He thought that the enlightenment was a matter of great importance for solving problems in country villages. As a solution to those problems, he suggested Hyang-Yak, the self-governed regulations of country villages. In his own village he made the self-governed rules Dong-Yak. When he was a provincial governer of Mok-Cheon, he put Hyang-Yak, the self-governed regulations of country villages in operation. It aimed for a kind of gentry-centric country village community. But Hyang-Yak was the regulations based on the agreement with each other, stressed the regard on the popular mind and the setting the pace of the gentry, and aimed for the harmony and order in a community through the practice of moral virtues in daily life. On the other hand, he had a conception of a country village's academic community. He thought of the development of educational intuitions as a pressing need of the enlightenment of country village. With young people he read confucianist books with comments in a village school, Seo-Jae. In his seventies, he made and put the self-regulations for academic community, Hak-Yak, in operations. It is considered that Hak-Yak was an example of his idea of academic community and his point of view on learning, which emphasized on the coincidence with reading and practice.

Management of Naturalized Citizens from Yeozin and Its Limitation Through the Event of Guilsang(吉尙) in the Early 17th Century - Centering on 『Naturalization Registration』 (길상사건(吉尙事件)을 통해 본 17세기 초 향화호인(向化胡人) 관리 실태와 한계 - 『향화인등록(向化人謄錄)』을 중심으로 -)

  • Yi, Sun Hui
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.37
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    • pp.93-126
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    • 2009
  • This study is about a event, which happened on January of 1603 in Hamheung. It has covered from the beginning through the conclusion of the event. The event was ignited by a naturalized citizen, Guilsang's coming to the capital city without permission from the government. With this study I've wished to find the situations of specific management of naturalized citizens as well as popular attitudes towards them at the time. Concerning with the event of Guilsang, I could find more detailed situations from "Naturalization Registration". The reason why Guilsang came to Seoul was that he wanted to ask for living together with his son-in-law's family in Yang-Ju. Before his coming, Bie-Byun-Sa had sent a official letter to the governor of Hamkyung-Do so that he had had to move somewhere between Anbyun and Yung-heung. But Guilsang had wanted to live with his whole family in Seoul. The place he visited first was Sa-Yuk-Won. He presented his petition through Yeozin language translator there. Sa-Yuk-Won then informed Ye-Jo to have him investigated. After its investigation, Ye-Jo reported to the king. There were arguments about Guilsang family in the government. Guilsang had wanted to live with his whole family, including his relatives and son-in-law. Guilsang's request had more pros than cons in terms of humanism. But letting him live in Seoul was a difficult decision for the government. but his family strenuously insisted on living in Seoul, trying to kill itself. Finally Government selected Yong-In which was a compromise between the naturalized citizens' wish and difficult position of Government. Yong-In Miejo-Hyun was a poor region where naturalized citizens had lived before but now empty after the wars. In the process of the event of Guilsang, Government differentiated naturalized citizens from general citizens and regarded them foreign. A man from Yeozin was naturalized due to economic reason. But, he couldn't accept to live somewhere except Seoul, separating from his family. Government concerned with dangers of naturalized citizen becoming into foreign agents and stabilization of borders. These concerns caused the policy of residential control and decentralization of naturalized citizens failed.

A Dream of Communal Society for Parts Without Parts: On Thomas More's Utopia (몫 없는 자들을 위한 공유사회의 꿈: 토머스 모어의 『유토피아』)

  • Lee, Myung-Ho
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.45
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    • pp.295-324
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    • 2016
  • This essay attempts a contrapuntal reading of Thomas More's Utopia. Contrapunctual reading, proposed by Edward Said. attempts to make a text speak across temporal, cultural, and ideological boundaries to a topic of present. I examine two opposite readings of Utopia around 2011 by both pro- and anti-Occupy Wall Street positions. On the one hand, the opponents of Occupy find its limits as a utopian social movement echoing in the fictional character of Hythrodaeus and the alternative society verbally sketched by him in Book Two of Utopia. On the other, Occupy's advocates read More's text as embodying its radial possibility. However, each shares the tendency to denounce Book Two, praising Book One in which Hythrodaeus vehemently criticizes England; they read Hythrodaeus not as an utopian idealist but as a social critic. The Occupy, as a result, is seen here as having an ambivalent relationship to utopianism. I reinterpret the radical possibilities of Book Two criticized by both pro- and anti-Occupy invocations of Utopia. Book Two provides a utopian space in which the existing social contradictions are cancelled, revealing the limits of the three partial utopias proposed at the end of Book One. Following Louis Marin's argument, I argue, the "utopic" space does not lie in the so-called ideal society described in the text but in the inconsistencies between the text's description(discourse) and topography(map). In Book Two the existence of a king is described, yet his space is not found in the topography of utopia; likewise market is described as existing at the center of a city, yet its space is not found either. These inconsistencies create a neutral space in which the ideological contradictions of the text are cancelled, and the space opens up the possibility of communal society beyond modern sovereign power and capitalism I argue this utopian dream needs to be summoned once again in our time as a compelling alternative to the corporate, capitalist order.

Effects of Myopia Alleviation Lenses in accordance with Parents' Refractive Errors (부모의 굴절이상에 따른 근시완화렌즈 효과)

  • Cho, Yoon Chul;Kang, JoongGu;Leem, Hyun Sung
    • The Korean Journal of Vision Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.569-577
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    • 2018
  • Purpose : The study looked at how effective each group wearing MyoVison lens, MC lens, and Single Vision lensdepending on their parents' myopia condition. Methods : The study observed the changeof spherical equivalent among customers, who visited between January 2010 and December 2016,of an optical shop in Incheon Metropolitan City. And we observed MyoVision 152 eyes, MC Lens 86 eyes and Single Vision lens 270 eyes. This study was conducted using SPSS ver18, which analyzes the changes in average values of MyoVision, MC Lens, and Single Vision for a year.In each group, the differences in the group were compared using the Paired T-test and then one-way ANOVA (post-hoc; Bonferroni) Results : Group-to-group comparisons showed that MyoVision and MC Lens have a shorterinhibition than Single Vision. In particular, MyoVisionand MC Lens showed different relief effects depending on the degree of refraction of parents.When both parents had normal refractive, the change between MyoVision and Single Vision lens was $-0.35{\pm}0.05D$. When the father had a refraction MC lens were $-0.36{\pm}0.14D$ more effective than Single Vision. When only the mother had refraction, the mean value between MyoVision and Single Vision lens was $-0.37{\pm}0.06D$, and the mean between MC lens and Single Vision lens was $-0.38{\pm}0.08D$. And when both parents had refraction problems, the mean value change between MyoVision and Single Vision lens was $-0.28{\pm}0.07D$, and $-0.31{\pm}0.07D$, respectively. Conclusion : MyoVision and MC Lens appeared to have no effect on the functions of mitigating myopia in within group comparisons, but MyoVision and MC Lens showed reducing myopia than Single Vision in between group.

A Study on the Characteristics of PM1.0 and source of organic components during summertime at Seoul and Baengnyeong Island (여름철 서울과 백령도에서 PM1.0과 유기성분의 오염원에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jeong-Ho;Park, Jin-Soo;Choi, Jin-Soo;Park, Jong-Seong;Park, Seung-Myeong;Song, In-Ho;Shin, Hye-Jeong;Ahn, Joon-Young;Kim, Shin-Do
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Urban Environment
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.213-230
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    • 2017
  • This study aims to identify the characteristics and origin of chemical composition of $PM_{1.0}$ in the atmosphere, which is particle smaller than the fine particle ($PM_{2.5}$). Baengnyeong Island on the west sea and Seoul that represents inland city areas were selected and the characteristics of the two points in summer, June, 2014, were compared. The mean concentration of $PM_{1.0}$ in Baengnyeong Island was average $14.3{\mu}g/m^3$ and that is Seoul in the same period was $22.4{\mu}g/m^3$, which was about 1.6 times higher than Baengnyeong Island. The chemical components in $PM_{1.0}$, sulfate was predominant with 48% in Baengnyeong Island while organic component was highest with 39% in Seoul. Diurnal patterns of $PM_{1.0}$ chemical components at Seoul site, the highest nitrate concentration are observed in the early morning hours before sunrise and then decrease during the daytime. Typically, organic and sulfate concentrations are increased in the afternoon as a form of secondary organic and secondary sulfate at the urban area. H/C, O/C, N/C, and OM/OC ratios of Baengnyeong Island were found to be 1.46, 0.70, 0.012, and 2.08, respectively while Seoul showed 1.54, 0.39, 0.007, and 1.67, respectively. The oxidation level of organic component was high at Baengnyeong, but the volatility level was high at Seoul site. The PMF analysis resolved two organic sources including POA (primary organic aerosol) and SOA (Secondary oragnic aerosol). POA and SOA ratios of Baengnyeong Island were found to be 20% and 80% while Seoul showed 25% and 75% respectively.

Study on the Effect of Long-range Transport of Fine Particles at a Gwangju Area in spring of 2016 (광주지역 미세먼지의 장거리이동 영향 연구 - 2016년 봄철 사례를 중심으로 -)

  • Lim, Cheol-Soo;Jung, Sun-A;Jo, Mi-Ra;Lee, Sang-Bo;Kim, Jung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Urban Environment
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.373-385
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    • 2017
  • In order to analyze the effect of each component such as fine particles, ion, carbon, and metals on the air quality of Gwangju area due to long-range transport, the change of concentration characteristics was hourly measured in Gwangju Metropolitan City from March to May and air flow cluster analysis using backward trajectory was performed on high PM episodes. Regression analysis between OC and EC concentration showed that OC and EC were emitted by different pollutants. The ratio of OC / EC was $4.5{\pm}3.1$, indicating that the contribution of second OC was high in Gwangju area. As a result of examining the influent communities in four areas, it was found that 53% of the total samples were introduced into the Gwangju area from Shandong province and Shanghai area in the eastern part of China. Overall, the air flow cluster analysis results showed that the concentration of primary pollutants emitted locally and the increase of secondary pollutants introduced from the outside through the atmospheric conversion process during long-range transport of the air mass combined with the concentration of $PM_{2.5}$. The analysis of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ and the major components of $PM_{2.5}$ in the Gwangju area in spring will be useful for basic research on fine particles and Asian dust effect research.

A Study on Reduction Characteristics of Road Traffic Noise according to Arrangement Angle of Apartments (공동주택 배치각도별 도로교통소음 저감특성 연구)

  • Seo, Dong Ju;Kim, Nan Hee;Min, Kyoung Woo;Cho, Gwang Woon;Im, Kyeong Hun;Lee, Gi-Won;Jeong, Won Sam;Seo, Gwang Yeob;Jeong, Tae Ryang;Cho, Young Gwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Urban Environment
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.339-349
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of road traffic noise according to the arrangement angle and to provide basic data for the housing design by deriving the noise reduction prediction formula according to the building angle height. Noise measurement was carried out by selecting 18 measurement points for four buildings located at the same distance from the center line of adjacent roads for K apartment complex in Poonghyang-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju city. As a result of the field test, it was analyzed that the buildings arranged at right angles to the road traffic noise source had a 2.2 dB (A) reduction effect compared to the buildings arranged in parallel, and the noise reduction effect tended to decrease as they went up from the low level to the high level. It can be confirmed that the reliability of the predictive program for deriving the noise reduction prediction formula according to the arrangement angle can be predicted within the mean error of 3.0 dB (A). As a result of simulating the arrangement angle of the building by 10 degrees from 0 to 90 degrees by using the noise prediction program, the reduction value ranged from 0.0 to 3.0 dB (A). The placement angle of the roadside building was 30 degrees and the height was 10 layers or more The noise reduction effect is more than 0.6 dB (A). The noise reduction value according to the arrangement angle was found to increase as the building height increased.

A Study on the Cheonsu-Temple天壽寺 and the echo verse poems to 'Waiting'待人 (천수사(天壽寺)와 <대인(待人)> 화운시 연구)

  • An, Soon-tae
    • Journal of Korean Classical Literature and Education
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    • no.33
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    • pp.121-152
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to illustrate the history of the Cheonsu-Temple天壽寺 and to describe the echo verse poem trend with regard to 'Waiting'待人 and why it is beautiful. The Cheonsu-Temple was located in the outskirts of Gaesung開城, the capital city during the Corea高麗 Dynasty. However, the temple was destroyed when the dynasty collapsed. Cheonsu-Station天壽院 was built amidst the temple ruins, as the temple was an important traffic point. The Cheonsu-Pavilion天水亭 was built in 1476 by Yi-Ye李芮 in the station's neighborhood. The station and the pavilion were completely ruined during the 17th century. Many poets visited the Cheonsu-Temple and composed poems in the latter part of the Corea Dynasty. 'Waiting'待人, written by Choi-Sarip崔斯立, -is the most famous work. Following this work, many poets composed echo verse poems 'Waiting' work that represented the anxiety of waiting for an old friend in front of the Cheonsu-Temple. The following is a highlighted verse: So many people who look like the old friend come to me, but it turned out no one was the man. This work is very picturesque. Over twenty echo verse poems 'Waiting' are categorized in three periods. They compared the "present" to the past by using the Zhenglingwei丁令威 origin from the former Joseon朝鮮 period. In the middle of Joseon period, Jungjong中宗 visited Cheonsu-Station and composed an echo verse poem 'Waiting'. The official literaries also composed poems there. In their works, they presented the collapse of the Corea Dynasty as inevitable and the construction of Joseon Dynasty as something reasonable. Cheonsu-Station was ruined in 17th century, followed after by the ruin of the Cheonsu-Pavilion. It appears that the echo verse poems to 'Waiting' in the latter Joseon period represented the ruin of the Cheonsu-Temple, the Cheonsu-Station, and the Cheonsu-Pavilion.