• Title, Summary, Keyword: Citrus Pulp

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Effects of Replacing Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) Hay with Fresh Citrus Pulp on Ruminal Fermentation and Ewe Performance

  • Sparkes, J.L.;Chaves, A.V.;Fung, Y.T.E.;van Ekris, I.;Bush, R.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.197-204
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    • 2010
  • Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of replacing 30% (% in diet DM) of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) hay with citrus pulp in Merino ewe diets: i) an in vitro study which measured ruminal fermentation; and ii) an in vivo study in which twelve Merino ewes pre- and post-lambing were fed experimental diets in a cross-over design over 120 days to evaluate effects on ewe performance (i.e. DM intake, average daily gain (ADG) and wool growth). In both the in vitro and in vivo studies, the control treatment consisted of lucerne (91.3% in diet DM), lupins (8.3% in diet DM) and phosphate (0.42% in diet DM), while the citrus pulp treatment consisted of lucerne (57.7% in diet DM), lupins (9.5% in diet DM), phosphate (0.48% in diet DM) and fresh citrus pulp (32.3% in diet DM). Data were analysed using the mixed model procedure of SAS. In the in vitro study, gas production, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) yield, proportion of propionic acid to total VFA and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were higher (p<0.02) in the citrus pulp treatment compared to the control treatment. In contrast, in vitro ammonia production, pH and the acetate to propionate ratio were lower (p<0.03) for the citrus pulp treatment compared to the control treatment. In the in vivo study, DM intake of ewes fed the citrus pulp diet was lower than their control ewe counterparts throughout both the pre- and post-lambing periods (928.9 vs. 1,115.0 g/d pre-; 1,285.0 vs. 1,620.3 g/d post-lambing, p<0.01), however ADG was similar (p = 0.12). Wool growth parameters and lamb performance did not differ (p>0.32) between treatments. In summary, the in vitro study demonstrated that the replacement of 30% of a lucerne diet with fresh citrus pulp improved total VFA yield, increased total gas production and improved IVDMD, while decreasing the production of ammonia, acetic acid and rumen pH. In addition, the in vivo study demonstrated that the replacement of 30% of a lucerne diet with fresh citrus pulp pre- and post-lambing decreased intake but did not affect ewe performance in terms of ADG and wool growth. These findings, of course, would be of significant interest to sheep producers endeavouring to control cost of feed ingredients whilst maintaining productivity.

Effects of citrus pulp, fish by-product and Bacillus subtilis fermentation biomass on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs

  • Noh, Hyun Suk;Ingale, Santosh Laxman;Lee, Su Hyup;Kim, Kwang Hyun;Kwon, Ill Kyong;Kim, Young Hwa;Chae, Byung Jo
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.10.1-10.7
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    • 2014
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with citrus pulp, fish by-product, and Bacillus subtilis fermentation biomass on the growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs. A total of 180 weaned piglets (Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire ${\times}$ Duroc) were randomly allotted to three treatments on the basis of body weight (BW). There were six replicate pens in each treatment with 10 piglets per pen. Dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, and 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass. The isocaloric and isoproteineous experimental diets were fed in mash form in two phases (d 0 ~ 14, phase I and d 15 ~ 28, phase II). Dietary treatments had significant linear effects on gain to feed ratio (G:F) in all periods, whereas significant linear effects on ATTD of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), and ash were only observed in phase I. Piglets fed diet supplemented with 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass showed greater (p < 0.05) G:F (phase I, phase II, and overall) as well as ATTD of DM, GE, and ash (phase I) than pigs fed control diet. Dietary treatments also had significant linear effects on total anaerobic bacteria populations by d 14 and 28. In addition, piglets fed diet supplemented with 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product and B. subtilis fermentation biomass showed greater (p < 0.05) fecal total anaerobic bacteria populations (d 14 and 28) than pigs fed control diet. Dietary treatments had no significant effects (linear or quadratic) on average daily gain (ADG), average dial feed intake (ADFI; phase I, phase II, and overall), or fecal populations of Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium spp., and coliforms (d 14 and 28). These results indicate that dietary supplementation with 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass has the potential to improve the feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs.

Citrus Pulp as a Dietary Source of Antioxidants for Lactating Holstein Cows Fed Highly Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diets

  • Santos, G.T.;Lima, L.S.;Schogor, A.L.B.;Romero, J.V.;De Marchi, F.E.;Grande, P.A.;Santos, N.W.;Kazama, R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.1104-1113
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    • 2014
  • The effects of feeding pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as a natural antioxidant source on the performance and milk quality of dairy cows fed highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets were evaluated. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a $4{\times}4$ Latinsquare. Treatments, on a dry matter (DM) basis, were i) control diet; ii) 3% soybean oil; iii) 3% soybean oil and 9% PCP and; iv) 3% soybean oil and 18% PCP. When cows fed on citrus pulp, the DM intake tended to decrease. The total tract apparent digestibility of DM and ether extract decreased when cows fed on the control diet compared to other diets. Cows fed PCP had higher polyphenols and flavonoids content and higher total ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in milk compared to those fed no pelleted citrus pulp. Cows fed 18% PCP showed higher monounsaturated FA and lower saturated FA in milk fat compared with cows fed the other diets. The lowest n-6 FA proportion was in milk fat from cows fed control. The present study suggests that pelleted citrus pulp added to 9% to 18% DM increases total polyphenols and flavonoids concentration, and the FRAP in milk.

Feeding Effect of Citrus Byproduct Pulp on the Quality Characteristics of Hanwoo (감귤박 펄프 급여가 한우육의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Yoon-Hee;Yang, Seung-Joo;Jung, In-Chul
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.227-233
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this research was to study the effects of the feeding of dietary citrus byproducts on the physicochemical properties and palatability of Hanwoo rump (HR). The samples for experimental samples consisted of the HR not fed without citrus byproducts pulp (CBP-0) and the HR rump fed with citrus byproducts pulp during the fattening period (CBP-1). The control (CBP-0) HR rump was fed by general practical feeding (roughages and concentrates were fed separately), while the CBP-1 was fed in the same manners as CBP-0 until 17 months but with citrus byproducts then fed fer the next 10 months. There were no significant differences in the $L^*$ (tightness), $a^*$ (redness) and $b^*$ (yellowness) of the HR between the CBP-0 and CBP-1 fed groups. There were no significant differences in the pH, VBN content and EDA between the samples, but the TBARS value of the CBP-1 fed group was lower than that of the CBP-0 fed group (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the water holding capacity, freezing loss, thawing loss, boiling and roasting logs between the CBP-0 and CBP-1 fed groups. There were no significant differences in the hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness and shear force between the samples, but the springiness of the CBP-1 fed group was higher than that of the CBP-0 fed group (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the sensory scores for the roasted beef between the CBP-0 and CBP-1 fed groups. There were no significant differences in the taste, flavor, juiciness and palatability of roasted beef the between samples, but the tenderness of the CBP-1 fed group was superior to that of the CBP-0 fed group.

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Comparison in Antioxidant Effects of Four Citrus Fruits (감귤류 4종의 항산화 효과의 비교)

  • Park, Geun-Hong;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Hyun-Young;Jeong, Heon-Sang;Kim, Eun-young;Yun, Young-Won;Nam, Sang-Yoon;Lee, Beom-Jun
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.355-360
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to investigate the antioxidant effects of 4 citrus fruits including Hallabong, Cheonhyehyang, Cheonggyeon, and Jinjihyang. In this study the citrus fruits were separated in three parts of peel, pulp segment membrane (PSM), and pulp and extracted with methanol, then concentrated using a rotary vacuum evaporator. Total polyphenol contents ranged 23.497~42.341 mg/g in peel, 13.285~21.872 mg/g in PSM and 6.333~11.627 mg/g in pulp of the citrus fruits. The total polyphenol contents were highest in the peel and PSM of Jinjihyang and in the pulp of Cheonhyehyang. 1,1-diphenyl-2picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities were highest in the peel and PSM of Jinjihyang and in the pulp of Cheonhyehyang. 2,2'-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacities were also highest in the peel and PSM of Jinjihyang and in the pulp of Cheonhyehyang. Reducing powers were highest in the peel of Cheonggyeon, in the PSM of Jinjihyang, and in the pulp of Cheonhyehyang. There were significant correlations in between total polyphenol contents and the radical scavenging activities, and reducing power each other. These results indicate that the 4 citrus fruits (Hallabong, Cheonhyehyang, Cheonggyeon, and Jinjihyang) evidently have antioxidant capacities and their peel parts have the highest antioxidant activities.

A Study on Applicability of Citrus Sludge for the Manufacture of Corrugated Medium (골심지 제조를 위한 감귤 착즙 슬러지의 적용성 평가)

  • Lee, Tai-Ju;Kim, Hyoung-Jin;Lee, Chang-Yong
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 2010
  • It is important to utilize the citrus sludge in terms of the reuse of waste materials in the manufacture of corrugated medium. Especially, the mandarin industry occupies the first place in Jeju province. In this paper, the application of citrus sludge mixed with KOCC recycled fibers into the manufacture of corrugated medium was studied. The citrus sludge was acidic in pH value. Also, the constituents of citrus sludge contain some short fibers, fines, and mucus which contain flavonoids, pectins and so on. In papermaking application, these components cause some troubles like foams, bad smell, fouling on the paper machine, and bad drainage and web breaks of wet web. The strength properties of handsheets prepared from KOCC and citrus sludge was decreased, compare to handsheets made of only KOCC. To compensate the problems on strength properties, some kinds of additives were tried to apply into papermaking wet-end system in laboratory scale. As a result, mixing conditions of alum, starch and anionic additives showed the best options in the recovery of strength properties and formations of corrugated medium.

Properties of Pectin Extracted from By-product in Citrus Processing (밀감 가공부산물에서 추출한 펙틴의 특성)

  • 박용곤;강윤한;차환수;김흥만;석호문
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.659-664
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    • 1996
  • The amount and characteristics of pectin in the albedo and flavedo layers of the citrus peels, and those of the pulp were investigated. Alcohol insoluble solid(AIS) content was the highest in albedo layer(18.1%), and the lowest in pulp(5.7%). The pulp and the albedo layer showed a potential pectin sources as containing pectins of 40.5% and 35.2% of the total polysaccharides of the pulp and the albedo layer, respectively. Total pectin contents were about 30% of the AIS and showed comparatively constant values among the byproducts. Hydrochloric acid soluble pectin contents were the hightest in the flavedo layer, 14.0%, and the lowest in the pulp, 4.4%. Over 90% of the total pectin could be extracted after 60min with 0.05N HCI at $85^{\circ}C.$ Microwave treatment reduced the extraction time significantly ; a comparable extraction yield was acquired after 10min with microwave treatment. The degree of esterification of the extracted pectin also increased with microwave treatment. Neutral sugars in the hydrolysate of the pectin were rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose and xylose. No differences in molecular weight distribution of the pectin were found between the albedo and flavedo layers. Pectin of the pulp showed different molecular weight distribution from that of the peels.

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Development of Functional Hanji Added Citrus Peel(I) - Hanji added Korean citrus peel - (감귤박을 첨가한 기능성 한지제조 기술개발(제1보) - 한국산 감귤박 첨가 한지 -)

  • Kim, Hae-Gong;Lim, Hyun-A;Kim, So-Young;Kang, Sool-Saeng;Lee, Hyo-Yeon;Yun, Pil-Yong
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.38-47
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to develop a new application field and obtain the basic data of citrus peel as waste in Jeju island and traditional Hanji for producing functional Hanji. The results measuring physical and optical properties, water vapor permeance and antibacterial activity are as follows. It was revealed that apparent density go as down but bulk raise up in the structural view of Hanji with increasing of the addition various Korean citrus peel (citrus unshiu, cheonggyun and hanrabong peel, and citrus unshiu peel powder) percentages, and that the density of Hanji added citrus unshiu peel was higher, but bulk was lower in compared with Hanji added other kinds of peel. Those Hanji added citrus unshiu peel, cheonggyun peel, hanrabong peel and citrus unshiu powder were very great not only in the strength (breaking length, burst index, tear index and folding endurance) but also in water vapor permeant rate in comparison with Hanji. The pHs of Hanji were neutrality (7 to 8). The brightness of the Hanji added various citrus peel percentages was low in compared to Hanji, and the 40% addition of hanrabong peel was the lowest. When 40% hanrabong peel was added to Hanji, it was very yellow in the color degree. When cheonggyun peel was added to Hanji manufacture, water vapor permeant rate was highly effective. It is known that vacant space of intrafiber was reduced by image analysis of Hanji and the additions of peel of citrus unshiu, cheonggyun and hanrabong were distributed equally in the interior of Hanji. The antibacterial activity of Hanji added citrus unshiu peel is more than 98%. After all, it would be able to increase utilization of Hanji, extensively. Namely, production of high quality Hanji added functional materials is expected for new valuable industry of citrus peel and Hanji.

Effect of Citrus macroptera Fruit Pulp Juice on Alteration of Caspase Pathway Rendering Anti-Proliferative Activity against Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma in Mice

  • Hasan, Md. Mahmudul;Islam, Md. Shihabul;Hoque, Kazi Md. Faisal;Haque, Ariful;Reza, Md Abu
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.271-277
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    • 2019
  • Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae) has long been used in folk medicine in Bangladesh. Considering the folkloric context, this study was aimed to scrutinize anti-proliferative activity of C. macroptera fruit pulp juice (CMFPJ) against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC). The anti-proliferative capacity of CMFPJ was investigated and confirmed primarily using MTT assay. In vivo anti-proliferative aptitude of CMFPJ was investigated with 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment. Anti-proliferative efficacy of CMFPJ was assessed based on EAC growth inhibition. CMFPJ inhibited EAC growth in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. And the percentages of in vivo EAC growth inhibition were 19.53, 49.2, and 68.9% at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg CMFPJ respectively. CMFPJ significantly induced expression of apoptosis regulatory genes caspase-8, caspase-9, cytochrome-c, and caspase-3. This considerable anti-cancer activity was perhaps due to combinatorial effect of lectin, polyphenols, and flavonoids present in CMFPJ.

Co-ensiling garlic stalk with citrus pulp improves the fermentation quality and feed-nutritional value

  • Lee, Youn Hee;Ahmadi, Farhad;Kim, Young Il;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Kwak, Wan Sup
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.436-445
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Ensiling is a simple and effective method for long-term preservation; however, less information exists about the ensilability characteristics of garlic stalk (GS). Therefore, the objectives were to examine the ensiling feasibility of GS. Methods: The GS was ensiled alone or inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum KU5 in the presence or absence of 5% molasses and ensiled for 7, 14, and 28 d. As an alternative storage method, GS was co-ensiled with wet citrus pulp (CP) at different proportions (GS:CP: 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 40:60). Analysis was made on physicochemical, fermentative, and nutritional parameters. Results: The GS was found to be a biomass which is difficult to ensile. A combination of microbial inoculant and molasses was successful in the improvement of the silage fermentation quality of GS. Co-ensiling of GS with wet CP at the mixing ratio of 50:50 provided the most desirable silage fermentation parameters, including the substantial lactic acid formation, low final pH, minor effluent loss, and the more favorable organoleptic properties. Conclusion: Co-ensiling GS with CP appears to be a simple and viable method of conservation, enabling the more efficient utilization of these by-product resources over a prolonged period.