• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chungkookjang

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Analysis of Characteristics and Aroma Pattern of Powdered Chungkookjang from Hot-Air and Freeze Drying (열풍 및 동결 건조 분말 청국장의 특성 및 향기 패턴 분석)

  • Lee, Hyo-Suk;Nam, Ha-Young;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.724-730
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    • 2006
  • Two types of powdered chungkookjang, were prepared by a hot air-drying process, and the freeze-drying, and composition and aroma patterns were examined. The fresh chungkookjang was composed of 53.8% moisture, while the hot air-dried and freeze-dried powdered chungkookjang contained 5.2% moisture, $39.3{\sim}39.4%$ crude protein, $18.6{\sim}18.7%$ crude lipid, $4.7{\sim}5.0%$ crude ash, and $31.7{\sim}32.2%$ carbohydrate. The pH of the each powered chungkookjang was similar, ranging from 6.5 to 6.7. The freeze-dried powdered chungkookjang showed the highest lightness (67.30), yellowness (59.37) while the highest redness (43.1) was observed in the hot air-dried chungkookjang. Each chungkookjang was analysed by an electronic nose with metal oxide 12 sensors and SPME-GC/MS. The response by the electronic nose was analysed by principal component analysis (PCA). The proportion of the first principal component was 90.47%, suggesting that each aroma pattern of the prepared chungkookjang was discriminated. SPME-GC/MS was used to identify the pyrazines. The percentage of pyrazines observed in the fresh chungkookjang, freeze-dried powdered chungkookjang, and hot air-dried powdered chungkookjang was 6.6, 3.8 and 15.9%, respectively. A higher overall preference was obtained from the hot air-dried powdered chungkookjang than with the freeze-dried powdered chungkookjang.

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Cytotoxicity on Human Cancer Cells and Antitumorigenesis of Chungkookjang, a Fermented Soybean Product, in DMBA-Treated Rats (청국장의 암세포생장억제효과 및 흰쥐에서 DMBA 투여에 의한 유방종양발생 억제효과)

  • Kwak Chune-Shil;Kim Mee-Yeon;Kim Sung-Ae;Lee Mee-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.347-356
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    • 2006
  • It is reported that a fermented soybean food, Doenjang, has srong antimutagenic and cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. This study investigated the effect of Chungkookjang, another traditional popular Korean soybean fermented food, on growth of cancer cells: HL-60, SNU-638 and MCF-7, and also its in vivo antitumorigenic effect in DMBA-induced mammary tumor rat model. For the in vitro study, Chungkookjang and steamed soybeans were extracted with ethanol and sequentially fractioned with 5 kinds of solvents differing in grades of polarity such as hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, butanol and water. Almost all Chungkookjang extracts significantly inhibited the growth of HL-60 (human leukemic cancer cell), SNU-638 (human gastric cancer cell) and MCF-7 (human breast cancer cell) when compared to steamed soybean extracts. Butanol fraction of Chungkookjang extract especially showed a remarkable inhibitory effect in all the three kinds of cancer cells. To induce a mammary gland tumor, DMBA (50 mg/BW) was administered to 50 day-old female rats and followed by Chungkookjang or steamed soybean supplemented diets. Freezedried Chungkookjang powder (20% of diet in wet weight) was added to AIN-93G based diet for the Chungkookjang group of rats. Likewise, steamed soybean powder containing equal protein content to that of Chungkookjang powder was supplemented to soybean group of rats. At 13 weeks later, the mammary tumor incidence, average tumor number and tumor weight a rat were lower in Chungkookjang group compared to the control or soybean group. In conclusion, Chungkookjang showed a strong inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth in vitro, as well as a more preventive effect against chemically induced mammary tumorigenesis in vivo, while steamed soybeans did not. Therefore, these results suggest that Chungkookjang acquire its anticancer activity through the fermentation process.

Fermentation of Germinated- and Nongerminated-Yellow Soybean Chungkookjang Using Bacillus subtilis (Bacillus subtilis에 의한 발아 및 미발아 황태 청국장 발효)

  • Lee, Na-Ri;Go, Tae-Hun;Park, Sung-Bo;Lee, Sang-Mee;Hwang, Dae-Youn;Kim, Dong-Seob;Park, Geun-Tae;Son, Hong-Joo
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.160-167
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    • 2013
  • In order to investigate changes in quality and enzyme activity during Chungkookjang fermentation, germinated- and nongerminated yellow soybeans were fermented by Bacillus subtilis and traditional methods. When the soybean was soaked for 6 h and then watered for 4 days with 2 h-interval at $25^{\circ}C$, the highest germination rate was obtained. The germinated soybeans had a higher total isoflavone ($988.4{\mu}g/g$) than that of the nongerminated soybeans ($859.5{\mu}g/g$). Amino type nitrogen contents, protease and amylase activities were higher in germinated soybean Chungkookjang, which was fermented with B. subtilis, than nongerminated soybean Chungkookjang, which was fermented with B. subtilis and traditional methods. Reducing sugar and amino type nitrogen contents, the number of viable cells and protease and amylase activities, were higher for Chungkookjang fermented with B. subtilis, than Chungkookjang fermented by traditional methods. ALP and SOD activities in the Chungkookjang diet group were considerably higher than in the control group. AST activity in the germinated soybean Chungkookjang diet group was higher than in the nongerminated soybean Chungkookjang diet group. In conclusion, it is suggested that Chungkookjang prepared with germinated soybeans using B. subtilis D7 could be practically used as a functional product.

Development of a Functional Chungkookjang (Soybean Paste Fermented for 2-4 Days) with Anti-AGS Human Gastric Cancer Cell Properties

  • Park, Kun-Young;Jung, Keun-Ok;Kwon, Eun-Young
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.54-60
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    • 2003
  • To develop a functional chungkookjang; the anticancer effects of chungkookjangs prepared with different varieties of soybeans, starters, fermentation periods and seasoning additive ratios; were studied against AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells using the MTT assay, at different stages chungkookjang processing. The chungkookjang samples exerted different antiproliferative effects according to the variety of soybeans used. The chungkookjangs manufactured with soybean var. manrikong exhibited the highest cytotoxicity against AGS human cancer cells. The chungkookjangs fermented with rice straw and B. licheniformis strongly inhibited the growth of the AGS human cancer cells. All fermented chungkookjangs had a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of the cancer cells; however, the non-fermented soybean (chungkookjang) showed a low inhibition rate. The fermented chungkookjangs mixed with red pepper powder (RPP) and garlic exhibited strong antiproliferative effect against the cancer cells, and chungkookjang prepaved with 1.1 % RPP and 1.1 % garlic showed the highest cytotoxicity against the cancer cells. The functional chungkookjang fermented with soybean variety of manrikong and B. licheniformis for 3 days at 4$0^{\circ}C$ and then mixed with 7.9% salt, 1.l% RPP and 1.1% garlic, exhibited a higher antiproliferative effect than the chungkookjangs prepared by traditional or modified methods, according to the MTT assay. The functional chungkookjang exhibited a similar anticancer effect to the traditional doenjang. These results indicate that the fermentation period and the ratio of seasoning additives, as well as the variety of soybeans and starter cultures may affect the degree of the anticancer effect of chungkookjang.

High-Level Expression and Secretion of Bacillus pumilus Lipase B26 in Bacillus subtilis Chungkookjang

  • Lee, Mi-Hwa;Song, Jae-Jun;Choi, Yoon-Ho;Hong, Seung-Pyo;Rha, Eu-Gene;Kim, Hyung-Kwoun;Lee, Seung-Goo;Poo, Har-Young;Lee, Sang-Chul;Seu, Young-Bae;Sung, Moon-Hee
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.892-896
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    • 2003
  • High-level expression of the lipase B26 gene from Bacillus pumilus was achieved using Bacillus subtilis Chungkookjang isolated from the Korean traditional fermented bean paste, Chungkookjang. For the secretory production of recombinant lipase B26 in a Bacillus host system, pLipB26 was constructed by ligating the lipase B26 gene into the recently designed Escherichia coli-Bacillus shuttle vector, pLipSM, and that was then transformed into B. subtilis Chungkookjang. Among the various vector, medium, and host combinations, B. subtilis Chungkookjang harboring the pLipB26 exhibited the highest lipase activity in PY medium, and B. subtilis Chungkookjang secreted two times more enzymes than B. subtilis DB 104 under the same condition. When B. subtilis Chungkookjang harboring the pLipB26 was cultured in a 5-1 jar-fermentor containing 21 of a PY medium, the maximum lipase activity (140 U/ml) and production yield (0.68 g/l) were obtained during the late exponential phase from a cell-free culture broth. Although B. subtilis Chungkookjang also secreted extracellular proteases at the late exponential phase, these results suggested the potential of B. subtilis Chungkookjang as a host for the secretory production of foreign proteins.

Effect of Yucca (Yucca shidigera) Extract on Quality Characteristics of Chungkookjang using Bacillus subtilis p01 (유카(Yucca shidigera)추출물의 첨가가 Bacillus subtilis p01을 이용한 청국장의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • In, Jae-Pyung;Lee, Si-Kyung
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.176-181
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of yucca extract on the quality characteristics of Chungkookjang using Bacillus subtilis p01. The changes in the contents of amino-type N, ammonia type N, volatile compounds and organic acids, and those in the activities of ${\alpha}-amylase$ and protease were also determined during aging of Chungkookjang. The amount of amino-type N increased gradually with time for aging. The content of amino-type N was slightly higher in Chungkookjang fermented by adding yucca extract than in the control without yucca extract. The content of ammonia-type N was slightly lower in Chungkookjang with yucca extract than in the control without yucca extract. The activities of amylase and protease were higher in Chungkookjang with yucca extract than in the control and the highest in Chungkookjang containing 0.5 mg/g of yucca extract. Organic acid contents in Chungkookjang was the highest at the initial period of fermentation. The contents of organic acids in Chungkookjang with yucca extract was higher than that in control for 48 hr of aging. The amounts of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine were increased by addition of yucca extract, while those of cis-3-hexanol were decreased.

Characteristics of Chungkookjang Prepared by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens with Different Soybeans and Fermentation Temperatures (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens를 이용하여 콩 종류와 발효온도를 달리하여 제조한 청국장의 특성)

  • Lee, Na-Ri;Go, Tae-Hun;Lee, Sang-Mee;Hong, Chang-Oh;Park, Kyu-Min;Park, Geun-Tae;Hwang, Dae-Youn;Son, Hong-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of Chungkookjang depending on different soybeans and fermentation temperatures using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens C2 isolated from homemade Chungkookjang. The highest protease activity was 854 U/g in yellow soybean Chungkookjang and 847 U/g in black soybean Chungkookjang at $35^{\circ}C$. The highest amylase activity was 3.87 U/g at $40^{\circ}C$ in yellow soybean Chungkookjang and 4.96 U/g at $45^{\circ}C$ in black soybean Chungkookjang. The highest reducing sugar content was 16.11 mg/g at $40^{\circ}C$ in yellow soybean Chungkookjang and 19.08 mg/g at $45^{\circ}C$ in black soybean Chungkookjang. The highest amino type nitrogen content was 420 mg%/g in yellow soybean Chungkookjang and 194 mg%/g in black soybean Chungkookjang at $40^{\circ}C$. The highest pH was 7.92 at $40^{\circ}C$ in yellow soybean Chungkookjang and 7.59 at $45^{\circ}C$ in black soybean Chungkookjang. The highest number of viable cell was 9.3 log CFU/g at $40^{\circ}C$ in yellow soybean Chungkookjang and at $35^{\circ}C$ in black soybean Chungkookjang. On the other hand, the lowest ammonia type nitrogen content was 225 mg%/g at $45^{\circ}C$ in yellow soybean Chungkookjang and 80 mg%/g at $40^{\circ}C$ in black soybean Chungkookjang. Yellow soybean Chungkookjang showed high protease activity, pH and amino type nitrogen, whereas black soybean Chungkookjang showed high amylase activity and reducing sugar.

Characteristics of White Soybean Chungkookjang Fermented by Bacillus subtilis D7 (Bacillus subtilis D7에 의하여 발효된 백태 청국장의 특성)

  • Lee, Na-Ri;Park, Sung-Bo;Lee, Sang-Mee;Go, Tae-Hun;Hwang, Dae-Youn;Kim, Dong-Seob;Jeong, Seong-Yun;Son, Hong-Joo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.529-536
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of white soybean Chungkookjang fermented by Bacillus subtilis D7. The highest germination rate was obtained under $25^{\circ}C$ when water was supplied for 4 days at intervals of 2 hr. The total isoflavone content was 971.3 ${\mu}g/g$ before germination and 1023.8 ${\mu}g/g$ after germination. The amino type- and ammonia type-nitrogen contents of Chungkookjang were proportional to the fermentation time. The pH values of all Chungkookjang soybeans increased up to pH 7.8-8.0 during fermentation. The number of viable cells in all Chungkookjang soybeans increased significantly up to 24 hr. The protease activity of all Chungkookjang soybeans increased up to 30-36 hr. The ${\alpha}$- and ${\beta}$-amylase activities of Chungkookjang fermented by B. subtilis D7 were enhanced with increasing fermentation time. Analysis of the effect of Chungkookjang intake on the liver function of mouse showed that the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the Chungkookjang diet group were markedly higher than those in the control group. The asparatate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the germinated soybean Chungkookjang diet group was higher than that in the nongerminated soybean Chungkookjang diet group. Therefore, Chungkookjang soybeans fermented with B. subtilis D7 can be expected to have an increased content of functional components and improved quality characteristics.

Degradation of Phytic acid in Chungkookjang Fermented with Phytase-producing Bacteria (청국장 제조과정에서 Bacterial Phytase에 의한 Phytic Acid의 분해)

  • 정지흔;강성국;김용순;정희종
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.423-428
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    • 1990
  • Three strains among 8 isolates from the fermented chungkookjang were shown the strong phytase productivities. The phytase activities in manufacturing chungkookjang with thrse bacteria were maximized after incubating at 35-$40^{\circ}C$, pH 7.0 for 5 day. The contents of same amino acids and riboflavin were increased in chungkookjang manufactured with these phytase-producing bacteria and the rate of phytic acid degradation was much higher in chungkookjang manufactured with a single or mixed cultures of these bacteria than in traditional chungkookjang.

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Effect of mugwort extract on the quality and the changes of chemical compositions of the Chung-kookjang prepared with frozen soybean (청국장제조시 대두원료의 동결과 쑥추출물의 첨가가 품질 및 이화학적 성분변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Byoung-Dal;Lee, Si-Kyung;Yun, Sei-Eok;Joo, Hyun-Kyu
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.41 no.7
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    • pp.510-515
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    • 1998
  • Effect of freezing of soybean and addition of mugwort on the flavor development and the changes of chemical compositions in Chungkookjang was investigated. The changes in the amount of amino-type N, the activities of ${\alpha}-amylase$ and protease, and the content of volatile compounds were determined during aging of Chungkookjang. During ripening, a little higher protease activity was detected in Chungkookjang made of frozen soybean than in that made of non-frozen soybean. However, the profile of ${\alpha}-amylase$ activity of Chungkookjang made of frozen soybean was very similar to that of Chungkookjang made of non-frozen soybean. The amount of amino-type N increased gradually with the ripening period and decreased after 21 days of ripening. The amount of amino-type N was slightly higher in Chungkookjang made of frozen soybean than in that made of non-frozen soybean. Addition of mugwort had little effect on the enzyme activities and the amino-type N content. The mugwort added in Chungkookjang reduced the production of cis-3-hexenol which is responsible for the unpleasant odor, and freezing of soybean enhanced the production of 2, 6-dimethyl pyrazine which is contribute to the taste. According to sensory evaluation, flavor was the highest after the 14 days of ripening and addition of mugwort increased significantly the flavor in both Chungkookjang prepared with frozen soybean and Chungkookjang with non-frozen soybean. However, the effect of freezing of soybean on the flavor was not significant.

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