• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chronic hepatitis B

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Overview of hepatitis B and C infection (B형 및 C형 간염의 이해)

  • Kim, Ji-Hoon
    • Journal of Korean Life Insurance Medical Association
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 2011
  • Both the enterically transmitted forms of viral hepatitis, hepatitis A and E are self-limited and do not cause chroni chepatitis. Chronic hepatitis occurs in patients with hepatitis B and C as well as in patients with chronic hepatitis D superimposed on chronic hepatitis B. Chronic hepatitis such as hepatitis B or C is important in terms of insurance underwriting and claims. General review of hepatitis B and C was performed in this article.

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The management and treatment of chronic hepatitis B in Korean children (소아 만성 B형 간염의 관리와 치료)

  • Choe, Byung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.50 no.9
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    • pp.823-834
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    • 2007
  • Interferon (IFN) alpha has been the first line therapy of chronic hepatitis B in children, but HBeAg seroconversion occurred in 26% of treated children compared to 11% of controls in multinational randomized controlled study. Recently, lamivudine was shown to be a potent inhibitor of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reproduction both in HBeAg positive and in HBeAg negative (the pre-core mutant form) chronic hepatitis in randomized studies worldwide. Lamivudine therapy led to considerable improvement in the seroconversion rate of HBeAg in children with chronic hepatitis B, though long-term therapy resulted in the expansion of lamivudine-resistant mutant viruses. Combination therapy with lamivudine plus alpha-IFN does not seem to improve HBe Ag seroconversion. Above all, the most effective way to prevent hepatitis B is universal HBV vaccination.

Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Meta-analysis

  • Li, Lei;Wu, Bo;Yang, Li-Bo;Yin, Guan-Cheng;Liu, Ji-Yong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.275-279
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: A number of studies have shown that chronic hepatitis B virus infection is implicated in susceptibility to pancreatic cancer. However, the results are still controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively assess the relationship between chronic hepatitis B virus infection and incidence of pancreatic cancer of cohort and case-control studies. Methods: A literature search was performed for entries from 1990 to 2012 using PUBMED and EMBASE. Studies were included if they reported odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% CIs of pancreatic cancer with respect to the infection of hepatitis B virus. Results: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria, which included five case-control studies and three cohort studies. Compared with individuals who have not infection of hepatitis B virus, the pooled OR of pancreatic cancer was 1.403 (95%CI: 1.139-1.729, P=0.001) for patients with hepatitis B virus infection. Sub-group analysis by study design showed that the summary OR was 1.43 (95%CI: 1.06-1.94, P=0.021) when pooling case-control studies and 1.31 (95%CI: 1.00-1.72, P=0.05) when pooling cohort studies. Conclusion: Findings from this meta-analysis suggest that chronic hepatitis B virus infection may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. This relationship needs to be confirmed by further follow-up studies.

Consulting about Chronic Hepatitis B: Focusing on Common Errors of Internet Website in Korea (만성 B형 간염 상담: 국내 인터넷 상의 흔한 오류를 중심으로)

  • Choe, Byung-Ho
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2008
  • Comprehensive understanding of the natural course of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is mandatory for the management and treatment of chronic hepatitis B, of which the natural course consists of immune tolerance, immune clearance, inactive carrier state, and reactivation phase. Evidence based medical approach is essential for the management of HBV carriers and treatment of active hepatitis to decrease risks of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma as well as to increase survival. In addition, education of patients or their parents are required to achieve a better therapeutic outcome and to prevent unconfirmed alternative medicine and anecdotal approaches.

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Factors Influencing Self-Management Compliance of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B (만성B형간염 환자의 자가관리이행에 대한 영향요인)

  • Yang, Jin-Hyang
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.520-528
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: Patients with chronic hepatitis B need lifelong health care because of progressive liver damage. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with self-management compliance among patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: The research was a cross-sectional, descriptive design using questionnaires. The participants were 118 patients with chronic hepatitis B from outpatient department in a tertiary hospital. Their ages ranged from 20 to 64. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and multiple regression with PASW statistics 19.0 program. Results: There were statistically significant differences in self management compliance by gender, age, job, alcohol consumption, and smoking. A positive correlation existed between self-management compliance, awareness of the importance of management, and self efficacy. Stepwise multiple regression analysis for self-management compliance revealed that the most powerful predictor was self efficacy. Self efficacy, age, and alcohol consumption explained 37.5% of the variance. Conclusion: The results indicate a need to promote self-management compliance with these participants. The findings also suggest that consideration be given to characteristics of age and alcohol consumption in developing strategies for enhancing self efficacy and developing programs to promote self-management for patients with chronic hepatitis B.

Education and Counseling of Pregnant Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B: Perspectives from Obstetricians and Perinatal Nurses in Santa Clara County, California

  • Yang, Elizabeth J.;Cheung, Chrissy M.;So, Samuel K.S.;Chang, Ellen T.;Chao, Stephanie D.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1707-1713
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    • 2013
  • Background: This study aimed to better understand the barriers to perinatal hepatitis B prevention and to identify the reasons for poor hepatitis B knowledge and delivery of education to hepatitis B surface-antigen-positive pregnant women among healthcare providers in Santa Clara County, California. Materials and Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 obstetricians and 17 perinatal nurses in Santa Clara County, California, which has one of the largest populations in the United States at high risk for perinatal hepatitis B transmission. Results: Most providers displayed a lack of self-efficacy attributed to insufficient hepatitis B training and education. They felt discouraged from counseling and educating their patients because of a lack of resources and discouraging patient attitudes such as stigma and apathy. Providers called for institutional changes from the government, hospitals, and nonprofit organizations to improve care for patients with chronic hepatitis B. Conclusions: Early and continuing provider training, increased public awareness, and development of comprehensive resources and new programs may contribute to reducing the barriers for health care professionals to provide counseling and education to pregnant patients with chronic hepatitis B infection.

Use of ALLGIO Probe Assays for Detection of HBV Resistance to Adefovir in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B, Kerman, Iran

  • Afshar, Reza Malekpour;Mollaie, Hamid Reza
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5463-5467
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    • 2012
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is contagious with transmissiobn vertically or horizontally by blood products and body secretions. Over 50% of Iranian carriers contracted the infection prenatally, making this the most likely route of transmission of HBV in Iran. To evaluate the resistance to adefovir (ADV) therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection, a study was conducted on 70 patients (63 males and 7 females), who had received in first line lamivudine and second line adefovir. All were tested for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg), serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) level and HBV DNA load before and after treatment with ADV. In all samples, resistance to lamivudine and ADV was tested with real time PCR. Among seventy patients with chronic hepatitis B infection, 18 (25.7%) were resistant to LAM and 8 (11.4%) were resistant to ADV. Only one patient was negative for the presence of HBS-Ag (5.6%) and two were negative for HBe-Ag (11.1%). In this study we used a new method (ALLGIO probe assay) that has high sensitivity in detection of adefovir resistance mutants, which we recommend to other researchers. Mutant strains of the YMDD motif of HBV polymerase can be found in some patients under treatment with lamivudine and ADV. ADV has been demonstrated to be efficient in patients with lamivudine resistant HBV.

The Meaning of Illness among Korean Americans with Chronic Hepatitis B (미주 한인 만성 B형 간염 환자의 질병의 의미)

  • Yang, Jin-Hyang;Lee, Hae-Ok;Cho, Myung-Ok
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.662-675
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This ethnography was done to explore the meaning of illness in Korean Americans with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: The participants were 6 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 6 general informants who could provide relevant data. Data were collected from iterative fieldwork with ethnographic interviews within Korean communities in two cities in the United States. Data were analyzed using causal chain analysis developed by Wolcott. Results: The analyses revealed three meanings for the illness: hidden disease, intentionally hidden disease, and inevitably hidden disease. The contexts of meaning of illness included characteristics of the illness, social stigma, structure of health care system and communication patterns and discourse between health care providers and clients. Conclusion: The meaning of illness was based on folk illness concepts and constructed in the sociocultural context. Folk etiology, pathology and interpretation of one's symptoms were factors influencing illness behavior. These findings could be a cornerstone for culture specific care for Korean Americans with chronic hepatitis B.

Development and Evaluation of a Program to Promote Self Management in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B (만성 B형간염 환자를 위한 자가관리 프로그램의 개발 및 평가)

  • Yang, Jin-Hyang
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.258-268
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of the program to promote self management for patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: The research was a quasi-experimental design using a non-equivalent control group pre-post test. The participants were 61 patients, 29 in the experimental group and 32 in the control group. A pretest and 2 posttests were conducted to measure main variables. For the experimental group, the self-management program, consisting of counseling- centered activities in small groups, was given for 6 weeks. Data were analyzed using $X^2$, t-test, and repeated measures ANOVA with PASW statistics program. Results: There were statistically significant increases in knowledge, self-efficacy, active ways of coping, and self-management compliance but not in passive ways of coping in the experimental group compared to the control group over two different times. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the self-management program is effective in increasing knowledge, self-efficacy, active ways of coping, and self-management compliance among patients with chronic hepatitis B. Therefore, it can be usefully utilized in the field of nursing for patients with chronic disease as a nursing intervention for people with chronic hepatitis B.

The Effect of 52 week Lamivudine Therapy in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B (만성 B형 바이러스성 간염환자에서 lamivudine 52주 투여의 치료효과에 대한 연구)

  • 견진옥;오정미;조성원
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.131-139
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    • 2001
  • Lamivudine, an oral nucleoside analogue, effectively inhibits hepatitis B virus replication and reduces hepatic necroinflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Although lamivudine has shown a promise in patients with chronic hepatitis B, a long-term data on Korean patients with hepatitis B are lacking. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects and safety of 52-week lamivudine therapy in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B, A total of twenty-nine patients (27 male and 2 female) who had received 100 mg of oral lamivudine daily for 52 weeks were evaluated, retrospectively. The mean age of 29 patients in the study group was 37.7 $\pm$ 8.9 years (range 19-54). Pretreatment HBV PCR and HBsAg were positive in all 29 patients, and HBeAg were positive in 25 patients (86%). The serum HBV DNA of 28 patients (97%) significantly fell to undetectable levels (<5 pg/ml) within 12 weeks of therapy and it remained undetectable in 24 patients (83%) by the end of 52-week therapy (p<0.001). Mean serum ALT levels of 29 patients declined to the normal range within 12 weeks and remained within the normal range during the evaluative period (p<0.05). The proportions of patients with HBeAg seroconversion (loss of HBeAg, development of antibody to HBeAg, and undetectable HBV DNA) were 42% after 52-week therapy. The differences of response to lamivudine therapy in HBeAg- positive and HBeAg-negative patients were negligible (p>0.05). Furthermore, the study showed that pretreatment serum HBV DNA and ALT levels have no effect to the efficacy of lamivudine therapy (p>0.05). Further comparison of lamivudine's efficacy showed that lamivudine is just as efficacious in patients with cirrhosis as without cirrhosis (p>0.05). In conclusion, lamivudine is an effective and safe therapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in Korean patients.

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