• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chromosome aberration

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Mechanism of Asbestos Induced Chromosome Aberration in CHO Cells (석면에 의한 CHO 세포의 염색체 이상 유발 기전에 관한 연구)

  • 정해원;김현주
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.117-125
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    • 1995
  • In order to examine the mechanism of asbestos clastogenicity, CHO cells were treated with chrysotile and crocidolite. Crocidolite and chrysotile were able to induce lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent manner. Ultrafiltrate of culture media from CHO cells treated with chrysotile/crocidolite induced sister chromatid exchange in CHO cells. Ultrafiltrate of culture media from CHO cells treated with chrysotile induced chromosome aberration but it was not statistically significant. Simultaneous treatment of 3-Aminobenzamide (3-AB) or cytosine arabinoside (Ara C) with crocidolite had no effect on the frequency of chromosome aberration by crocidolite whetease posttreatment of caffeine significantly increased the chromosomel aberration by crocidolite. This indicated that DNA damage by asbestos took place at late stage of cell cycle. The results suggested that the ultrafiltrate of media contained clastogenic factor (CF) and lipid peroxidation might be involved in the formation of CF.

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Chromosome Aberration and Sister Chromatid Exchange for the Assessment of Cadmium Toxicity (카드뮴독성을 평가하기 위한 방법으로서의 염색체 이상 및 자매염색체 교환)

  • 맹승희;정해원
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.110-119
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    • 1991
  • This study was performed to investigate the applicability of 9 chromosome aberration and sister chromatid exchange analysis for the assessment of cytotoxicity and cytogenetic effects of cadmium. Induction of chromosome aberration and sister chromatid exchange in CHO-K1 cells and human peripheral lymphocytes by 2 hour-treatment of CdCl$_{2}$ with various concentrations was observed in relation to their frequencies and types of aberration. The frequency of chromosome aberration in CHO cells treated with CdCl$+{2}$ at G$_{1}$ was increased with dose-dependent manner. When human peripheral lymphocytes were treated with cadmium at G0 and harvested at 72 hours there after, the response was dose-dependent and all the aberrations were also chromatid types. There was no significant increase in frequencies of sister chromatid exchange in both CHO cells and human lymphocytes treated with different concentrations of cadmium. It was suggested that SCE analysis was not a good assessment method for cadmium toxicity.

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Chromosome Aberration in Suspension Culture of Ginseng(Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) Callus (인삼 캘러스 현탁배양에 있어서의 염색체 이상)

  • Park, Jong-Bum
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.1193-1197
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    • 2006
  • This study was to examine the variations of chromosome number and the ranges of variety in the suspension culture of ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) callus cell, and the effect of plant hormones for the chromosome aberration. Plant hormones added with MS medium in the suspension culture were 2,4-D, kinetin, and 2,4-D+kinetin and concentration of the plant hormones were $1000{\mu}M$ and $0.1\;{\mu}M$ respectively. As a result of these experiment the following conclusion has been obtained. Media contained with 2,4-D+kinetin in $10{\mu}M$ concentration was very effective in the suspension culture result from 26.4% mitosis frequency, and found the various variation of chromosome number. Variety of chromosome number was diversed ($9\sim110$), espicially frequency of hypohaploid and hyperhaploid cells were very higher than hyperdiploid cells. In this experiments, it is suggested that $10{\mu}M$ 2,4-D+kinetin added with medium in the suspension culture of ginseng callus was effect in the variations of chromosome number.

Genotoxic Evaluation of Surfactin C in Chinese Hamster Lung Cell Line

  • Lim, Jong-Hwan;Song, In-Bae;Park, Byung-Kwon;Kim, Myoung-Seok;Hwang, Youn-Hwan;Yun, Hyo-In
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.47-50
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    • 2009
  • To investigate the mutation inducibility of surfactin C, we performed the chromosome aberration assay with Chinese hamster lung cells in vitro. The colorimetric MTT screening assay was carried out to determine the cytotoxicity index ($IC_{50}$) of surfactin C. The $IC_{50}$ value was $125{\mu}g/ml$. For the chromosome aberration test of surfactin C, the maximum concentration was employed as $125{\mu}g/ml$, followed by 62.5 and $31.25{\mu}g/ml$ for the lower concentrations, with or without metabolic activation (S9). Cyclophosphamide and mitomycin C were used as positive controls in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation, respectively. These results showed that surfactin C was not capable of inducing chromosome aberration, as measured by the chromosome aberration test using Chinese hamster lung cell line. There is no evidence for surfactin C to have a genotoxic potential.

A Chromosome Aberration Test of HMC05 on Cultured Chinese Hamster Lung Cells (HMC05의 배양 Chinese Hamster Lung 세포를 이용한 염색체이상 시험)

  • Shin, Heung-Mook
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : We investigated genetic toxicity of HMCO5 in relation to chromosome aberration test on Cultured Chinese Hamster Lung (CHL) in the presence and absence of S-9 mix. Methods : Experimental groups were divided into two groups: with S-9mix (+S) or without S-9 mix (-S). -S group was also divided 2 series by treatment hours (6 hr: 6-S; or 24 hr; 24-S). Each group treated with vehicle only (complete culture medium), HMCO5 (1,250, 2,500, $5,000\;{\mu}g/ml$), and cyclophosphamide monohydrate (CPA) and ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS), respectively. Results : HMC05 did not show any aberrant metaphase. However, there were significant (p < 0.01) aberrant metaphases with CPA in S+ and with EMS in S-. Conclusions : These results indicate that HMC05 formula does not show any toxicity in chromosome aberration test.

Effect of Brown Rice Extract on Mitomycin C-Induced Chromosome Aberration in Cultured CHL Cells (현미 추출물이 Mitomycin C로 유발된 CHL 세포의 염색체 이상에 미치는 영향)

  • Chun, Hyang-Sook;Kim, In-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1003-1007
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    • 1995
  • The effect of brown rice extract on mitomycin C(MMC)-induced chromosome aberration was examined in cultured Chinese hamster lung(CHL) cells, after induction of chromosome aberration and mitotic index in CHL cells cultured with MMC were observed. There were no significant differences between mitotic indices of CHL cells treated with DMSO, and MMC and brown rice extract. The frequency of chromosome aberration showed dose-dependent relationship in CHL cells treated with $0.2{\sim}3.0\;{\mu}g$/assay of MMC. But chromosome aberrations could not be assayed Our to cytotoxicity of MMC when its concentrations were above $3.0\;{\mu}g$/assay. Chromatid type, especially gap and break, of chromosome aberration were most frequently observed. When CHL cells treated with $2.0\;{\mu}g$/assay of MMC and brown rice extracts of concentration ranging $0.75{\sim}10.0\;{\mu}g$/assay were incubated, frequencies of chromosome aberration induced by MMC were significantly decreased at above concentrations(p<0.01, p<0.05). As concentration of brown rice extract was increased, frequencies of chromosome aberration was decreased $7{\sim}30%$, in some irregularity.

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Effects of Flavonol Derivatives on the Micronudei Formation by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and the Enhancement of Bleomycin-induced Chromosome Aberration by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

  • Heo, Moon-Young;Kwon, Chang-Ho;Sohn, Dong-Hun;Lee, Su-Jun;Kim, Sung-Wan;Kim, Jung-Han;William W. Au
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.196-204
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    • 1993
  • Flavonol derivatives were tested for their anticlastogenic effect against induction of micronuclei by n-methyl-n'-nitor-n-nitorsoguanidine(MNNG), and against induction of chromosome aberration by bleomycin or MNNG.belomycin. For micronudeus assay, each flavonol derivative (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg) was administered orally twice with 24 h interval, together with intraperitioneally administered MNNG(150 mg/kg). The result showed that msot flavonol derivatives tested were effective in suppresing the frequencies of micronude induced by MNNG. For chromosome aberration assy, each flavonol derivative (0, 0.1, 1, 10m and 100 mg/kg)was administered to mice orally in vivo, and then mice were sacrificed and spleen lymphocyte cultures were made. Bleomycin $(3\;\mu$g/ml) was treated to the mouse spleen hymphocyte cultures at 24 h after con A initiation. There wre nomarked decrease tendencies in chromosome aberration unless all doses of galangin and some doses of several flavonol derivatives tested. In the another experiment, we have evaluated the effect of flavonol derivatives on the enhancement of bleomycin-induced chromsome aberration by MNNG. Most of flavonol derivtives reduced the incidence of chromosome aberration induced by in vitro treatment of bleomycin followed by in vivo treatment of MNNG. Galangin particulary showed a dose-dependent decrease tendency. Other flavonol derivative showed slightly suggest that most of flavonol derivatives may be capable of protecting the inhibition of suggest that most of flavonol derivatives may be capable of protecting the inhibition of DNA-repair by MNNG. Our data indicate clearly that flavonol derivatives can suppress MNNG-induced genotoxicity such as an induction of MNPCEs. Therfore, our results could suggest that flavonol derivtives may be useful as a chemopreventive agent of MNNG.

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The Chromosomal Aberration Test of Wild Ginseng Culture Extract in Chinese Hamster Lung Cell (산삼배양추출물의 배양 Chinese Hamster Lung 세포를 이용한 염색체이상시험)

  • Song Si-Whan;Yang Deok Chun;Choung Se Young
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 2005
  • To investigate the mutant induction of wild ginseng culture extract, we performed chromosomal aberration assay with chinese hamster lung cell in vitro. The test concentration of the extract was decided for the standard with the 50% suppression of cell propagation in the cell. The concentrations for the chromosome test were 1,250, 2,500 and 5,000 ㎍/ml with metabolic activation (+S, 6 hours treatment), 1,100, 2,200 and 4,400 ㎍/ml without metabolic activation (-S, 6 hours treatment) 800, 1,600 and 3,200 ㎍/ml without metabolic activation (-S, 24 hours treatment). No significant increase in chromosome aberrations was observed at any of these concentrations both in the absence and presence of metabolic activation system. Cyclophosphamide monohydrate (CPA) and ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) caused a significant increase in chromosome aberration. These results may be concluded that wild ginseng culture extract is not capable of inducing chromosome aberration in cultured chinese hamster lung cell regardless of metabolic activation and genotoxicity of that is negative under the present experimental condition.

Effects of Ginseng Protein on Relative Survival and Chromosome Aberration of UV Irradiated Cells

  • Kim, Choon-Mi;Park, So-Young
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.225-229
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    • 1988
  • A ginseng protein fraction which has been reported to have radiation protective effect was purified from Korean ginseng and its effects on relative survival and chromosome aberration were studied in UV irradiated CHO-K1 cells. When the protein fraction $(100\;{\mu}g/ml)$ was added to the cells before UV irradiation at 4\;J/$m^2$,, the survival rates were increased to 53.8% from 40.6% in control. Addition of the protein $(100\;{\mu}g/ml)$ after UV irradiation at 4 and $8\;J/m^2$ raised the rates to 85.4 and 24.0% from 79.2 and 11.5% in control, respectively. When the ginseng protein $(800\;{\mu}g/ml)$ was added to the cells exposed to UV light at 10, 20, $30\;J/m^2$, the frequencies of chromosome aberration (CA) were reduced significantly to almost same level regardless of the UV dose increment and there was no significant difference between pre- and post-treatment. When the concentration of ginseng protein was increased from 200 to $800\;{\mu}g/ml$, at UV dose of 10, 20, $30\;J/m^2$ each, the CA frequencies were decreased consistently as the dose of ginseng protein increased, at all UV doses tested. Similar effects were observed in both cases of pre- and post-treatment. The data suggest that the protein may reduce cell damage caused by UV light, especially damage to DNA molecule, or play a role in repair processes of damaged DNA, to increase cell survival and reduce chromosome aberrations.

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Effect of Maternal Age on Chromosome Aberrations and Telomere Quantity in Chick Embryos (닭의 모체 연령에 따른 생산 배아의 염색체 이상 빈도 및 텔로미어 함량 분석)

  • Lee, Soo-Hee;Subramani, Vinod K.;Sohn, Sea-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.293-300
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    • 2009
  • The rate of fetus with abnormal chromosomes increase with maternal age. Nondisjunction of aging oocyte chromosome is a major reason for the increased rate of abnormalities. Telomeres are the ends of eukaryotic chromosome, which are essential for chromosome stability and are related in cell senescence. This study was carried out to analyze the chromosome aberration rate and amount of telomeric DNA in chick embryo along with maternal age. Fertilized eggs and blood were sampled from White Leghorn layers starting at 20 weeks through to 70 weeks age at 10 weeks interval. Chromosome aberration rate was analyzed by karyotyping. The amounts of telomeric DNA in embryonic cells and lymphocytes were quantified by Quantitative Fluorescence in situ Hybridization method. The chromosome aberration rate in chick embryos significantly differed with maternal age. The chromosome aberration rate increased at early laying period and beyond 70 weeks of maternal age. Therefore, chromosome aberration rate was affected by maternal age due to ovulated oocytes state. However, the amount of telomeric DNA on embryonic cells did not differ significantly with maternal age. Thus, maternal age does not affects telomere quantity in their embryos due to cellular reprograming at early embryonic stage after fertilization.