• Title/Summary/Keyword: Chorismate

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Regulation of Phenylalanine Specific Pathway in a Species of Intrasporangium (Intrasporangium속 방선균의 Phenylalanine 분지대사 경로의 조절)

  • 조원대;최용진;양한철
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.238-245
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    • 1988
  • Studies were made on the regulation of chorismate mutase and prephenate dehydratase of a species of Intrasporangium, a phenylalanine producing Actinomycete isolated from soil. Two distinctly regulated species of chorismate mutase, designated CM I and CM IIwere resolved by DEAE Cellulose and DEAE Sephadex A 50 chromatography. The activity of CM II was inhibited by L-tyrosine, whereas that of CM I appeared to be unregulated. Single species of prephenate dehydyatase was also separated in the same purification steps. The activity of the enzyme was strongly feedback inhibited by L-phenylalanine, but by L-tyrosine or L-methionine it was rather slightly stimulated. Synthesis of chorismate mutase was not influenced by the presence of phenylalanine, tyrosine or tryptophan, whereas prephenate dehydratase was found to be subject to strong feedback repression by L-phenylalanine. The rate of repression was 94% at the concentration of 1mM L-phenylalanine but the repression was completely offset by the presence of 5mM tyrosine. The critical regulatory site of the phenylalanine terminal biopathway was, therefore, proved to be the second reaction which was catalyzed by the L-phenylalanine inhibitable and repressible prephenate dehydratase.

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Regulation of 3-Deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) Synthase of Bacillus sp. B-6 Producing Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid

  • Kim, Kyoung-Ja
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.299-304
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    • 2001
  • The 3-Deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase is the first enzyme of aromatic amino acid-, folic acid-, and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid biosynthetic pathways. DAHP synthase of Bacillus sp. B-6 that produces phenazine-1-carboxylic acid was feedback inhibited by two intermediary metabolites of aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathways, prephenate and chorismate, but not by other metabolites, such as anthranilic acid, shikimic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. DAHP synthase of Bacillus sp. B-6 was not inhibited by end products, such as aromatic amino acids, folic acid, and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid. The inhibition of DAHP synthase by prephenate and chorismate was non-competitive with respect to erythrose 4-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate. Prephenate and chorismate inhibited 50% of the DAHP synthase activity at concentrations of $2{\times}10^{-5}\;M$ and $1.2{\times}10^{-4}\;M$, respectively The synthesis of DAHP synthase of Bacillus sp. B-6 was not repressed by exogenous aromatic amino acids, folic acid, and phenazine 1-carboxylic acid, single or in combinations.

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Properties of Chorismate Mutase from intrasporangium sp. (Intrasporangium속 방선균의 Chorismate Mutase 성질)

  • 조원대;신광순;최용진;양한철
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.310-315
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    • 1988
  • Two isoenzymes of chorismate mutase(E.C.5.4.99.5) designated as chorismate mutase I(CM I) and chorismate mutase II(CM II), were detected and partially purified from a sp. of intrasporangium isolated from soil. CM I and CM II had pH optima of pH 6.5 and 8.0, respectively and showed the same temperature optimum of 45$^{\circ}C$. The activation energy of the enzymatic reaction was estimated to be 14.7kcal/ mole with CM I and 10.8kcal/mole with CM II. The affinity of isoenzyme CM I for substrate(Km= 1.35mM) was almost the same level as that of CM II(Km = 1.22mM). Both isoenzymes were stable at pH values ranged from pH 6.5 to 9.0, but rapidly denaturated at temperatures above 45$^{\circ}C$. CM II was activated about 7$^{\circ}C$ of its activity by $Ba^{++}$ or $Mg^{++}$ while CM I was slightly inhibited by the same metal ions. Thiol compounds were found not to be necessary for stability of the two enzymes but Co$^{++}$ and EDTA had a little stabilizing effect on CM II only. p-Chloromercuribenzoate strongly inactivated the activities of both enzymes but the reducing agents such as dithiothreitol and L-cysteine protected them against the pCMB inhibition.

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L-Phenylalanine Production by Regulatory Mutants of Excherichia coli K-12 (Escherichia coli K-12 대사조절 변이주에 의한 L-페닐알라닌 생산)

  • Lee, Sae-Bae;Park, Chung;Won, Chan-Hee;Choi, Duk-Ho;Lim, Bun-San
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.174-179
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    • 1990
  • In order to overproduce L-phenylalanine, various kind of regulatory mutants were isolated from parental Escherichia coli K-12. MWEC 83 Producing 7.4g/l of L-phenylalanine has been derived as a tyrosine and tryptophan double auxotrophic mutant. To produce L-phenylalanine without adding L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan, revertant strain MWEC 101 was isolated from MWEC 83. Further various analogues and valine resistant mutants were isolated from MWEC 101. MWEC 101-5 was the most excellent strain that produced 17.9g/l of L-phenylalanine after having been cultivated for 54 hours in 15% glucose medium. It was disclosed that activities of rate-limiting enzymes including chorismate mutase and prephenate dehydratase in MWEC 101-5 were desensitized to 2mM L-phenylalanine in the enzyme reaction mixture and that activities level of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonic acid-7-phosphate synthase and prephenate dehydratase were increased more than 20 times over those of the parental strain.

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Proteomic Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii KI-1 Tachyzoites

  • Choi, Si-Hwan;Kim, Tae-Yun;Park, Sung-Goo;Cha, Guang-Ho;Shin, Dae-Whan;Chai, Jong-Yil;Lee, Young-Ha
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.195-201
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    • 2010
  • We studied on the proteomic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii KI-1 tachyzoites which were originally isolated from a Korean patient, and compared with those of the well-known virulent RH strain using 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), mass spectrometry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Two-dimensional separation of the total proteins isolated from KI-1 tachyzoites revealed up to 150 spots, of which 121 were consistent with those of RH tachyzoites. Of the remaining 29 spots, 14 showed greater than 5-fold difference in density between the KI-1 and RH tachyzoites at a pH of 5.0-8.0. Among the 14 spots, 5 from the KI-1 isolate and 7 from the RH strain were identified using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and database searches. The spots from the KI-1 tachyzoties were dense granule proteins (GRA 2,3,6, and 7), hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGRPTase), and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase). The spots from the RH strain were surface antigen 1 (SAG 1), L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), actin, chorismate synthase, peroximal catalase, hexokinase, bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHTR-TS), and nucleosidetriphosphatases (NTPases). Quantitative real-time PCR supported our mass spectrometric results by showing the elevated expression of the genes encoding GRA 2,3, and 6 and UPRTase in the KI-1 tachyzoites and those encoding GRA 7, SAG 1, NTPase, and chorismate synthase in the RH tachyzoites. These observations demonstrate that the protein compositions of KI-1 and RH tachyzoites are similar but differential protein expression is involved in virulence.

Development of the feedback resistant pheAFBR from E. coli and studies on its biochemical characteristics (E. coli 유래 pheA 유전자의 되먹임제어 저항성 돌연변이의 구축과 그 단백질의 생화학적 특성 연구)

  • Cao, Thinh-Phat;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Hong, KwangWon;Lee, Sung Haeng
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.278-285
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    • 2016
  • The bifunctional PheA protein, having chorismate mutase and prephenate dehydratase (CMPD) activities, is one of the key regulatory enzymes in the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli, and is negatively regulated by an end-product, phenyalanine. Therefore, PheA protein has been thought as useful for protein engineering to utilize mass production of essential amino acid phenylalanine. To obtain feedback resistant PheA protein against phenylalanine, we mutated by using random mutagenesis, extensively screened, and obtained $pheA^{FBR}$ gene encoding a feedback resistant PheA protein. The mutant PheA protein contains substitution of Leu to Phe at the position of 118, displaying that higher affinity (about $290{\mu}M$) for prephenate in comparison with that (about $850{\mu}M$) of wild type PheA protein. Kinetic analysis showed that the saturation curve of $PheA^{FBR}$ against phenyalanine is hyperbolic rather than that of $PheA^{WT}$, which is sigmoidal, indicating that the L118F mutant enzyme has no cooperative effects in prephenate binding in the presence of phenylalanine. In vitro enzymatic assay showed that the mutant protein exhibited increased activity by above 3.5 folds compared to the wild type enzyme. Moreover, L118F mutant protein appeared insensitive to feedback inhibition with keeping 40% of enzymatic activity even in the presence of 10 mM phenylalanine at which the activity of wild type $PheA^{WT}$ was not observed. The substitution of Leu to Phe in CMPD may induce significant conformational change for this enzyme to acquire feedback resistance to end-product of the pathway by modulating kinetic properties.

Production of 4-Hydroxybenzyl Alcohol Using Metabolically Engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum (대사공학에 의해 개발된 코리네박테리움 글루타미컴에 의한 4-히드록시벤질 알코올 생산)

  • Kim, Bu-Yeon;Jung, Hye-Bin;Lee, Ji-Yeong;Ferrer, Lenny;Purwanto, Henry Syukur;Lee, Jin-Ho
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.506-514
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    • 2020
  • 4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol (4-HB alcohol) is one of the major active components of Gastrodia elata Blume, with beneficial effects on neurological disorders such as headache, convulsive behavior, and dizziness. Here, we developed a metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum strain able to produce 4-HB alcohol from 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HBA). First, the strain APS963 was obtained from the APS809 strain via the insertion of aroK from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii into the NCgl2922-deleted locus. As carboxylic acid reductase from Nocardia iowensis catalyzes the reduction of 4HBA to 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HB aldehyde), we then introduced a codon-optimized car gene into the genome of APS963, generating the GAS177 strain. Then, we deleted creG coding for a putative short-chain dehydrogenase and inserted ubiCpr encoding a product-resistant chorismate-pyruvate lyase into the pcaHG-deleted locus. The resulting engineered GAS355 strain accumulated 2.3 g/l 4-HB alcohol with 0.32 g/l 4-HBA and 0.3 g/l 4-HB aldehyde as byproducts from 8% glucose after 48 h of culture.

Biosynthetic pathway of shikimate and aromatic amino acid and its metabolic engineering in plants (식물에서 shikimate 및 방향족 아미노산 생합성 경로와 이의 대사공학적 응용)

  • Lim, Sun-Hyung;Park, Sang Kyu;Ha, Sun-Hwa;Choi, Min Ji;Kim, Da-Hye;Lee, Jong-Yeol;Kim, Young-Mi
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.135-153
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    • 2015
  • The aromatic amino acids, which are composed of $\small{L}$-phenylalanine, $\small{L}$-tyrosine and $\small{L}$-tryptophan, are general components of protein synthesis as well as precursors for a wide range of secondary metabolites. These aromatic amino acids-derived compounds play important roles as ingredients of diverse phenolics including pigments and cell walls, and hormones like auxin and salicylic acid in plants. Moreover, they also serve as the natural products of alkaloids and glucosinolates, which have a high potential to promote human health and nutrition. The biosynthetic pathways of aromatic amino acids share a chorismate, the common intermediate, which is originated from shikimate pathway. Then, tryptophan is synthesized via anthranilate and the other phenylalanine and tyrosine are synthesized via prephenate, as intermediates. This review reports recent studies about all the enzymatic steps involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathways and their gene regulation on transcriptional/post-transcriptional levels. Furthermore, results of metabolic engineering are introduced as efforts to improve the production of the aromatic amino acids-derived secondary metabolites in plants.

Biosynthesis of Two Hydroxybenzoic Acid-Amine Conjugates in Engineered Escherichia coli

  • Kim, Song-Yi;Kim, Han;Kim, Bong-Gyu;Ahn, Joong-Hoonc
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1636-1643
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    • 2019
  • Two hydroxybenzoyl amines, 4-hydroxybenzoyl tyramine (4-HBT) and N-2-hydroxybenzoyl tryptamine (2-HBT), were synthesized using Escherichia coli. While 4-HBT was reported to demonstrate anti-atherosclerotic activity, 2-HBT showed anticonvulsant and antinociceptive activities. We introduced genes chorismate pyruvate-lyase (ubiC), tyrosine decarboxylase (TyDC), isochorismate synthase (entC), isochorismate pyruvate lyase (pchB), and tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) for each substrate, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA), tyramine, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (2-HBA), and tryptamine, respectively, in E. coli. Genes for CoA ligase (hbad) and amide formation (CaSHT and OsHCT) were also introduced to form hydroxybenzoic acid and amine conjugates. In addition, we engineered E. coli to provide increased substrates. These approaches led to the yield of 259.3 mg/l 4-HBT and 227.2 mg/l 2-HBT and could be applied to synthesize diverse bioactive hydroxybenzoyl amine conjugates.