• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cholesterol

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Effect of Milk on Cholesterol Metabolism of Rats with Different Levels of Dietary Cholesterol (식이 Cholesterol의 수준에 따라 우유가 흰쥐의 Cholesterol 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 최명숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.127-140
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    • 1994
  • The effect of milk in low and high cholesterol diet was invesigated on serum cholesterol metabolism and lipid contents of serum, aorta, liver of rats. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into low(0.01% w/w) and high(1.01% w/w) cholesterol-diets groups. Low cholesterol groups subdivided into four groups ; control group was given water and three milk groups were given low heat milk(LM), ultra-high heat milk(HM), and powder milk(PM), respectivily, instead of water. High cholesterol groups were consisted of three groups ; control, LM, and HM groups. After feeding these experimental diets for six weeks, lipid levels were measured in serum and tissure and dried feces were analyzed for neutral and acidic sterols. Results obtained from this study are as follows : 1) Nutrient intakes, body weight gains and aorta weights did not differ among groups, but liver weights were higher in high cholesterol fed rats than low cholesterol fed rats. 2) Serum protein contents were increased independently by intakes of high cholesterol and milk. 3) Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were increased but phospholipid levels and HDL-cholesterol/total-cholesterol ratios were decreased by high cholesterol in diet. And milk supplementation decreased serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels but increased phospholipid levels and HDL-cholesterol/total-cholesterol ratios. 4) Contents of cholesterol and triglyceride in aorta and liver were elevated by dietary high cholesterol and lowered by consumption of all three types of milk. 5) Levels of cholesterol and triglyceride among serum, aorta and liver were highly correlated (r=0.7-0.9, p<0.001). 6) Fecal excretion of total sterols was three times high in high cholesterol group, compared with low cholesterol groups and were increased about 20% by milk consumption. 7) The effects of milk were more pronouncely shown in low cholesterol groups and mostly confined to LM and HM groups, rarely shown in PM group. It is concluded from the present study that milk had the hypolipidemic as well as hypocholes terolemic effect, which appears to be mediated through increased fecal bile acid excretion. But the effect is likely to be shaded by excess consumption of dietary cholesterol and was almost absent in powder milk.

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Effects of Mustard Leaf(Brassica Juncea) on Cholesterol Metabolism in Rats (갓의 급이가 흰쥐의 Cholesterol 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 조영숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.13-20
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    • 1993
  • To investigate the effects mustard leaf(Brassica Juncea) on Cholesterol metabolism, male Sprague Dawley rate were fed semipurified diets containing 2% or 4% mustard leaf with or without cholesterol for 5 weeks. Plasma cholesterol content decreased significantly by feeding 4% mustard leaf with of without cholesterol for 5 weeks. Plasma cholesterol content decreased significantly by feeding 4% mustard leaf in rats fed 1% cholesterol in the diet. In addition, HDL-cholesterol increased slightly by the feeding of mustard leaf, resulting in a significant increase in the HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio and a reduction of atherosclerotic index. However, levels of plasma lipids were not influenced by mustared leaf in rats fed cholesterol-free diet. The contents of all classes of lipid in liver increased by dietary cholesterol. Of the liver lipids, triglyceride and cholesterol ester were accumulated most, showing a fatty liver synodrome. Supplementation of mustard leaf to cholesterol-containing diet resulted in a slight decrease in neutral lipid contents of liver. Fecal cholesterol excretion was higher by more than 2.7 and 3.3-fold in rats fed 2 and 4% mustard leaf than in control rats fed cholesterol. Similar trends were found in fecal bile salt excretion; rats fed and 4% mustard leaf excreted more bile salts by more than 1.5 and 2% than those fed control diet containing cholesterol. In summary, mustard leaf may have an antiatherogenci effect of reducing plasma cholesterol level and increasing HDL-cholesterol level. The plasma cholesterol lowering effect of mustard leaf is suggested to be due, at least in part, to increase in fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids.

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Lecithin : Cholesterol Acyltransferase Activities in Rats Fed Cow량s Milk with Different Levels of Cholesterol (식이 콜레스테롤의 섭취량에 따라 우유가 흰쥐의 Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 최명숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.371-379
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    • 1994
  • The effect of milk in low and high cholesterol diets were investigated on serum cholesterol esterification. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into low(0.01% w/w) and high (1.01% w/w) cholesterol-diets groups. Bothlow and high cholesterol groups were consisted of three groups : control , LM(low heat milk), and HM (high heat milk) groups. After feeding these experimental diets for six weeks, serum cholesterol (free cholesterol and cholestryl ester) concentration and activity of lecithin.: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) were measured, and serum lipoprotein profile was examined using gel column chromatography. According to the result, activity of LCAT was elevated independently by intakes of high cholesterol and milk , which resulted in the increase of daily turnover of serum cholesteryl ester. However, the turnover of HDL-cholesteryl ester increased only by milk. LCAT activity was moderately correlated with levels of total-and HDL-free choelsterol. It is concluded from the present study that milk had the cholesterol-lowering effect which partly appears to be mediated through facilitated reverse cholesterol transport.

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Effects of Cholesterol Feeding on HDL-Cholesterol, Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride of Plasma and Tissues of Rats Fed the Different Dietary Fat Level and P/S Ratio (총지방량과 P/S Ratio가 다른 식이에 첨가된 Cholesterol이 Plasma HDL-Cholesterol 과 조직의 Cholesterol과 Triglyceride에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hyun-Suh;Choi, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Hyun-Kyung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.281-289
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    • 1984
  • The present studies were designed to observe the effects of both dietary fat levels and P/S ratio on lipid components in plasma and tissues of young rats when cholesterol was supplemented at 1%(w/w) to four dietary groups providing total fat as 10%( LF ) or 45% ( HF ) of calories and P/S ratio as 0.2 or 4.0, Low Fat-0.2 : Low Fat-4.0 : High Fat-0.2 : High Fat-4.0. Plasma total cholesterol was increased almost to the same level in all dietary groups after the cholesterol supplement but the value of HF -0.2 was slightly higher than that of LF -0.2. Plasma TG was also increased in all dietary groups when cholesterol was supplemented but was more significantly increased in LF group than in HF group. HDL-cholesterol was slightly increased by cholesterol supplement but there was no effect by the total dietary fat level of previous diet. However, plasma HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and TG levels were slightly reduced in high fat diet of P/S 4.0. Total cholesterol per g -liver was higher in HF group than in LF group before and after cholesterol supplement even though it was increased more in LF group with cholesterol addition. Liver cholesterol was also higher in rats fed diets of P/S 4.0 at high fat level before and after cholesterol supplement. In contrast, total cholesterol per g-muscle was reduced by cholesterol supplement in all groups and it was significantly higher in LF than in HF. There was no significant effect in liver TG by total fat level and P/S ratio when cholesterol was supplemented. Muscle TG was lowered in all groups by cholesterol supplement but no effect by total fat level and P/S ratio.

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The Effect of Long Chain Saturated Fatty Acids (12 : 0, 14 : 0, 16 : 0, 18 : 0) and Dietary Cholesterol Levels on Plasma and Hepatic Cholesterol Concentrations in the Mongolian Gerbil

  • Kim, Jeong-Sook
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 1998
  • In order to independently examine the effects of long-chain saturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol levels on plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations, six different diets were fed to male Mongolian gerbils (14 gerbils pes grcup) for an 8-week period. Purified diets contained 36% energy as fat (each saturated fatty acid tested comprised about 20% of the total fat energy) and 0.06% (w/w) cholesterol, corresponding to typical human consumption patterns in Western diets. Fat blends were formulated with natural fat sources. To determine the effects of different saturated fatty acids on plasma and liver cholesterol levels, four of the six diets contained constant levels of all nutrients except for the amounts of lauric acid (12 0), myristic acid (14 : 0), palmitic acid (16 0), and stearic acid (18 : 0). Dietary cholesterol effects were tested using 16 : 0-enriched diets containing 0, 0.006, and 0.06% (w/w) cholesterol. None of the plasma lipids were influenced by fatty acid treatment, including triglycerides, plasma total-, VLDL+LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol. However, hepatic esterified cholesterol concentrations were increased in the palmitic and stearic arid diet groups compared to the lauric and myristic acid diet group. The molar ratios of hepatic EC/FC were the highest in the palmitic acid diet (12.2 $\pm$0.6) and the lowest in the myristic acid diet (6.4$\pm$0.2). Dietary cholesterol significantly (p<0.001) increased the plasma total cholesterol which was due to the increase of both HDL-and VLDL+LDL-cholesterol. In the absence of dietary cholesterol and compared to other species, the gerbil exhibited a high molar ratio of hepatic EC/FC, which was funker elevated by dietary cholesterol feeding (0.06%). The results from this study indicate that hepatic cholesterol concentrations are sensitive to both low levels of dietary cholesterol and saturated fatty acid chain length and also, that plasma cholesterol concentrations are sensitive to low levels of dietary cholesterol .

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Effect of Deer Horn on Serum Cholesterol Level in Cholesterol fed Rabbits (Cholesterol 투여가토(投與家兎)의 혈청중(血淸中) Cholesterol에 미치는 녹용(鹿茸)의 영향(影響)(제 3 편)(第 3 編))

  • Yong, Jae-Ick
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.14-19
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    • 1976
  • Influence of deer horn on serum cholesterol level as well as growth rate of experimental cholesterol-fed rabbit were observed. The cholesterol level rose progressively in all cholesterol-fed rabbit and only after 17th day of experiment, cholesterol-level in animal treated with deer horn significantly increased at much lower rate than control group. Above results suggested that deer horn might decrease the abnormally elevated serum cholesterol.

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Studies on Deer Horn (III) Effect of Deer Horn on Serum Cholesterol Level in Cholesterol-fed Rabbits (녹용에 관한 연구 (제3보) Cholesterol 투여가토의 혈청중 Cholesterol에 미치는 녹용의 영향)

  • 용재익
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.6-9
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    • 1960
  • Influences of deer horn on serum cholesterol level as well as growth rate of experimental cholesterol-fed rabbit were observed. The cholesterol level rose progressively in all cholesterol-fed rabbit and only after 17th day of experiment, cholesterol-level in animal treated with deer horn significantly increased at much lower rate than control group. Above results suggested that deer horn might decrease the abnormally elevated serum cholesterol.

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Tu-Chung Leaf Meal Supplementation Reduced an Increase in Lipid Accumulation of Chickens Stimulated by Dietary Cholesterol

  • Santoso, U.;Ohtani, S.;Tanaka, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.1758-1763
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    • 2000
  • The effect of tu-chung (Eucommia ulmoides, Oliver) leaf meal on reducing lipid accumulation in chickens fed 1% cholesterol containing diet was studied. Forty male White Leghorn chickens aged 56 days were weighed and divided into four groups of ten chickens, and fed diets with or without 1% dietary cholesterol which were supplemented with 0 and 5% tu-chung. Tu-chung supplementation to the diet without cholesterol increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase (p<0.01) but decreased 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activities (p<0.01) with no effect on fatty acid synthetase activities. However, its supplementation to the diet with cholesterol had no effect on these three enzyme activities as compared with the cholesterol containing diet without tu-chung. Tu-chung supplementation to the diet without cholesterol increased hepatic triglyceride (p<0.01), whereas its supplementation to the diet with cholesterol decreased it (p<0.01). Tu-chung supplementation to the diet with cholesterol decreased plasma cholesterol ester, free cholesterol, phospholipids (p<0.05) and triglyceride (p<0.01) as compared with the cholesterol containing diet without tu-chung. Supplementation of tu-chung to the diet without cholesterol decreased plasma free cholesterol (p<0.05). It is concluded that tu-chung leaf meal reduced an increase in lipid accumulation in chickens stimulated by 1% cholesterol feeding.

A Study on the Hypolipidemic Effects of Soyprotein in Rats (흰쥐에서 대두단백질의 Hypolipidemic 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kyung-Lim;Kim, Wha-Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.68-77
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    • 1984
  • The present study was designed to observe the effects of soyprotein and casein with or without cholesterol on serum and liver lipids in male rats. The 6 experimental groups were as fellows ; SF ; soyprotein, cholesterol-free diet. SC ; soyprotein, 0.5% cholesterol added diet. CF ; casein, cholesterol-free diet CC ; casein,0.5% cholesterol added diet. SCF ; protein mixture of soyprotein and casein(1 : 1), cholesterol-free diet SCC ; mixed protein, 0.5% cholesterol added diet. The hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects of soyprotein were observed at 3 weeks, but these effects disappeared at 6 weeks. The hypocholesterolemic effect of soyprotein was more obvious when the 0.5% cholesterol was supplemented in the diets. The serum free cholesterol level was not affected by the dietary protein source or the dietary cholesterol, therefore, the difference in serum total cholesterol among groups seems due to the difference in cholesterol esters. There was a tendency of a higher percentage of HDL in soyprotein groups compared to casein groups at 1 week, however, this tendency disappeared with time. The liver cholesterol and triglyceride contents were not differ among cholesterol-free diet groups, however, with addition of cholesterol, those of soyprotein groups were significantly lower than casein groups. The higher serum arginine/lysine ratio of soyprotein groups may offer the part of explanation of its hypocholesterolemic effect.

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The influences of life styles on serum HDL cholesterol (생활습관이 혈청 HDL(high density lipoprotein) 콜레스테롤에 미치는 영향)

  • 신종오;차형수
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.262-269
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    • 1997
  • There are many different views of the opinion that smoking decreased the HDL cholesterol. So this cross-sectional study was attempted to find the influence which smoking, alcohol and weight affect HDL cholesterol. They were two groups;smoking group(409 males) and nonsmoking group(213 males). And HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and total cholesterol of smoking group were compaired to them of nonsmoking group. Also the variables of age, relative weight, and alcohol were compaired. The HDL cholesterol of nonsmoking group was 47.2$\pm$10.1 mg/dl and the HDL cholesterol of smoking group was 45.5$\pm$10.7mg/dl. So there were no statistical difference. As smoking was increased in amount, HDL cholesterol was decreased slightly. According as the alcohol intake increases, especially only the HDL cholesterol of the moderate alcohol intake(101-200gm/week) group was significantly increased(P<0.05). As relative weight increases, HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased(P=0.007). Smoking was not statistical difference of HDL cholesterol. Moderately alcohol intake group(101-200gm/week) were increased the HDL cholesterol(P<0.05). Only relative weight was statistically decreased the HDL cholesterol(P<0.01). Multiple regression results that relative weight and alcohol were significant variable of the level of HDL cholesterol.

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