• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chlorothalonil

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Control of Alternaria Leaf Blight of Ginseng by Microbial Agent and Fungicides (미생물 제제와 살균제에 의한 인삼 점무늬병의 방제)

  • Li, Xiangguo;Han, Jin-Soo;Jin, Xuanji;Yin, Dapeng;Choi, Jae-Eul
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.102-106
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    • 2008
  • The single application of Bacillus subtilis QST713(BS QST713) mixed application with fungicides and alternate application were treated to examine the control of alternaria leaf blight of Panax ginseng. Control value of alternaria leaf blight by single application of BS QST713 at 10 days interval was 83.3%, and those of single application at 10 days interval was $80.4{\sim}83.7%$ by azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil copper sulfate basic, copper sulfate basic, kresoxim-methyl, difenoconazole, mancozeb. When mixture of BS QST713 and fungicides were applied at 14 days interval, the control value of alternaria leaf blight were 83.6% by BS QST713 and mancozeb, and 82.6% by BS QST713 and azoxystrobin. However, mixture of BS QST713 with difenoconazole, kresoxim-methyl, copper sulfate basic and chlorothalonil copper sulfate basic exhibited the disease control values from 61.1% to 76.4%, which showed slightly lower control efficacy. In Daejeon, the alternate application of BS QST713 followed by copper sulfate basic with 14 days interval was 85.9% in control value, which showed the best control efficacy. The alternate application with other tested fungicides slightly decreased to $55.5{\sim}78.2%$ in control value. However, the alternate application of BS QST713 followed by fungicides showed very high control efficacy, which were approximately 90% in Muju, Jeonbuk Province. Consequently, the single, mixed or alternate application of BS QST713 and fungicides could be recommended as a control method to reduce the amount of fungicides.

Determination of new antifouling agents in seacoasts in Korea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS를 이용한 한국연안의 새로운 방오제 분석)

  • Lee, Seongeon;Won, Hoshik;Lee, Dongsup
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.459-473
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    • 2008
  • Antifouling agents including tributyltin (TBT) compound and its derivatives have been used for many years, but the usage of TBT in Korea was legally restricted in 2003, due to its significant environmental impact. Following this, many new alternative antifouling agents have been used. In this experiment, four major antifouling agents were selectively analyzed to study their release in seawater and tidal flats on the Korean Peninsula. These new antifouling agents were extracted from the seawater and tidal flats using a liquid-liquid extraction method and microwave extraction, respectively. The measured concentrations of Irgarol 1051, Sea-Nine 211, Dichlofluanid and Chlorothalonil ranged from N.D.$-23.80ng/{\ell}$, N.D.$-15.30ng/{\ell}$, N.D.$-61.69ng/{\ell}$ and N.D.$-4.19ng/{\ell}$ in the seawater samples and from N.D.-159.45 ng/g, N.D.-476.57 ng/g, N.D.-59.79 ng/g and N.D.-21.27 ng/g in the tidal flat samples, respectively. Interestingly, these new antifouling agents were not detected in any area in the tidal flats at Pusan, whereas a certain amount of them was found in the seawater.

In Vivo Antifungal Activities of Various Fungicides against Plamodiophora brassicae (다양한 살균제의 배추 뿌리혹병 방제효과)

  • Jang, Kyoung-Soo;Kim, Jin-Cheol;Lim, He-Kyoung;Cho, Kwang-Yun;Choi, Gyung-Ja
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.422-428
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    • 2005
  • In vivo antifungal activity of 44 fungicides consisting of 3 clubroot fungicides, 7 Oomycetes fungicides, 7 botriticides, 7 blasticides, 9 sterol biosynthesis inhibitors, and 11 broad spectrum fungicides were investigated against Plamodiophora brassicae, the causal agent of clubroot disease in Chinese cabbage. When fluazinam, flusulfamide and cyazofamid, commercial fungicide to control clubroot of Chinese cabbage in Korea, were applied to infested soil, club formations by P. brassicae were strongly inhibited at pot (35 $cm^2$) per 0.63 mg. Ethaboxam and cymoxanil, Oomycetes fungicides, completely controlled Chinese cabbage clubroot at 5 mg/pot, but cymoxanil represented sever phytotoxicity. Besides, dichlofluanid and procymidone of botriticides effectively controlled the development of Chinese cabbage clubroot at 2.5 mg/pot. Chlorothalonil, quintozene and trichlamide, broad spectrum fungicides, showed disease-control efficacy of 85%, 100% and 100% at 2.5 mg/pot, respectively. Most of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors displayed the strong antifungal activity against P. brassicae on cabbage seedlings and plant growth -retarding activity. From these results, 7 fungicides were selected and further tested in vivo antifungal activity against P. brassicae in glasshouse. Among them, ethaboxam showed the most antifungal activity against P. brassicae on cabbage seedlings, followed by fenarimol, procymidone, nuarimol and chlorothalonil.

Synergistic and Antagonistic Interactions for Pesticide mixtures to Honeybee Larvae Toxicity (농약 혼용에 따른 꿀벌유충 독성의 상승 및 상쇄 영향)

  • Paik, Min Kyoung;Im, Jeong Taek;Chon, Kyongmi;Park, Kyung-Hun;Choi, Yong-Soo;Lee, Myeong-Lyeol;Bae, Chul-Han;Kim, Jin-Ho;Moon, Byeong Chul
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND: Recently, the widespread distribution of pesticides in the hive has been of concern about pesticide exposure on honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) health. Larval toxicity was adapted to assess the synergistic and antagonistic interaction of cumulative mortality to the honeybee larvae of the four most common pesticides detected in pollen. METHODS AND RESULTS: Acetamiprid($3.0{\mu}l/L$), chlorothalonil ($803.0{\mu}l/L$), coumaphos ($128.0{\mu}l/L$), and tau-fluvalinate ($123.0{\mu}l/L$) were tested in combination; binary, ternary and four component mixture. Larvae were exposed to four pesticides mixed in diet at the average levels detected in pollen. As a result, synthetic toxicity was observed in the binary mixture of acetamiprid with coumaphos. The binary and ternary component mixtures of tested pesticides have mostly demonstrated additive effect in larval bees. The significant antagonistic effects were found in four parings of mixtures including chlorothalonil added to acetamiprid/tau-fluvalinate or acetamiprid/coumaphos/tau-fluvalinate, and tau-fluvalinate added to acetamiprid/chlorothalonil or acetamiprid/coumaphos/chlorothalonil. CONCLUSION: Interactions between combinations of four pesticides showed mostly additive or antagonistic effects in larval bees. Therefore, predicting the larval mortality of pesticides mixtures on the basis of the results of single pesticide may actually overestimate the risk. We suggest that pesticide mixture in pollen be evaluated by adding their toxicity together for complete data on interactions.

Degradation Ability and Population of Resistant Strains of Chlorothalonil in Upland Soil Distributed in Honam Area (호남지역 밭토양에 분포된 Chlorothalonil 내성균(耐性菌)의 밀도(密度)와 분해능(分解能))

  • Lee, Sang-Bok;Choi, Yoon-Hee;Yoo, Chul-Hyun;So, Jae-Don;Rhee, Gyeong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.74-80
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    • 1996
  • This experiment was conducted to obtain the basis of degradation of remaining agricultural chemicals accumulated in upland soils of Honam district in Korea. The population. relative growth rate(RGR). chlorothalonil(TPN)-degradation ability and bacterialogical characteristics of TPN resistant strains were investigated in TPN levels of 0, 25, 50, 100 and $500{\mu}l/ml$ compared with Mancozeb. A number of TPN-resistant bacteria were differ in the area of examined and were decreased with higher levels of TPN. The resistance of bacteria was stronger in TPN than Mancozeb but the resistance of fungi was vise versa. RGR of bacteria in the culture was the highest at the level of $50{\mu}l/ml$ and the lowest in $500{\mu}l/ml$ of TPN. TPN-degradation ability of bacteda isolated in various TPN levels was varied : only 8 percentage of bacteria showed 75 percentage or more degradation ability. The higher the concentration in TPN resistance, the larger the number of strains carried great ability to decompose pesticide residues. The strains having higher decomposition ability was rod-shapes cells and senstive to heat. Analyses of the indol production, methyl red, and V-P test have given similar results, with negative reaction in all these strain, while the other biochemical characteristics were differ in the strains. Based on these, these strains might be classified into Pseudomonas sp., Corynebacterium sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Moraxcella sp.

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The changes of acute toxicity of pesticides depending on the exposure time to killifish, Oryzias latipes. (농약의 노출시간에 따른 급성어독성의 변화)

  • Shin, Chun-Chul;Lee, Sung-Kyu;Roh, Jung-Koo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.124-129
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    • 1988
  • Prolonged aquatic toxicity tests (7-days) of six pesticides to the freshwater fish Oryzias latipes were performed to confirm the adequacy of the exposure times, 48-hr or 96-hr, which has been required by the protocols for the aquatic acute toxicity test. The toxicity curves were plotted for each chemical, and the significance of the difference between lethal threshold concentrations and 48-hr or 96-hr LC50's was analysed statistically. The lethal threshold concentrations of butachlor, fenobucarb, and chlorothalonil were clearly defined on the 5th day, 2nd day, and 2nd day at 0.53mg/1, 10.3mg/l, and 0.085mg/1, respectively. But the toxicity curves of alachlor, diazinon, and iprobenfos continued with no threshold for 7 days. Four out of six test pesticides failed to show the threshold concentration during the 96-hr exposure time. Therefore, the results of the acute toxicity test using 48-hr or 96-hr exposure time would not describe the ideal toxicity of pesticides. It is recommended that the prolonged exposure should be continued long enough to define the threshold adequately.

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Influence of Pesticides and Environmentally Friendly Agricultural Materials used in Tomato Cultivation on the Pathogenicity of the Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana (토마토재배에 사용하는 농약과 친환경농자재가 곤충 병원성 곰팡이 Beauveria bassiana의 병원성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jong-Ho;Hong, Sung-Jun;Han, Eun-Jung;Shim, Chang-Ki;Lee, Minho;Kim, Min-Jeong;Kim, JeongJun;Kim, Yong-Ki
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.357-364
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to observe the influence of chemical pesticides and environmentally friendly agricultural materials (EFAMs) used in tomato cultivation on the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. B. bassiana mycelium didn't grow on PDA media containing 13 fungicides including chlorothalonil and colonies were not formed on PDA media containing 12 fungicides. B. bassiana mycelium grew and colonies were formed on all PDA media containing insecticides and EFAMs, but mycelial growth and colony formation on most PDA media were significantly inhibited compared to the control. The insecticidal activity of B. bassiana against Trialeurodes vaporariorum was decreased when fungicides (polyoxin B, mandipropamid) and EFAMs containing sulfur were added, but insecticides (pyridaben, dinotefuran) and EFAMs originated from plant extracts did not have any influence on the insecticidal activity of B. bassiana. The pathogenicity of a mixture of B. bassiana and polyoxin B against T. vaporariorum was lower than that of B. bassiana alone under greenhouse conditions.

Analysis of Butyltin Compounds and New Antifouling Agents in the Southwestern Korean Tidal flats (한국연안의 갯벌 중에 유기주석화합물 및 새로운 방오도료제의 분석)

  • Lee, Seong-Eon;You, Jae-Bum;Park, Jae-Hong;Lee, Yong-Woo;Won, Ho-Shik;Lee, Dong-Sup
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2008
  • The prohibition of usage of tributyltin (TBT) compounds and the legal usage of new antifouling agents have changed the Korean costal environments in recent. 39 sampling sites of southwestern tidal flats were chosen in order to investigate the concentration of antifouling agents, and results in 2006 were compared with previous results in 1998. The concentrations of TBT compounds in most of sites except Incheon (It1) have been drastically decreased. Interestingly, In Jebudo (Jt2), Mokpo(MOt4) and Suncheon(SUt3) sites were detected as below the limit of detection and it is because of the legal restriction of TBT compounds. However, in most of the sampling sites in Korea, new antifouling agents, viz. Irgarol 1051, Dichlofluanid and Chlorothalonil, were detected. In particular, Irgarol 1051 was detected with high concentrations. In Jebudo (Jt4), a high concentration of Irgarol 1051 of 159.45 ng $g^{-1}$(dry wt) was detected. We were able to observe that the concentration of TBT compounds are has gradually been reduced whereas the new major antifouling agents are easily detected in most Korean tidal flats.

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Effects of Fungicide Control of Downy Mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) on Yield and Disease Management of Ridge Gourd (Luffa acutangula)

  • Deadman, M.L.;Kagadi, S.R.;Pawar, D.R.;Gadre, U.A.
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.147-151
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    • 2002
  • Seven fungicides were compared for the control of downy mildew on midge gourd. All treatments had significantly lower rates of disease progress curves and disease severity levels than that of the control. The highest yields were obtained from crops treated with metalaxyl + mancozeb, fosetyl-Al, and chlorothalonil. These treatments also proved to be the most economical considering the treatment costs.

A Study of Residual Pesticide Removals on the Surface of Solid Phase Using Photooxidation Process (광산화(Photooxidation)에 의한 고체 상 표면 잔류농약제거에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Tae-jin;An, Soo-jeung
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.87-92
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    • 2001
  • As well as arising the concern about pesticides known as a Carcinogenic or endocrine disorder substrates, magnitude was increased of reducing pesticides in soil or water. In this work, removals of residual pesticides on surface of solid phase were attempted by the photooxidation process with hydrogen peroxide. The optimum conditions for the removals of benomyl (carbamatic pesticide) chlorothalonil (Organochoric pesticide) were 350nm UV wavelegth and 20% (v/v) hydrogen peroxide solution as oxidant. Removals are negligible when UV radiation or the supply of hydrogen peroxide are solely applied on the target compoounds. Removal rates of the pesticides are accelerated by UV radiation with hydrogen addition. After 20 min of the treatment, about $2{\mu}g/cm^2$ of benomyl and $1,88{\mu}g/cm^2$ of chlorothalonil were disappeared on the surface of the solid phase.

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