• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chlorothalonil

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Environmental Behavior of Fenarimol, Chlorothalonil, and Ethoprophos in Agroforesty Field (산림농업지대에서 fenarimol, chlorothalonil 그리고 ethoprophos의 행방)

  • Kim, Eun-Hyeok;Cho, Ki-Young;Cho, Jae-Young
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.57 no.4
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    • pp.341-345
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    • 2014
  • Fate of fenarimol, chlorothalinol, and ethoprophos sprayed to control disease and pest was studied in a agroforest culture field of Jangsu-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Korea. Concentrations of fenarimol, chlorothalinol, and ethoprophos in runoff water ranged mostly to 0.2 mg/L at the first rainfall-runoff event. And then was rapidly decreased than detection limit at 60 days after the application. The fenarimol and chlorothalonil residue in soil was dissipated to below detection limit at 30 days after the application. But ethoprophos was decreased to below detection limit at 135 days after the application. The concentrations of experimental pesticides were highly detected in agroforest culture field than in open culture field. It is assumed that experimental pesticides were strongly adsorbed by organic matter such as fulvic acid and humic acid.

Fluctuation of the sensitivity of Colletotrichum spp. causing the red-pepper anthracnose to chlorothalonil (살균제 chlorothalonil에 대한 고추 탄저병균의 감수성 변화)

  • Kim, Joon-Tae;Lee, Kyeong-Hee;Min, Ji-Young;Cho, In-Joon;Kang, Beum-Kwan;Park, Seong-Woo;Bach, Nguyen Van;Kim, Yun-Sik;Hong, Seong-Taek;Rho, Chang-Woo;Kim, Heung-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 2004
  • Monitoring for the sensitivity of Colletotrichum spp. causing red-pepper anthracnose to chlorothalonil was conducted by the agar dilution method, which were isolated from infected pepper fruits in 1999 and 2002. Among the isolates in 1999 or 2002, their sensitivity to fungicide was fluctuated. Investigating the inhibitory effect of $500{\mu}g/m\ell$ of chlorothalonil on the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum isolates isolated from the infected red-pepper fruits in 1999, the frequency of isolates was 23.4%, which showed 100% of inhibitory effect on mycelial growth, and 29.7% showing below 60%. Isolates in 2002, however, showed 34.6% and 14.8% of inhibitory effect on PDAs including the same concentration of fungicide, respectively, These results showed that the sensitivity of Colletotrichum isolates in 1999 was inferior to that in 2002. According to the sampling region, isolation frequency among isolates in 2002 showing less MIC rather than 1999 was increased in Kyunggi, Kangwon, Kyungbuk and Kyungnam while the frequency of resistant isolates was done in Chungnam, Chungbuk, Cheonnam and Cheonbuk Fungicide monitoring results in this report will be of use on controlling the anthracnose in each region cultivating red-pepper.

광산화에 의한 chlorothalonil분해에 관한 연구

  • 이태진;최종덕;박진희;김영식
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.113-116
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    • 2002
  • UV/과산화수소법을 적용하여 유기염소계 농약인 chlorothalonil을 분해하는 공정에 있어서 광화학 반응의 효율을 증대시키는 방안으로 과산화수소와 옥살산염의 최적 주입농도를 선정하여 그 제거효율을 비교하였다. 그 결과 UV조사시 과산화수소의 농도가 100ppm일 때 일차반응속도 상수(k)가 0.0869로 가장 높게 나타났으며 옥살산염에서는 1mM일 때 0.1782로 높게 나타남으로써 과산화수소와 옥살산염의 최적 농도를 산출할 수가 있었다. 최적 과산화수소와 옥살산염을 조합하여 UV조사시 반응속도 상수값(k)이 0.1893으로 UV/옥살산염보다도 분해속도가 빠르게 나타났다.

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In vitro selection of fungicides for control of leaf blight of sweet persimmon tree caused by Pestalotiopsis theae (In vitro에서 단감나무 둥근갈색무늬병 방제를 위한 살균제 선발)

  • Chang, T.H.;Lim, T.H.
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.50-56
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    • 2001
  • In vitro experiments, several fungicides including prochloraz, tebuconazole, fluazinam, fludioxonil, and iminoctadine-triacetate showed more than 85% inhibition of mycelial growth of Pestalotiopsis theae (SP-3). Dichlofluanid and chlorothalonil inhibited mycelial growth at the rate of 10 and 33%, however benomyl did not inhibit mycelial growth of the fungus. Minimum inhibitory concentration(MICs) of iminictadine-triacetate on the mycelial growth of SP-3 isolate was $10{\mu}g/m{\ell}$, but that of P. theae $\underline{MAFF}$ 752002 and P. longiseta $\underline{MAFF}$ 752001 was $1{\mu}g/m{\ell}$. MIC of benomyl, chlorothalonil, dichlorofluanid was $1,000{\mu}g/m{\ell}$, and that of fludioxonil, fluazinam, tebuconazole was $10{\mu}g/m{\ell}$. Conidial germination was inhibited more than 80% in tile medium which contained $1{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of prochloraz, tebuconazole, fluazinam, fludioxonil, and minoctadine-triacetate. Control values of benomyl, chlorothalonil and dichlofluanid were 40, 60 and 30%, respectively. The controlling effect of iminoctadine-triacetate ($10{\mu}g/m{\ell}$) aganist P. theae (SP-3) in leaf disc test was more than 93%, but benomyl and dichlofluanid could not control leaf blight disease caused by P. theae (SP-3). Tebuconazole, fluazinam, fludioxonil, and iminoctadine-triacetate showed more than 94% of protective and curative effect of leaf blight of sweet persimmon, while, benomyl and dichlofluanid did not show any control effect of the disease.

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Biological Half-lives of Fungicides in Korean Melon under Greenhouse Condition (시설재배 참외 중 살균제의 생물학적 반감기)

  • Lee, Ju-Hee;Jeon, Young-Hwan;Shin, Kab-Sik;Kim, Hyo-Young;Park, Eun-Jeong;Kim, Tae-Hwa;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.419-426
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to know the biological half-lives and dissipation patterns of fungicides, pyrimethanil, chlorothalonil and tetraconazole in Korean melon under green house condition. The instrument for analyzing pyrimethanil and chlorothalonil was HPLC equipped with UV detector. Initial residue amounts of pyrimethanil were 0.16 mg/kg at recommended rate and 0.28 mg/kg at double recommended rate in Korean melon. The biological half-lives of pyrimethanil were 11.2 days at recommended rate and 10.1 days at double recommended rate in Korean melon. In case of chlorothalonil, initial residue amounts of chlorothalonil were 0.06 mg/kg at recommended and 0.11 mg/kg at double recommended rate in Korean melon. The biological half-lives of chlorothalonil in Korean melon were 3.4 days at recommended rate and 6.6 days at double recommended rate. The instrument for analyzing tetraconazole was GLC equipped with electron capture detector. Initial residue amounts of tetraconazole were 0.14 mg/kg at recommended and 0.22 mg/kg at double recommended rate in Korean melon, respectively. The biological half-lives of tetraconazole were 9.6 days at recommended rate and 18.5 days at double recommended rate in Korean melon.

Exposure Assessment of Korean Farmers While Applying Chlorpyrifos, and Chlorothalonil on Pear and Red Pepper (노지고추 및 배 재배 농업인의 방제작업 중 Chlorpyrifos, Chlorothalonil 노출에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Tae-Sun;Kim, Gil-Joong;Choe, In-Ja;Kwon, Young-Jun;Kim, Kyung-Ran;Lee, Kyung-Sook
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.249-263
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    • 2004
  • Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to establish the exposure monitoring method of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil application to pear and field red pepper by vehicle-mounted sprayer, hand-held sprayer and to assess the risk. Methods and Results: Chlorpyrifos met all of requirements of sampling and analysis method(U.S. EPA), but chlorothalonil met only dermal patch method. Potential dermal and inhalation exposure was evaluated in 42 farmers. Compared with the hand-held sprayer application, vehicle mounted sprayer demonstrated producing relatively lower dermal exposure levels with statistical significance. In dermal exposure during hand-held application, there is no significant difference between pear and red pepper. Conclusions: This results show that application method is the main factor of dermal exposure. There was no statistically significant difference between each group of respiratory exposure level. The margin of safety (MOS) was calculated to assess the risk of pesticide exposure. All Chlorpyrifos MOS values are lower than 0.2, which mean working conditions are unsafe. In order to protect farmers, big efforts to control exposure are needed.

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Adsorption Coefficients of Eight Pesticides for Citrus Orchard Soils with Different Soil Organic Matter (유기물함량이 다른 감귤원 토양에서 8 개 농약의 흡착상수)

  • Oh, Sang-Sil;Hyun, Hae-Nam;Moon, Doo-Khil
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.6-12
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to determine the adsorption characteristics of eight pesticides on thirty citrus orchard soil so soil samples were taken from nineteen soil series containing different fractions of organic carbon(Foc). The adsorption characteristics for eight pesticides fitted to Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption isotherms showed C-type for alachlor and chlorpyrifos, L-type for linuron and diniconazole. and S, C, and L-types for metribuzin, metolachlor, and alachlor with increasing Foc, respectively. In particular, the adsorption of chlorothalonil showed S, C, L, and H-types with increasing Foc. Distribution coefficient(Kd) values of metribuzin, metolachlor, and alachlor were below $10\;Lkg^{-1}$ and increased linearly with Foc. Kd values of linuron, diuron and chlorothalonil increased exponentially to 60, 200, and $400\;Lkg^{-1}$, respectively and those of diniconazole and chlorpyrifos increased logarithmically. Kf value. Freundlich adsorption coefficiient, increased with Kd in the same manner with Kd. Furthermore, the linearity of Kf value was larger than that of Kd value.

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Rainfastness of Two Fungicides Tank-mixed with Spreader-sticker (전착제를 혼용한 2 종 살균제의 내우성)

  • Choi, Yun-Kyong;Yu, Ju-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.203-208
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    • 2009
  • In order to elucidate the effect of spreader-stickers on the rainfastness of dithianon and chlorothalonil wettable powders, and to estimate the possibility of suggesting good new formulations, the fungicide residues on the leaf surface of hot pepper was assessed and compared after the drop-wise applications of fungicide suspensions containing spreader-sticker on leaf surface followed by artificial raining. Three commercial spreader-stickers, which were Cover, Reitron and Silwet, not only made the rainfastness of dithianon wettable powders worse on hot pepper leaf, but increasing their concentrations also accelerated it further. On the other hand, to chlorothalonil wettable powder, Reitron showed the 3-fold improvement of rainfastness. But, for the rest, there was no improvement as well. The effect of N-octylpyrrolidone (NOP) on rainfastness of both fungicides was excellent. Soybean oil formulations containing leaf-penetrable nonionic surfactant, which was either polyoxyethylene monotridecyl ether or polyoxyethylene monolauryl ether, improved dithianon rainfastness, but the ones containing conventional emulsifiers did not.

Estimation of Pesticide Leaching Potential Using GUS, RF and AF Index in Cheju Citrus Orchard Soils (제주도 감귤원 토양에서 GUS, RF, AF 지수를 이용한 농약의 용탈잠재성 평가)

  • Oh, Sang-Sil;Moon, Doo-Khil;Chung, Jong-Bae;Hyun, Hae-Nam
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 2002
  • Contamination of groundwater by agrochemicals used in the regional-scale Is now a major environmental problem, and this is especially true for Cheju island where virtually all potable water is from groundwater. The objective of this study was to assess leaching potential of eight pesticides in soils of citrus orchards using groundwater ubiquity score (GUS), retardation factor (RF) and attenuation factor (AF). Considering GUS estimated in 30 citrus orchard soils, metribuzin and metolachlor were classified as leacher, alachlor in volcanic ash soils and linuron in non-volcanic soils were classified as leacher, but chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos were classified as non-leacher. For RF values, metribuzin was classified to be mobile in soils of low organic carbon, metolachlor and alachlor were classified to be moderately immobile in most soils, but linuron, diuron, diniconazole, chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos were all classified to be very immobile. For AF values, diniconazole, chlorothalonil, and chlorpyrifos were classified to be very unlikely leachable in all of the soils, metribuzin was classified to be likely leachable, and metolahclor, alachlor, linuron and diuron were classified to be leachable only in non-volcanic soils. Although there were some variations in the relative potential of teachability of pesticides estimated with the three different indices, the ranking was essentially determined on the base of the intrinsic properties of the chemicals and environmental properties. Among the eight pesticides, metribuzin, metolachlor, and alachlor, which have high water solubility and low $K_{oc}$ values, have a significant leaching potential especially in non-volcanic ash soils of low organic carbon. But diniconazole, chlorothalonil, and chlorpyrifos, which have low water solubility and high $K_{oc}$ values, were classified to be very immobile in all of the soils. Therefore, to lower the possibility of pesticide contamination of the groundwater in Cheju island, those pesticides which have high water solubility and low $K_{oc}$ values should be used with care in soils of low organic carbon including non-volcanic ash soils.

Chemical Control of Brown Leaf Blight in Alisma plantago Double Cropping after Early Rice

  • Shin, Jong-Sup;Kwon, Byung-Sun;Park, Hee-Jin
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.348-351
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the control effect of fungicides on control of brown leaf blight, growth characteristics, and dry root yield in the cultivation of Alisma plantago after early maturing rice cropping. All fungicides treated had no effect on the growth and flowering rate of Alisma plantago. The major fungicides were mancozeb Wp, 75%, chlorothalonil Wp, 75%, dithianon Wp, 43%, difenoconazole Wp, 10%, benomyl Wp, 50%, and propineb Wp, 70%. Dry root of yield were increased largely with chlorothalonil Wp, 75%(33 g/20), fungicide than the other fungicides and control. All fungicides had no injury with standard dosage. On the other hand all fungicides had slight injury in the double dosage level for the Alisma plantago.

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