• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chlorothalonil

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Water Solubilities and Vapor Pressures of Chlorothalonil and Command (농약 Chlorothalonil 과 Command 의 수용성 및 증기압)

  • Kim, Kyun;Kim, Yong-Bae;Kim, Yong-Hwa;Roh, Jung-Koo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.84-93
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    • 1987
  • The water solubilities and vapor pressures of chlorothalonil and Command were measured following the guidelines of the U.S. EPA and OECD. Water solubility of the two compounds is consistent with respective values in the literature. However, the vapor pressures of Chlorothalonil and Command were 5,000 times$(2{\times}10^{-7}\;torr\;at\;25^{\circ}C)$ and 100 times$(<1{\times}10^{-6}\;torr\;at\;45^{\circ}C)$ lower than the literature values, respectively. Courteous use of the vapor pressure values in the handbooks is suggested. With this study, experimental difficulties involved were recognized. Based on the low vapor pressure of Command, the cause of the accidental bleach of non-target plants in the United States might not be attributed to the volatilization of Command, but to the drift during the application of the herbicide. These approaches will be utilized to predict the environmental fate of new chemicals under development, to screen the potential environmental pollutants among chemicals already in use, and to assess measures to minimize the hazards.

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Monitoring of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) contents as an impurity in different sources of chlorothalonil technical (국내 농약제조용 chlorothalonil 원제 중 hexachlorobenzene 함량 조사)

  • Kim, Jeong-Gu;Shin, Wook-Cheol;Lee, Hong-Goun;Park, Seung-Soon;Oh, Kyeong-Seok;Joo, Jin-Bok;Oh, Byung-Youl
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.31-34
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    • 2000
  • The contents of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a hazardous impurity, in chlorothalonil were monitored through 1996 to 2000. The number of samples were 32 from three different sources. The contents determined by GLC/ECD were ranged from 0.0036% to 0.0330% with average content of 0.0219%. All the samples were recorded below 0.05%, which is the regulation standard of HCB in the technical. The total input of HCB in Korean agriculture was calculated to be approximately 77 kg a year.

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Difference in Species of Test Fish on the Determination of Short-term Bioconcentration Factor (단기간 생물농축계수의 측정에 있어서 실험어류의 종에 따른 차이)

  • 민경진;차춘근;전봉식;김근배
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.24-31
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    • 1998
  • This study was performed to investigate the difference in species of test fish on the determination of short-term bioconcentration factor in zebrafish(Brachydanio rerio), red sword tail(Xiphophorus hellieri) and goldfish(Carassius auratus). Experimental concentrations of carbamates were 0.05 and 0.10 ppm and chlorothalonil were 0.005 and 0.01 ppm for 3 and 5 days, respectively. This paper reports the measured BCF value on pesticides in various species of test fish, under steady state, and examined correlation between the BCF value and depuration rate constant or LC$_{50}$ or lipid content. Carbamates and chlorothalonil concentration in fish extract and BCF of carbamate and chlorothalonil were increased as incresing test concentration. Carbamates concentration in fish extract and BCF of carbamate were decreased as incresing test period, but chlorothalonil concentration in fish extract and BCF of chlorothalonil were increased as prolonging test period. Determined pesticide concentration in fish extract and BCF were highest in red sword tail, and followed by goldfish, and zebrafish. Determined depuration rate constant were highest in zebrafish, and followed by goldfish, and red sword tail. 96hr-LC$_{50}$ were highest in red sword tail, and followed by zebrafish, and goldfish. Lipid compositions were highest in red sword tail, and followed by goldfish, and zebrafish. Therefore, it is suggested that the difference of BCF between each pesticide due to those of lipid composition of fish and deputation rate constant, while LC$_{50}$ have no effect on BCF.

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Determination of Captan, Folpet, Captafol and Chlorothalonil Residues in Agricultural Commodities using GC-ECD/MS (GC-ECD/MS를 이용한 농산물 중 Captan, Folpet, Captafol 및 Chlorothalonil의 잔류분석법)

  • Lee, Su-Jin;Hwang, Young-Sun;Kim, Young-Hak;Kwon, Chan-Hyeok;Do, Jung-A;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Lee, Young-Deuk;Choung, Myoung-Gun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.165-175
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    • 2010
  • A gas chromatographic (GC) method was developed to determine residues of captan, folpet, captafol, and chlorothalonil, known as broad-spectrum protective fungicides for the official purpose. All the fungicide residues were extracted with acetone containing 3% phosphoric acid from representative samples of five agricultural products which comprised rice, soybean, apple, pepper, and cabbage. The extract was diluted with saline, and dichloromethane partition was followed to recover the fungicides from the aqueous phase. Florisil column chromatography was additionally employed for final cleanup of the extracts. The analytes were then determined by gas chromatography using a DB-1 capillary column with electron capture detection. Reproducibility in quantitation was largely enhanced by minimization of adsorption or thermal degradation of analytes during GLC analysis. Mean recoveries generated from each crop sample fortified at two levels in triplicate ranged from 89.0~113.7%. Relative standard deviations (RSD) were all less than 10%, irrespective sample types and fortification levels. As no interference was found in any samples, limit of quantitation (LOQ) was estimated to be 0.008 mg/kg for the analytes except showing higher sensitivity of 0.002 mg/kg for chlorothalonil. GC/Mass spectrometric method using selected-ion monitoring technique was also provided to confirm the suspected residues. The proposed method was reproducible and sensitive enough to determine the residues of captan, folpet, captafol, and chlorothalonil in agricultural commodities for routine analysis.

Degradation of the Chlorothalonil by Functional Zeolite-KCIO3 Complex (기능성 Zeolite-KCIO3 복합체에 의한 Chlorothalonil의 분해)

  • Choi, Choong-Lyeal;Park, Man;Lee, Dong-Hoon;Lee, Byung-Mook;Rhee, In-Koo;Choi, Jyung;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.111-116
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    • 2004
  • Salt occlusion in Zeolite is a unique phenomenon that takes place only when the salt size is similar to the window size of host zeolite. $KCIO_3$-occluded Zeolite, as an environment-friendly oxidant, has a high potential for effective removal of various organic pollutants. This study was carried to investigate the characteristics and the removal kinetics of fungicide chlorothalonil by zeolite-$KCIO_3$ complex. About 10% of $KCIO_3$ was occluded in zeolite pores synthesized by salt-thermal method from fly ash, although the occlusion amount was relatively less compared to that of nitrate salts. By occlusion with $KCIO_3$, no remarkable changes were found in X-ray diffraction patterns of cancrinite, whereas some decrease of overall peak intensities was found with those of sodalite. Different releasing kinetics of $CIO_3^-$ ion were observed in distilled water and soil solution from zeolite-$KCIO_3$ complex. Two reactions, hydration and diffusion, seem to be related with the release of $KCIO_3$. Therefore, the release isotherm of $CIO_3^-$ ion well fitted to the power function model which indicate the release was made by hydration and diffusion. The removal of chlorothalonil by zeolite and $KCIO_3$ reached at reaction equilibrium within 6 hours by 18% and 47% respectively. However, the chlorothalonil removal by the zeolite-$KCIO_3$ complex increased slowly and steadily up to 92% in 96 hours. These findings suggested that zeolite-$KCIO_3$ complex could be applied for effective removal of organic contaminants in the soil and aqueous environment.

Dissipation of Bifenthrin and Chlorothalonil in Crown Daisy during Cultivation and their Biological Half-lives (쑥갓 중 bifenthrin과 chlorothalonil의 경시적 잔류량 변화 및 생물학적 반감기)

  • Kang, Min-Seong;Park, Po-Hyun;Kim, Ki-Yu;Lim, Bu-Geon;Ryu, Kyong-Shin;Lee, You-Jin;Lim, Jeong-Hwa;Kang, Choong-Won;Kim, Youn-Ho;Lee, Sun-Young;Seo, Jeong-Hwa;Park, Yong-Bae;Yoon, Mi-Hye
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 2019
  • This study investigated the residual characteristics of bifenthrin and chlorothalonil in crown daisy and suggested pre-harvest residue limits (PHRLs) based on their dissipation patterns and biological half-lives. The samples for residue analysis were harvested at 0 (3 hr), 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 22 and 26 days after treatment, and analyzed by $GC/{\mu}-ECD$ and TOF/MS. The limit of quantitation (LOQs) of bifenthrin and chlorothalonil were 0.0046 mg/kg and 0.0007 mg/kg, respectively. Recoveries ranged from $88.67{\pm}7.97%$ and $99.90{\pm}16.03%$, showing that this method is appropriate for the analysis of the pesticide residues in crown daisy. Being well within first order kinetics, the biological half-lives of the pesticide residues in crown daisy were 9.63 days for bifenthrin and 6.54 days for chlorothalonil. The PHRLs of bifenthrin and chlorothalonil were recommended as 11.70 mg/kg and 24.10 mg/kg for 26 days before harvest, respectively.

Residual Pattern of Chlorothalonil, Indoxacarb, Lufenuron, Metalaxyl and Methomyl during the Cultivation Periods in Chinese Cabbage (얼갈이배추의 재배기간 중 Chlorothalonil, Indoxacarb, Lufenuron, Metalaxyl 및 Methomyl의 잔류량 변화)

  • Ko, Kwang-Yong;Kim, Sung-Hun;Jang, Young-Hee;Lee, Kyu-Seung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.34-42
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    • 2008
  • In order to know the residual pattern of some pesticides and predict to the degradation period until below MRL, we experimented chlorothalonil, indoxacarb, lufenuron, metalaxyl and methomyl for Chinese cabbage. They were frequently detected pesticides in Chinese cabbage by NAQS (National Agricultural product Quality management Service) monitoring survey. In this experiment, we sprayed those pesticides 10days before harvest and analyzed 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 day samples to establish logical equation and to calculate $DT_{50}0$. During the cultivating period, the residue amount of chlorothalonil was changed from $55.58\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (0 day) to $20.08\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (10 day), $DT_{50}$ was 7.45 days, indoxacarb was $7.85\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (0 day) to $1.46\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (10 day), and 4.2 days, lufenuron was $1.57\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (0 day) to $0.49\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (10 day), and 5.85 days, metalaxyl was $8.12\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (0 day) to $0.10\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (10 day), and 175 days, and methomyl was $11.51\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (0 day) to $0.80\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (10 day), and 2.42 days at single dose application, respectively. The $DT_{50}$ of double amount in those pesticides were 9.05 days in chlorothatonil, 7.09 days in indoxacarb, 8.82 days in lufenuron, 3.32 days in metalaxyl, and 2.72 days in methomyl, respectively.

Residue Distribution of Chlorothalonil, Kresoxim-methyl and Procymidone among Different Parts of Hot Pepper Plants (고추 부위별 chlorothalonil, kresoxim-methyl 및 procymidone 농약성분의 잔류 분포)

  • Lee, Mi-Gyung;Hwang, Jae-Moon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.722-726
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    • 2009
  • The residue distribution ratio of pesticides among the flesh, stem and leaves of hot peppers were investigated to assure the safety of pepper powder and pepper leaves. Mixed solutions of chlorothalonil (wettable powder), kresoximmethyl (water dispersible granules) and procymidone (wettable powder) were applied once onto pepper plants in a plastic film house. After 7 days, the fruits and leaves were harvested and the fruits were divided into the flesh and stems. Pesticide residues in each pepper part were then analyzed by gas chromatography. The results showed that the concentration ratios of the chemicals in the flesh:stem and flesh:leaf ranged from 1:2-5 and 1:11-39, respectively, depending on the chemical evaluated. The observed flesh:stem ratio indicates that the pesticide content of the pepper powder product can increase by 20% if pepper stems are included in the powder product. The Korea Food and Drug Administration does not set a pesticide maximum residue level (MRL) for pepper leaves if a residue ratio in leaves over flesh is more than ten times. Results from this study support non-MRL status on the pepper leaves for the studied pesticides. Additionally, we recommend that the chlorothalonil product of a wettable powder type include the phrase "prohibition of distribution or sale for pepper leaves as food" because chlorothalonil highly resided in pepper leaves as more than twenty-four times that is a criterion level to determine an inclusion of the phrase in the label of pesticide product.

Pesticide Residue Survey and Risk Assessment of Fruits in Daejeon (대전시 유통 과실류의 농약 잔류 실태 및 위해성 평가)

  • Han, Kook-Tak;Park, Hye-Jin;Lee, Kyu-Seung;Kim, Il-Jung;Kim, Kyu-Sub;Cho, Sung-Min
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.279-285
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    • 2002
  • Pesticide residues in some fruits collected at Noeun wholesale market, Daejeon were surveyed and assessed its risk. In 120 samples, the detection rate of pesticide was 70.8% and the rate exceed MRL was 1.67%. Highly detection rate of commodities was apple, peach and grape. Organophosphorus, organochlorine and pyrethroid insecticide were found with similar rate relatively, but most of fungicides were procymidone(dicarboximides) and chlorothalonil(organochlorine). The order of detected pesticide were chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, procymidone, deltamethrin and EPN. In order to assess risk estimated intake amount of each pesticide was compared to ADI. Although some peach were exceed MRL the total amount and uptake pesticides was less than 1.22% comparing to ADI.