• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chlorothalonil

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Photocatalytic Degradation of Fungicide Chlorothalonil by Mesoporous Titanium Oxo-Phosphate (Mesoporous Titanium Oxo-Phosphate에 의한 살균제 Chlorothalonil의 광분해)

  • Choi, Choong-Lyeal;Kim, Byung-Ha;Lee, Byung-Mook;Choi, Jyung;Rhee, In-Koo;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.284-289
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    • 2003
  • Titanium mesoporous materials have received increasing attention as a new photocatalyst in the field for photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds. The photocatalytic degradation of chlorothalonil by mesoporous titanium oxo-phoswhate (Ti-MCM) was investigated in aqueous suspension for comparison with $TiO_2$, (Degussa, P25) using as an effective photocatalyst of organic pollutants. Mesoporous form of titanium Phosphate has been prepared by reaction of sulfuric acid and titanium isopropoxide in the presence or n-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The XRD patterns of Ti-MCM are hexagonal phases with d-spacings of 4.1 nm. Its adsorption isotherm for chlorothalonil reached at reaction equilibrium within 60 min under dark condition with 28% degradation efficiency. The degradation ratio of chlorothalonil after 9 hours under the UV radiation condition (254 nm) exhibited 100% by Ti-MCM and 88% by $TiO_2$. However, these degradation kinetics in static state showed a slow tendency compared to that of stirred state because of a low contact between titanium matrices and chlorothalonil. Also, degradation efficiency of chlorothalonil was increased with decreasing initial concentration and with increasing pH of solution. As results of this study, it was clear that mesoporous titanium oxo-phosphate with high surface area and crystallinity could be used to photo- catalytic degradation of various organic pollutants.

Residue Determination of Chlorothalonil in Sesame and Soil (Chlorothalonil의 참깨 및 토양중 잔류소장에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Kang-Bong;Cho, Ill-Kyu;Shim, Jae-Han;Suh, Yong-Tack
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 1990
  • The efects of application time on the persistence of chlorothalonil in sesame plants and its persistence in soil were studied in the field. A procedure was used which permited the analysis of residues of Chlorothalonil (DACONIL 2787) in sesame(Sesamum indicum L.)and soil. The procedure was based on the multiresidue analytical method using an polarized acetonitrile solution or acidified acetone as the extracting solvent. The DACONIL 2787 is separated from the fat in the extracts by using an activated alumina and Florisil chromatogaphic column. Residues of DACONIL 2787 were determined by subjecting the alternate eluate from the Florisil column to gas chromatographic analysis(ECD). Residue of chlorothalonil in sesame are proved to 0.06 ppm for six sprays, 3rd day before harvest The half-life of chlorothalonil in soil proved to be 8.9 days and residues of chlorothalonil was only 0.03 ppm 100 days after application of 15 ppm.

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Effect of Interaction of BPMC, Carbaryl and Chlorothalonii on short-term Bioconcentration Factor in Carassius auratus(goldfish) (BPMC, Carbaryl 및 Chiorothalonil의 상호작용이 Carassius auratus(goldfish)를 이용한 단기간 생물농축계수의 측정에 미치는 영향)

  • 민경진;차춘근;전봉식;김근배
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.72-82
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    • 1997
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of co-existence of BPMC, carbaryl and chlorothalonil on the short-term bioconcentration factor in Carassius auratus(goldfish). The fishes were exposed to the combined treatment of BPMC, carbaryl and chlorothalonil (0.05 ppm+0.05 ppm+0.005 ppm, 0.05 ppm+0.05 ppm+0.010 ppm, 0.05 ppm+0.10 ppm+0.005 ppm, 0.10 ppm+0.05 ppm+0.005 ppm, 0.10 ppm+0.10 ppm+0.005 ppm) for 3 and 5 days, respectively. BPMC, carbaryl and chlorothalonil in fish and in test water were extracted with n-hexane and acetonitrile. GC-ECD was used to detect and quantitate BPMC, carbaryl and chlorothalonil. 3-day and 5-day bioconcentration factors(BCF$_3$ and BCF$_5$) of each pesticide were calculated from the quantitation results. The depuration rate of each pesticide-from the whole body of fish was determined over the 72-h period after combined treatment.The results were as follows: BCF$_3$ values of BPMC were 4.163, 4.011, 4.122, 4.750 and 4.842 when the concentration of BPMC+ carbaryl+chlorothalonil in combined treatment were 0.05 ppm+0.05 ppm+0.005 ppm, 0.05 ppm+0.05 ppm+0.010 ppm, 0.05 ppm+0.10 ppm+0.005 ppm, 0.10 ppm+0.05 ppm+0.005 ppm and 0.10 ppm+ 0.10 ppm+0.005 ppm. BCF$_5$ values of BPMC were 3.465, 3.270, 3.472, 3.162, 4.227 and 4.157, respectively, under the above conditions. While BCF$_3$ values of carbaryl were 4.583, 4.642, 4.571, 3. 637 and 3.529, respectively, and BCF$_5$ values of carbaryl were 3.932, 3.797, 3.843, 4.293 and 4.132, respectively, under the conditions. While BCF$_3$ values of chlorothalonil were 2.024, 3.532, 2.213, 2.157 and 2.271, respectively, and BCF$_5$ of chlorothalonil were 6.712, 7.013, 6.457, 6.694 and 6.597, respectively, under the conditions. Depuration rate constants of BPMC were 0.019, 0.018, 0.020, 0.022 and 0.021 when the concentration of BPMC+carbaryl+chlorothalonil in combined treatment were the same as above. And depuration rate constants of carbaryl were 0.030, 0.029, 0.030, 0.029 and 0.031, respectively, under the same condition of pesticide mixtures. While depuration rate constants of chlorothalonil were 0.004, 0.004, 0.003, 0.004 and 0.003, respectively, under the same condition. It was observed that no significant differences of BCFs and concentrations of the compounds in fish extracts, test water between combined treatment and single treatment. It was considered that no appreciable interaction at experimental concentrations was due to low concentrations, near environmental level, 0.005-0.1 ppm. Coexistence of BPMC, carbaryl and chlorothalonil had no effect on depuration rate of each pesticide and depuration rate of chlorothalonil was investigated 1/8 and 1/6 slower than those of carbaryl and BPMC in combined treatment. It is similar result in comparison with single treatment. Therefore, it is considered that the persistence of chlorothalonil in fish body would be higher than those of carbaryl and BPMC.

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Determination of Bioconcentration Factor in Some Pesticides (일부 농약의 생물농축계수의 측정)

  • 민경진;차춘근
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.146-152
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    • 1999
  • The present study was performed to investigate the bioconcentration of BPMC, chlorothalonil, dichlorvos and methidathion. The BCFs(bioconcentration factors) and depuration rate constants for four pesticides in zebrafish(brachydanio rerio) were measured under semi-static conditions(OECD guideline 305-B) in a concentration of one-hundredth of the 96 hours LC50 of each pesticide at the equilibrium condition. The results obtained are summarized as follows : The BCFs of BPMC, chlorothalonil, dichlorvos and methidathion were 1.44$\pm$0.09, 2.223$\pm$0.063, 0.81$\pm$0.08 and 5.53$\pm$0.13, respectively. Depuration rate constants of BPMC, chlorothalonil, dichlorvos and methidathion were 0.028, 0.015, 0.220 and 0.152, respectively. The concentrations of BPMC, dichlorovs and methidathion in zebrafish reached an equilibrium in 3 days, and the equilibrium of chlorothalonil was reached after 14 days. Depuration rate of dichlorvos was the fastest followed by methidathion, BPMC and chlorothalonil. The lower BCF of BPMC was due to its relatively high KOW, slow KDEP, and low SW and VP, compared to chlorothalonil and methidathion. The BCF of chlorothalonil was much lower than that excepted on the basis of high KOW, slow KDEP, SW and VP. The reason is that the experimental concentration for chlorothalonil is 1/100~1/1000 lower than that of BPMC, dichlorvos and methidathion. The BCF of dichlorvos was lower than that of other pesticides due to its very rapid KDEP, very high VP and SW, and very low KOW. The BCF of methidathion was higher than that of other pesticides due to its very low VP and SW. Therefore, these data suggest that physicochemical properties of pesticides may be important in the bioconcentration.

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Degradation of Chlorothalonil by Zerovalent Iron-Montmorillonite Complex (Zerovalent iron-montmorillonite 복합체에 의한 chlorothalonil의 분해)

  • Choi, Choong-Lyeal;Park, Man;Lee, Dong-Hoon;Rhee, In-Koo;Song, Kyung-Sik;Kang, Sang-Jae;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.257-261
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    • 2006
  • Zerovalent iron (ZVI) has been recently used for environmental remediation of soils and groundwaters contaminated by chlorinated organic compounds. As a new approach to improve its reductive activity and stability, zerovalent iron-montmorillonites (ZVI-Mt) complex are synthesized by simple process. Therefore, this study was carried out to elucidate the characteristics of ZVI-Mt complex and to investigate degradation effects of fungicide chlorothalonil. The XRD patterns of ZVI-Mt complex showed distinctive peaks of ZVI and montmorillonite. In ZVI-Mt complex, the oval particles of ZVI were partly surrounded by montmorillonite layers that could prevent ZVI surface oxidation by air. The degradation ratio of chlorothalonil after 60 min exhibited 71% by ZVI and 100% by ZVI-Mt complex. ZVI-Mt21 complex exhibited much higher and faster degradation ratio of chlorothalonil compare to that of ZVI or ZVI-Mt11 complex. Also, degradation rate of chlorothalonil was increased with increasing ZVI or ZVI-Mt complex content and with decreasing initial solution pH.

Residual Pattern of Procymidone and Chlorothalonil in Grape During the Period of Cultivation and Storage (포도의 재배 및 저장기간 중의 Procymidone 및 Chlorothalonil의 잔류량변화)

  • Ko, Kwang-Yong;Kim, Kum-Hee;Lee, Kyu-Seung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.47-51
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    • 2004
  • In order to know the residual pattern of pesticides and predict to the degradation period until below MRL we experimented procymidone and chlorothalonil for grape which were the most detected pesticide in grape by NAQS(National Agricultural product Quality management Service) survey. In this experiment we sprayed those pesticides 10 days before harvest and analyzed 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 day sample to establish logical equation and to calculate $DT_{50}$. Also the same day samples stored at $4^{\circ}C$ and $20^{\circ}C$, which were compared their degradation patterns. During the cultivating period, the residue amount of procymidone was changed from 1.85 mg/kg (0 day) to 0.33 mg/kg (10 day), $DT_{50}$ was 3.5 days, and chlorothalonil was changed from 5.5 mg/kg (0 day) to 3.49 mg/kg (10 day), $DT_{50}$ was 4.4 days. During the storage period, $DT_{50}$ of procymidone and chlorothalonil at $4^{\circ}C$ were 10.5 and 7.6 days, and 6.3 and 6.1 days at $20^{\circ}C$, respectively.

Adsorption and movement of Alachlor and Chlorothalonil in the representative soil of Cheju Island (제주도 대표 토양에서 Alachlor와 Chlorothalonil의 흡착과 이동 연구)

  • Hyun, Hae-Nam;Oh, Sang-Sil;Yoo, Sun-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.135-143
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to investigate the adsorption characteristics, distribution coefficients, and movement of alachlor(2-chloro-2', 6'-dimethyl-N-(methoxymethyl) acetanilide) and chlorothalonil(tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) for the 3 soils sampled from major soil groups in Cheju Island. Namwon, Jeju, and Mureng soils used in this study were classified as black volcanic ash soil, dark brown volcanic ash soil and dark brown nonvolcanic soil, respectively. Organic carbon content and CEC of Namwon soil were very high and those of Mureung soil were very low. Linear and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were the best to fit the adsorption of alachlor and chlorothalonil in the soils. K value, Freundlich coefficient, of alachlor for Namwon soil was 21.38, being 5.4 and 97.2 times higher than that for Jeju and Mureung soils respectively. The values of chlorothalonil for the soils were similar to those of alachlor but were much higher than them. When Mureung, Jeju and Namwon soil columns were leached with a solution containing 10.25 mg/l of alachlor and 1.50 mg/l of chlorothalonil, alachlor was first detected at 0.265, 0.47, and 1.86 pore volume (PV) and chlorothalonil was 3.71, 4.7 and 17.5 PV, respectively. The pore volumes at $C/C_o=1$ of alachlor in the leachates from Mureung, Jeju and Namwon soil columns were 1.1, 3.7 and 6.6 PV and those at $C/C_o=0.2$ of chlorothalonil were 7.5, 8.5 and 27.5, respectively. This means that the deceasing order of the mobility of the chemicals in soils was Mureung soil>Jeju soil${\gg}$Namwon soil. The pore volumes detecting $C/C_o=0.5$ of alachlor and $C/C_o=0.05$ of chlorothalonil in leachate were positively correlated with the distribution coefficients for the soils.

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Determination of Biodegradation Rate on BPMC and Chlorothalonil (BPMC와 Chlorothalonil의 생분해율의 측정)

  • 민경진;차춘근
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.249-254
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    • 1999
  • The present study was performed to investigate biodegradation rate of BPMC(2-sec-butylphenyl methyl carbamate) and chlorothalonil. In the biodegradation test of two pesticides by the modified river die-away method from June 17 to August 22, 1998, the biodegradation rate constants and half-life were determined in Nakdong(A) and Kumho River(B). Bio- degradation rate of BPMC was 27% in A sampling point, 40% in B sampling point after 7 days. Biodegradation rate constants and half-life of BPMC were 0.0460 and 15.1 days in A sampling point, 0.0749 and 9.3 days in B sampling point, respectively. Biodegradation rate of chlorothalonil was 100% in A and B sampling points after 7 days. Biodegradation rate constants and half-life of chlorothalonil were 0.1416 and 4.9 hours in A sampling point, 0.1803 and 3.8 hours in B sampling point, respectively. Biodegradation rate of chlorothalonil was faster than that of BPMC. Correlation analysis between biodegradation rate constants of pesticides and water quality(DO, BOD, SS, ABS, $NH_3-N\;and\;NO_3-N$) showed significant correlation with BOD, SS and $NH_3-N$. Furthermore, regression analysis with BOD, SS and $NH_3-N$ as independent variable and biodegradation rate constant as independent variable showed a significant linear equation. These results suggested that BPMC and chlorothalonil were mainly degraded by biodegradation, and the difference in biodegradation of two pesticides was due to difference of water quality.

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Adsorption of Chlorothalonil and Dicofol by the Soil of Cheju Island (제주도 토양에 의한 Chlorothalonil 및 Dicofol의 흡착)

  • 감상규
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.285-291
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    • 1997
  • In order to Investigate the adsorption characteristics of organochlorine pesticides chlorothaloul and dicofol with soul colors and re참tons far souls of an orange orchard, the souls were sampled at 3 re삼tons, respectively. among black volcanic, dark brown volcanic, and broom nonvolcanlc sorts. Every so6 has a higher clay proportion (49-75%) In sol tcuture and the organic carbon content and cation ekchange capacity with soil decreased in the following sequence: Black volcanic > Dark brown volcanic > Brown nonvolcanic sorts. Especially those In black volcauc trolls were much higher than others. The retention time, quantitative detection limit, and extractian , efficiencies of chlorothalonil and dicofol were 2.82min, 1.5ng/mL, 93.6% and 3.64min, 4.5ng/mL. 94 2%, repectlvely. The Freundlich constant, Kd, was higher in dicofol compared to chlorothalonil and In the black volcanic souls that have higher organic carbon content and cation Bkchange capacity. The Freundlich constant, 1 In, was In the range of 0.76-0.89 In the black volcanic sorts that have a higher organic matter(16.4-19.8%), whereas It was In the range of 1.02-1.13 In the brown nonvolcanic souls that have a lower organic matter(2.4-3.4%), and so It was considered that 1 In was dependent on the organic matter.

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Study on the Level of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Agricultural Products (농산물 중 유기염소계 잔류 농약에 관한 연구)

  • 엄미나;장재철;정진아;유영희;지의상
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.446-456
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out for the dietry safely based on the level of pesticide residues In 13 kinds of agricultural products consumed in Kyonggi-Do. Korea. From June to October 2000, sixteen organochlorine pesticides in 397 samples were analyzed by using GC/ECD and GC/MSD. According to the results, endosulfan were detected in 27(7.8%) samples and chlorothalonil were detected in 4(1.0%) samples. Detection ranges of endosulfan were 3.7437∼ 0.0488ppm for lettuce, 2.1902 ∼0.1423ppm for spinach, 2.4909 ∼0.0786ppm for mallow and 3.2333∼0.3997ppm for mustard leaf, respectively Chlorothalonil were 5.8097 for lettuce and 0.8962ppm for spinach. Consequently, six agricutural products were detected more than the maximum residue limits in Korea Endosulfan were detected In 5(1.8%) samples and cholrothalonil were detected in 1(0.3%) sample. Detection rates of endosulfan sulfate(45.9%) of agricultural products were more than $\alpha$-endosulfan(28.5% ) and $\beta$-endosulfan (23.9% ) .

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