• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chlorothalonil

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Isolation and Characterization of Chlorothalonil-dissipating Bacteria from Soil. (토양으로부터 Chlorothalonil 전환 미생물의 분리 및 특성)

  • 이수현;신재호;최준호;박종우;김장억;이인구
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.96-100
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    • 2004
  • Chlorothalonil is a wide-spectrum fungicide that is widely used in the world. Chlorothalonil is known as a potential toxic pollutant due to its high application rate, persistence, and toxicity to humans and other species. With the Increase of necessity of bioremediation, this study was conducted to isolate the chlorothalonil dissipation bacteria from soil. Soil samples were collected from 184 sites of farmland and wastewater disposal soil.661 strains resistant to chlorothalonil were isolated by dilution method from chlorothalonil-containing enrichment culture. After incubating at $30^{\circ}C$ in 1/10 LB media containing 10 ppm of chlorothalonil for a week, dissipation ability of chlorothalonil was investigated by HPLC. Finally, a strain SH35B, capable of dissipating chlorothalonil efficiently, was selected. The strain SH35B was identified as Ochrobactrum sp. Ten ppm of chlorothalonil In 1/10 LB media were completely dissipated by the growth of Ochrobactrum sp. SH35B for 30 h at $30^{\circ}C$. In the isolated strain, the content of glutathione and the activity of glutathione S-transferase were supposed to be ones of the Important factors for chlorothalonil dissipation and were higher than those of control strains, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

Resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Fungicide Chlorothalonil

  • Shin, Jae-Ho;Kim, Young-Mog;Park, Jong-Woo;Kim, Jang-Eok;Rhee, In-Koo
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.219-223
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    • 2003
  • The toxicity of chlorothalonil on the growth of yeasts was investigated using several yeast strains. An alcohol tolerant yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae F38-1, was the most chlorothalonil-tolerant. The glutathione content and the glutathione S-transferase activity were related to the chlorothalonil-tolerant phenotype. Several thiol compounds affect the dissipation of chlorothalonil. However, there was no significant difference on the effects of chlorothalonil dissipation among the thiol compounds tested. The growth of yeast cells was arrested by chlorothalonil. It took about 13 h to dissipate 1 mg/l of chlorothalonil, and the growth was restored as the chlorothalonil content decreased. The glutathione content and glutathione S-transferase are suggested to be among the most important factors of yeast resistance to chlorothalonil.

Dechlorination of the Fungicide Chlorothalonil by Zerovalent Iron and Manganese Oxides (Zerovalent Iron 및 Manganese Oxide에 의한 살균제 Chlorothalonil의 탈염소화)

  • Yun, Jong-Kuk;Kim, Tae-Hwa;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 2008
  • This study is conducted to determine the potential of zerovalent iron (ZVI), pyrolusite and birnessite to remediate water contaminated with chlorothalonil. The degradation rate of chlorothalonil by treatment of ZVI, pyrolusite and birnessite was much higher in low condition of pH. Mixing an aqueous solution of chlorothalonil with 1.0% (w/v) ZVI, pyrolusite and birnessite resulted in 4.7, 13.46 and 21.38 hours degradation half-life of chlorothalonil, respectively. Dechlorination number of chlorothalonil by treaonent of ZVI, pyrolusite and birnessite exhibited 2.85, 1.12 and 1.09, respectively. Degradation products of chlorothalonil by teartment of pyrolusite and birnessite were confirmed as trichloro-1,3-dicyanobenzene and dichloro-1,3-dicyanobenzene which were dechlorinated one and two chlorine atoms from parent chlorothalonil by GC-mass. Degradation products of chlorothalonil by ZVI were identified not only as those by pyrolusite and birnessite but as further reduced chloro-1,3-dicyanobenzene and chlorocyanobenzene.

Suppression of Dollar Spot Caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa on Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) after Applying Tebuconazole, Chlorothalonil and Their Mixture (크리핑 벤트그래스에서 동전마름병 방제를 위한 Tebuconazole, Chlorothalonil 및 합제 처리)

  • Kim, Young-Sun;Lim, Hye-Jung;Ham, Suon-Kyu;Lee, Kyu-Seung;Lee, Geung-Joo
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.158-165
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the control efficacy of dollar spot on creeping bentgrass after applying various amounts of tebuconazole, chlorothalonil and mixture of tebuconazole and chlorothalonil (tebuconazole+chlorothalonil). In effect of three fungicides on suppression against Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, tebuconazole and tebuconazole+chlorothalonil were found to inhibit more than 98% fungus growth on medium and 70% in chlorothalonil treatment. The control efficacy of tebuconazole at different rates of 31.25, 62.5, and $125a.i.\;mg\;m^{-2}$ on creeping bentgrass showed more than 80%. Application of tebuconazole ($125.0a.i.\;mg\;m^{-2}$), tebuconazole+chlorothalonil ($125.0a.i.\;mg\;m^{-2}+135.9a.i.\;mg\;m^{-2}$) and chlorothalonil ($135.9a.i.\;mg\;m^{-2}$) were suppressed 96%, 80%, 70% for the dollar spot severity, respectively. Correlation between application amount of fungicides and control efficacy of dollar spot was significantly positive, and suggested amount of tebuconazole, tebuconazole+chlorothalonil and chlorothalonil that might suppress more than 80% of dollar spot were calculated to 29.6, 132.2+142.8, and $157.0a.i.\;mg\;m^{-2}$, respectively.

Effect of Co-existence of Carbofuran and Chlorothalonil on the Short-term Bioconcentration Factor in Brachydanio rerio(zebrafish) (Carbofuran과 Chiorothalonil의 공존이 Brachydanio rerio(zebrafish)를 이용한 단기간 생물농축계수의 측정에 미치는 영향)

  • 민경진;차춘근
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 1997
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of co-existence of carbofuran and chlorothalonil on the short-term bioconcentration factor in Brachydanio rerio(zebrafish). The fishes were exposed to the single and combined treatment of carbofuran and chlorothalonil for 1, 3 and 5 days. Experimental concentrations of carbofuran were 0.05 and 0.10 ppm under the single treatment. And those of chlorothalonil were 0.005 and 0.010 ppm. Experimental concentrations of the combined treatment of carbofuran and chlorothalonil were 0.05 ppm+0.005 ppm, 0.05 ppm+0.010 ppm, 0.10 ppm+0.005 ppm for 1, 3 and 5 days, respectively. Carbofuran and chlorothalonil in fish and in test water were extracted with n-hexane and acetonitrile. GC-ECD was used to detect and quantitate carbofuran and chlorothalonil. 1-day, 3-day and 5-day bioconcentration factors(BCF$_1$, BCF$_3$ and BCF$_5$) of each pesticide were obtained from the quantitation results. The depuration rate of each pesticide was determined over the 24-h period after combined treatment. The results were as follows: Carbofuran did not bioaccumulate in zebrafish under the single and combined treatment for testing periods. BCF$_1$ values of chlorothalonil in concentration of 0.005 and 0.010 ppm under the single treatment were 0.508, 0.621, BCF$_3$ were 1.327, 1.511 and BCF$_5$ were 1.331, 1.597, respectively. BCF$_1$ values of chlorothalonil were 0.512, 0.520 and 0.619, respectively, when the concentration of carbofuran and chlorothalonil in combined treatment were 0.05+0.005, 0.05+0.010 and 0.10+0.005 ppm. BCF$_3$ values of chlorothalonil 1.341, 1.338 and 1.513, respectively, and BCF$_5$ values of chlorothalonil were 1.332, 1.327 and 1.521, respectively, under the above combined treatment. Depuration rate constants of chlorothalonil in concentration of 0.005 and 0.010 ppm under the single treatment were 0.011 and 0.012. Depuration rate constants of chlorothalonil were 0.011, 0.010 and 0.011, when the concentration of carbofuran and chlorothalonil in combined treatment were 0.05+0.005, 0.05+0.010 and 0.10+0.005 ppm. It was observed that no significant difference of carbofuran and chlorothalonil concentration in fish extracts, test water, BCFs and depuration rate constants of carbofuran and chlorothalonil between combined treatment and single treatment. It was considered that no appreciable interaction at experimental concentrations due to lower concentrations than LC$_{50}$. It is suggested that the difference of BCFs between carbofuran and chlorothalonil due to those of fat composition of fish and solubility of carbofuran and chlorothaionil.

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Effect of Co-existence of Carbaryl and Chlorothalonil on the Short-term Bioconcentration Factor in Carassius auratus(goldfish) (Carbaryl과 Chlorothalonil의 공존이 Carassius auratus(goldfish)를 이용한 생물농축계수에 미치는 영향)

  • 민경진;김근배;차춘근;박천만;강회양
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.16-24
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    • 1996
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of co-existence of carbaryl and chlorothalonil on the short-term bioconcentration factor in Carassius auratus(goldfish). The fishes were exposed to the combined treatment of carbaryl and chlorothalonil(0.05 ppm+0.005 ppm, 0.05 ppm+0.010 ppm, 0.10 ppm+0.005 ppm) for 1, 3 and 5 days, respectively. Carbaryl and chlorothalonil in fish and in test water were extracted with n-hexane and acetonitrile. GC-ECD was used to detect and quantitate carbaryl and chlorothalonil. 1-day, 3-day and 5-day bioconcentration factors($BCF_1, BCF_3$ and $BCF_5$) of each pesticide were calculated from the quantitation results. The depuration rate of each pesticide from the whole body of fish was determined over the 72-h period after combined treatment. The results were as follows: $BCF_1$ values of carbaryl were 3.521, 3.802 and 3.587, respectively, when the concentration of carbaryl and chlorothalonil in combined treatment were 0.05+0.005, 0.05+0.010 and 0.10+0.005 ppm. BCF3 values of carbaryl were 4.825, 4.556 and 3.828, respectively, and $BCF_5$ values of carbaryl were 3.974, 3.921 and 4.186, respectively, under the conditions. While $BCF_1$ of chlorothalonil were 0.829, 0.829 and 1.540, respectively, under the same condition of pesticide concentrations $BCF_3$ of chlorothalonil were 2.040, 2.208 and 3.633, respectively, and $BCF_5$ of chlorothalonil were 6.222, 6.667 and 7.095, respectively, under the conditions. Depuration rate constants of carbaryl were 0.022, 0.022 and 0.152, respectively, when the concentration of carbaryl and chlorothalonil in combined treatment were 0.05+0.005, 0.05+0.010 and 0.10+0.005 ppm. While depuration rate constants of chlorothalonil were 0.004, 0.004 and 0.006, respectively, under the same condition of pesticide concentrations. It was observed that no significant differences of carbaryl and chlorothalonil concentration in fish extracts, test water and $BCF_s$ of carbaryl and chlorothalonil between combined treatment and single treatment. It was considered that no appreciable interaction at experimental concentrations was due to low concentrations, 0.005~0.1 ppm. Co-existence of carbaryl and chlorothalonil had no effect on excretion of each pesticide and depuration rate of chlorothalonil was investigated 1/8 slower than that of carbaryl in combined treatment. Therefore, it is considered that the persistence of chlorothalonil in fish body would be higher than that of carbaryl.

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Determination of Short-term Bioconcentration Factor and Partition Coefficient on Chlorothalonil in Carassius auratus(goldfish) (Carassius auratus(goldfish)를 이용한 Chlorothalonil의 단기간 생물농축계수와 분배계수의 측정)

  • 차춘근;전봉식;민경진
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.38-47
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    • 1995
  • The Bioconcentration factor (BCF) is used as an important criterion in the risk assessment of environmental contaminants. Also it can be used as indicator of biomagnification of environmentally hazardous chemicals through food-chain as well as a tool for ranking the bioconcentration potential of the chemicals in the environment. This paper reports the measured BCF value on Chlorothalonil in Carassius auratus(goldfish), under steady state, and examined correlation between the BCF value and the partition coefficient or acute toxicity or physicochemical properties. Carassius auratus(goldfish) was chosen as test organism and test period were 3-day, 5-day. Experimental concentrations were 0.005, 0.01 and 0.05 ppm. Chlorothalonil in fish tissue and in test water were extracted with n-hexane and acetonitrile. GC-ECD was used to detecting and quantitating of Chlorothalonil. Partition coefficient was determined by stir-flask method. $LC_{50}$ was determined on Chlorothalonil. Carbaryl and BPMC. The obtained results were as follows. 1. It was possible to determine short term BCFs of Chlorothalonil through relatively simple procedure in environmental concentrations. 2. $BF_3$ of Chlorothalonil in concentration of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.05 ppm were 2.1866$\pm$0.23446, 3.5269$\pm$0.23517, 10.2045$\pm$0.18053 and BCFs were 6.6543$\pm$0.55257, 6.9774$\pm$0.02500, 23.4576$\pm$2.06884, respectively. 3. Chlorothalonil concentration in fish extract and BCFs of Chlorothalonil were increased as increasing test concentration and prolonging test period. 4. Fate of test-water concentration on Chlorothalonil was greater than that of control-water con-centration. It is considered that greater fate of test-water concentration on Chlorothalonil is due to hydrolyzing nitrile group under the mild condition and substituting chloro group by some aromatic compounds in test water. 5. Determined logP of Chlorothalonil was 2.80. And determined $LC_{50}$ of Chlorothalonil in time of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr were 0.1684, 0.1402, 0.1400, 0.1352(mg/l) respectively. And $LC_{50}$ of Carbaryl in above times were 19.918, 18.635, 18.466, 18.12(mg/l) respectively. $LC_{50}$ of BPMC were 10.248, 9.166, 9.087, 8.921(mg/l) respectively. 6. It is suggested that the BCF of Carbamates depend on partition coefficients. But BCF of Chlorothalonil, organochlorine pesticide, would be strongly influenced by steric, electronic effect of substituents than partition coefficient.

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Residue Levels of Chlorpyrifos and Chlorothalonil in Apples at Harvest (Chlorpyrifos 및 Chlorothalonil의 사과 생산단계별 잔류특성)

  • Kim, Young-Sook;Park, Ju-Hwang;Park, Jong-Woo;Lee, Young-Deuk;Lee, Kyu-Seung;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.130-136
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    • 2003
  • An organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos and an arylnitrile fungicide, chlorothalonil commonly used far apple were subjected to a residual investigation under field conditions to ensure safety of terminal residues at harvest. After pesticides were applied at standard rate in apple tree fer 15 days for chlorpyrifos and 30 days far chlorothalonil, persistence of their residues in apple was investigated by several interval. At harvest, residual concentrations of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil in apple were 1.3 and 2.4mg/kg, respectively, and the residue levels were higher than MRL 1.0 mg/kg in Korea. As well fitted by the first-oder kinetics, biological half-lives of the pesticide residues in apple were 9.3 days for chlorpyrifos and 32.2 days for chlorothalonil. During the storage, half-lives of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil were 35.0 and 56.3days at room temperature, and 120.7 and 182.8 days at 412, respectively. Distribution of chlorpyrifos residue in flesh, fruit skin and stalk cavity of each apple corresponded to 0.1% 22.8% and 77.1%, respectively. In case of chlorothalonil, residue in flesh, fruit skin and stalk cavity was 4.4%, 10.4% and 85.2%, respectively.

Chlorothalonil- Biotransformation by Glutathione S- Transferase of Escherichia coli

  • Kim, Young-Mog;Park, Kunbawui;Jung, Soon-Hyun;Park, Jun-Ho;Kim, Won-Chan;Joo, Gil-Jae;Rhee, In-Koo
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.42-46
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    • 2004
  • It has recently been reported that one of the most important factors of yeast resistance to the fungicide chlorothalonil is the glutathione contents and the catalytic efficiency of glutathione S-transferase (GST) (Shin et al., 2003). GST is known to catalyze the conjugation of glutathione to a wide variety of xenobiotics, resulting in detoxification. In an attempt to elucidate the relation between chlorothalonil-detoxification and GST, the GST of Escherichia coli was expressed and purified. The drug-hypersensitive E. coli KAM3 cells harboring a plasmid for the overexpression of the GST gene can grow in the presence of chlorothalonil. The purified GST showed chlorothalonil-biotransformation activity in the presence of glutathione. Thus, chlorothalonil is detoxified by the mechanism of glutathione conjugation catalyzed by GST.

Biotransformation of the Fungicide Chlorothalonil by Bacterial Glutathione S-Transferase

  • Kim, Young-Mog;Park, Kun-Bawui;Choi, Jun-Ho;Kim, Jang-Eok;Rhee, In-Koo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.938-943
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    • 2004
  • A gene responsible for the chlorothalonil-biotransformation was cloned from the chromosomal DNA of Ochrobactrum anthropi SH35B, an isolated bacterium strain from soil. We determined the nucleotide sequences and found an open reading frame for glutathione S-transferase (GST). The drug-hypersensitive Escherichia coli KAM3 cells transformed with a plasmid carrying the GST gene can grow in the presence of chlorothalonil. The GST of O. anthropi SH35B was expressed in E. coli and purified by affinity chromatography. The fungicide chlorothalonil was rapidly transformed by the purified GST in the presence of glutathione. No significant difference in the chlorothalonil-biotransformation effect was observed among the thiol compounds (cysteine, reduced glutathione, and $\beta$-mercaptoethanol). Thus, the result reported here is the first evidence on the chlorothalonil-biotransformation by conjugation with the cellular free thiol groups, especially glutathione, catalyzed by the bacterial GST.