• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Chlorothalonil

검색결과 127건 처리시간 0.04초

토양으로부터 Chlorothalonil 전환 미생물의 분리 및 특성 (Isolation and Characterization of Chlorothalonil-dissipating Bacteria from Soil.)

  • 이수현;신재호;최준호;박종우;김장억;이인구
    • 한국미생물·생명공학회지
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.96-100
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    • 2004
  • 토양 시료를 대상으로 chlorothalonil을 함유한 최소배지에서의 집식배양과 배양 추 HPLC에 의한 잔류분석을 통해 chlorothalonil의 제거 능력이 우수한 균주 Ochrobactrum sp. SH35B를 분리하였다. 분리균 SH35B는 1/10 LB 배지에 함유된 10 ppm의 chlorothalonil을 30시간만에 완전히 제거하였으며, 20 ppm의 chlorothalonil의 경우 30시간 동안 88%를 제거하였다. 분리균의 Glu-SH함량과 glutathione S-transferase활성은 각각 1.33및 62.1 nmol/mg이었으며, 대조균인 E. coli나 B. subtilis 보다 높은 것으로 나타났다. 이상의 결과로부터 chlorothalonil의 전환에 있어서 세포내의 Glu-SH 함량과 glutathione S-transferase 활성 이 중요한 인자로 작용하는 것으로 생각된다.

Resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Fungicide Chlorothalonil

  • Shin, Jae-Ho;Kim, Young-Mog;Park, Jong-Woo;Kim, Jang-Eok;Rhee, In-Koo
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.219-223
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    • 2003
  • The toxicity of chlorothalonil on the growth of yeasts was investigated using several yeast strains. An alcohol tolerant yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae F38-1, was the most chlorothalonil-tolerant. The glutathione content and the glutathione S-transferase activity were related to the chlorothalonil-tolerant phenotype. Several thiol compounds affect the dissipation of chlorothalonil. However, there was no significant difference on the effects of chlorothalonil dissipation among the thiol compounds tested. The growth of yeast cells was arrested by chlorothalonil. It took about 13 h to dissipate 1 mg/l of chlorothalonil, and the growth was restored as the chlorothalonil content decreased. The glutathione content and glutathione S-transferase are suggested to be among the most important factors of yeast resistance to chlorothalonil.

Zerovalent Iron 및 Manganese Oxide에 의한 살균제 Chlorothalonil의 탈염소화 (Dechlorination of the Fungicide Chlorothalonil by Zerovalent Iron and Manganese Oxides)

  • 윤종국;김태화;김장억
    • 농약과학회지
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 2008
  • Arylnitrile계 살균제인 chlorothalonil의 탈염소화를 촉진시키기 위하여 금속촉매인 zerovalent iron(ZVI) 및 manganese oxide(pyrolusite 및 birnessite)를 수중 처리하여 pH에 따른 chlorothalonil의 분해정도, 탈염소화 그리고 분해산물의 구조를 조사하였다. ZVI, pyrolusite 및 birnessite를 처리하였을 경우 PH가 낮을수록 chlorothalonil의 분해효율은 높게 나타났다. pH 5.0에서 ZVI, pyrolusite 및 birnessite를 각각 1.0%(v/w) 처리하였을 때 chlorothalonil의 분해반감기는 ZVI 4.7시간, pyrolusite 13.46시간 및 birnessite 21.38시간으로 나타났다. Chlorothalonil의 탈염소화 정도를 나타내는 D/N value의 평균값은 ZVI, pyrolusite 및 birnessite를 처리하였을 경우 각각 2.85, 1.12 및 1.09 이었다. Chlorothalonil의 분해산물은 GC-MS를 이용하여 분석한 결과 pyrolusite와 birnessite에 의해 chloride ion이 하나 이탈된 trichloro-1,3-dicyanobenzene과 둘 이탈된 dichloro-1,3-dicyanobenzene으로 확인되었으며, ZVI에 의한 분해산물은 pyrolusite, birnessite의 분해산물과 동일한 trichloro-1,3-dicyanobenzene, dichloro-1,3-dicyanobenzene을 비롯하여 환원이 더 진행된 chloro-1,3-dicyanobenzene과 chlorocyanobenzene으로 확인되었다.

크리핑 벤트그래스에서 동전마름병 방제를 위한 Tebuconazole, Chlorothalonil 및 합제 처리 (Suppression of Dollar Spot Caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa on Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) after Applying Tebuconazole, Chlorothalonil and Their Mixture)

  • 김영선;임혜정;함선규;이규승;이긍주
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.158-165
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    • 2018
  • 본 연구는 크리핑 벤트그래스에서 발생한 동전마름병의 효율적인 방제방법을 조사하기 위해 tebuconazole의 처리량별 동전마름병 방제율과 tebuconazole과 chlorothalonil 및 두 약제의 합제 처리 시 동전마름병 방제 효과를 평가하였다. 약제 처리 농도별 항균력 조사에서 tebuconzole과 tebuconazole+chlorothalonil 합제는 98% 이상의 S. homoeocarpa 균사 억제 효과를 나타내었고, chlorothalonil는 70% 이하의 균사 억제 효과를 나타내었다. Tebuconazole의 처리량별 동전마름병 방제 효과는 31.25, 62.5 및 $125a.i.\;mg\;m^{-2}$처리구에서 모두 80% 이상의 방제율을 나타내었다. Tebuconazole과 tebuconazole+chlorothalonil 합제 처리구는 80% 이상의 방제율을 나타내나, chlorothalonil 처리구는 약 70%의 방제율을 나타내었다. 살균제의 처리량과 동전마름병 방제 효과는 정의 상관관계를 나타내었고, 80% 이상의 방제 효과를 나타내는 tebuconazole, tebuconazole+chlorothalonil 합제 및 chlorothalonil의 처리량은 각각 29.6, 132.2+142.8, 및 $157.0a.i.\;mg\;m^{-2}$으로 판단되었다.

Carbofuran과 Chiorothalonil의 공존이 Brachydanio rerio(zebrafish)를 이용한 단기간 생물농축계수의 측정에 미치는 영향 (Effect of Co-existence of Carbofuran and Chlorothalonil on the Short-term Bioconcentration Factor in Brachydanio rerio(zebrafish))

  • 민경진;차춘근
    • 한국환경보건학회지
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 1997
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of co-existence of carbofuran and chlorothalonil on the short-term bioconcentration factor in Brachydanio rerio(zebrafish). The fishes were exposed to the single and combined treatment of carbofuran and chlorothalonil for 1, 3 and 5 days. Experimental concentrations of carbofuran were 0.05 and 0.10 ppm under the single treatment. And those of chlorothalonil were 0.005 and 0.010 ppm. Experimental concentrations of the combined treatment of carbofuran and chlorothalonil were 0.05 ppm+0.005 ppm, 0.05 ppm+0.010 ppm, 0.10 ppm+0.005 ppm for 1, 3 and 5 days, respectively. Carbofuran and chlorothalonil in fish and in test water were extracted with n-hexane and acetonitrile. GC-ECD was used to detect and quantitate carbofuran and chlorothalonil. 1-day, 3-day and 5-day bioconcentration factors(BCF$_1$, BCF$_3$ and BCF$_5$) of each pesticide were obtained from the quantitation results. The depuration rate of each pesticide was determined over the 24-h period after combined treatment. The results were as follows: Carbofuran did not bioaccumulate in zebrafish under the single and combined treatment for testing periods. BCF$_1$ values of chlorothalonil in concentration of 0.005 and 0.010 ppm under the single treatment were 0.508, 0.621, BCF$_3$ were 1.327, 1.511 and BCF$_5$ were 1.331, 1.597, respectively. BCF$_1$ values of chlorothalonil were 0.512, 0.520 and 0.619, respectively, when the concentration of carbofuran and chlorothalonil in combined treatment were 0.05+0.005, 0.05+0.010 and 0.10+0.005 ppm. BCF$_3$ values of chlorothalonil 1.341, 1.338 and 1.513, respectively, and BCF$_5$ values of chlorothalonil were 1.332, 1.327 and 1.521, respectively, under the above combined treatment. Depuration rate constants of chlorothalonil in concentration of 0.005 and 0.010 ppm under the single treatment were 0.011 and 0.012. Depuration rate constants of chlorothalonil were 0.011, 0.010 and 0.011, when the concentration of carbofuran and chlorothalonil in combined treatment were 0.05+0.005, 0.05+0.010 and 0.10+0.005 ppm. It was observed that no significant difference of carbofuran and chlorothalonil concentration in fish extracts, test water, BCFs and depuration rate constants of carbofuran and chlorothalonil between combined treatment and single treatment. It was considered that no appreciable interaction at experimental concentrations due to lower concentrations than LC$_{50}$. It is suggested that the difference of BCFs between carbofuran and chlorothalonil due to those of fat composition of fish and solubility of carbofuran and chlorothaionil.

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Carbaryl과 Chlorothalonil의 공존이 Carassius auratus(goldfish)를 이용한 생물농축계수에 미치는 영향 (Effect of Co-existence of Carbaryl and Chlorothalonil on the Short-term Bioconcentration Factor in Carassius auratus(goldfish))

  • 민경진;김근배;차춘근;박천만;강회양
    • 한국환경보건학회지
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.16-24
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    • 1996
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of co-existence of carbaryl and chlorothalonil on the short-term bioconcentration factor in Carassius auratus(goldfish). The fishes were exposed to the combined treatment of carbaryl and chlorothalonil(0.05 ppm+0.005 ppm, 0.05 ppm+0.010 ppm, 0.10 ppm+0.005 ppm) for 1, 3 and 5 days, respectively. Carbaryl and chlorothalonil in fish and in test water were extracted with n-hexane and acetonitrile. GC-ECD was used to detect and quantitate carbaryl and chlorothalonil. 1-day, 3-day and 5-day bioconcentration factors($BCF_1, BCF_3$ and $BCF_5$) of each pesticide were calculated from the quantitation results. The depuration rate of each pesticide from the whole body of fish was determined over the 72-h period after combined treatment. The results were as follows: $BCF_1$ values of carbaryl were 3.521, 3.802 and 3.587, respectively, when the concentration of carbaryl and chlorothalonil in combined treatment were 0.05+0.005, 0.05+0.010 and 0.10+0.005 ppm. BCF3 values of carbaryl were 4.825, 4.556 and 3.828, respectively, and $BCF_5$ values of carbaryl were 3.974, 3.921 and 4.186, respectively, under the conditions. While $BCF_1$ of chlorothalonil were 0.829, 0.829 and 1.540, respectively, under the same condition of pesticide concentrations $BCF_3$ of chlorothalonil were 2.040, 2.208 and 3.633, respectively, and $BCF_5$ of chlorothalonil were 6.222, 6.667 and 7.095, respectively, under the conditions. Depuration rate constants of carbaryl were 0.022, 0.022 and 0.152, respectively, when the concentration of carbaryl and chlorothalonil in combined treatment were 0.05+0.005, 0.05+0.010 and 0.10+0.005 ppm. While depuration rate constants of chlorothalonil were 0.004, 0.004 and 0.006, respectively, under the same condition of pesticide concentrations. It was observed that no significant differences of carbaryl and chlorothalonil concentration in fish extracts, test water and $BCF_s$ of carbaryl and chlorothalonil between combined treatment and single treatment. It was considered that no appreciable interaction at experimental concentrations was due to low concentrations, 0.005~0.1 ppm. Co-existence of carbaryl and chlorothalonil had no effect on excretion of each pesticide and depuration rate of chlorothalonil was investigated 1/8 slower than that of carbaryl in combined treatment. Therefore, it is considered that the persistence of chlorothalonil in fish body would be higher than that of carbaryl.

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Carassius auratus(goldfish)를 이용한 Chlorothalonil의 단기간 생물농축계수와 분배계수의 측정 (Determination of Short-term Bioconcentration Factor and Partition Coefficient on Chlorothalonil in Carassius auratus(goldfish))

  • 차춘근;전봉식;민경진
    • 한국환경보건학회지
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.38-47
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    • 1995
  • The Bioconcentration factor (BCF) is used as an important criterion in the risk assessment of environmental contaminants. Also it can be used as indicator of biomagnification of environmentally hazardous chemicals through food-chain as well as a tool for ranking the bioconcentration potential of the chemicals in the environment. This paper reports the measured BCF value on Chlorothalonil in Carassius auratus(goldfish), under steady state, and examined correlation between the BCF value and the partition coefficient or acute toxicity or physicochemical properties. Carassius auratus(goldfish) was chosen as test organism and test period were 3-day, 5-day. Experimental concentrations were 0.005, 0.01 and 0.05 ppm. Chlorothalonil in fish tissue and in test water were extracted with n-hexane and acetonitrile. GC-ECD was used to detecting and quantitating of Chlorothalonil. Partition coefficient was determined by stir-flask method. $LC_{50}$ was determined on Chlorothalonil. Carbaryl and BPMC. The obtained results were as follows. 1. It was possible to determine short term BCFs of Chlorothalonil through relatively simple procedure in environmental concentrations. 2. $BF_3$ of Chlorothalonil in concentration of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.05 ppm were 2.1866$\pm$0.23446, 3.5269$\pm$0.23517, 10.2045$\pm$0.18053 and BCFs were 6.6543$\pm$0.55257, 6.9774$\pm$0.02500, 23.4576$\pm$2.06884, respectively. 3. Chlorothalonil concentration in fish extract and BCFs of Chlorothalonil were increased as increasing test concentration and prolonging test period. 4. Fate of test-water concentration on Chlorothalonil was greater than that of control-water con-centration. It is considered that greater fate of test-water concentration on Chlorothalonil is due to hydrolyzing nitrile group under the mild condition and substituting chloro group by some aromatic compounds in test water. 5. Determined logP of Chlorothalonil was 2.80. And determined $LC_{50}$ of Chlorothalonil in time of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr were 0.1684, 0.1402, 0.1400, 0.1352(mg/l) respectively. And $LC_{50}$ of Carbaryl in above times were 19.918, 18.635, 18.466, 18.12(mg/l) respectively. $LC_{50}$ of BPMC were 10.248, 9.166, 9.087, 8.921(mg/l) respectively. 6. It is suggested that the BCF of Carbamates depend on partition coefficients. But BCF of Chlorothalonil, organochlorine pesticide, would be strongly influenced by steric, electronic effect of substituents than partition coefficient.

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Chlorpyrifos 및 Chlorothalonil의 사과 생산단계별 잔류특성 (Residue Levels of Chlorpyrifos and Chlorothalonil in Apples at Harvest)

  • 김영숙;박주황;박종우;이영득;이규승;김장억
    • 한국환경농학회지
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.130-136
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    • 2003
  • 사과의 생산단계에서의 잔류허용기준 설정과 최종 소비단계에서의 안전성 평가자료로 활용하기 위하여 사과에 많이 살포되는 살충제 chlorpyrifos 및 살균제 chlorothalonil의 사과 재배기간 중 생물학적 반감기, 보관방법에 따른 잔류량 변화 그리고 부리별 잔류량 분포를 조사하였다. 사과 재배단계에서의 생물학적반감기는 chlorpyrifos 살포 후 15일 chlorothalonil 살포 후 30일까지의 잔류량 변화를 조사한 결과 chlorpyrifos 9.3일, chlorothalonil 32.2일로 나타났다. 사과의 유통과정중에서 일어날 수 있는 두 약제의 잔류량 변화는 실온저장시 chlorpyrifos 35일, chlorothalonil 56.3일이었고, 냉장저장시에는 chlorpyrifos 120.7일, chlorothalonil 182.2일의 반감기를 나타내었다. 사과의 부의별 잔류량을 조사한 결과 chlorpyrifos의 경우 움푹 파인 부위의 과피 77.1%, 나머지 과피 22.8%, 과육 부리에서는 0.1%로 나타났고, chlorothalonil의 경우 움푹 파인 부위의 과피 85.2%, 나머지 과피 10.4%, 과육 부위에서 4.4%로 나타났다. 사과 중 두 약제의 잔류량은 대부분인 $95{\sim}99%$가 과피에 잔류하는 것으로 나타났다.

Chlorothalonil- Biotransformation by Glutathione S- Transferase of Escherichia coli

  • Kim, Young-Mog;Park, Kunbawui;Jung, Soon-Hyun;Park, Jun-Ho;Kim, Won-Chan;Joo, Gil-Jae;Rhee, In-Koo
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.42-46
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    • 2004
  • It has recently been reported that one of the most important factors of yeast resistance to the fungicide chlorothalonil is the glutathione contents and the catalytic efficiency of glutathione S-transferase (GST) (Shin et al., 2003). GST is known to catalyze the conjugation of glutathione to a wide variety of xenobiotics, resulting in detoxification. In an attempt to elucidate the relation between chlorothalonil-detoxification and GST, the GST of Escherichia coli was expressed and purified. The drug-hypersensitive E. coli KAM3 cells harboring a plasmid for the overexpression of the GST gene can grow in the presence of chlorothalonil. The purified GST showed chlorothalonil-biotransformation activity in the presence of glutathione. Thus, chlorothalonil is detoxified by the mechanism of glutathione conjugation catalyzed by GST.

Biotransformation of the Fungicide Chlorothalonil by Bacterial Glutathione S-Transferase

  • Kim, Young-Mog;Park, Kun-Bawui;Choi, Jun-Ho;Kim, Jang-Eok;Rhee, In-Koo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.938-943
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    • 2004
  • A gene responsible for the chlorothalonil-biotransformation was cloned from the chromosomal DNA of Ochrobactrum anthropi SH35B, an isolated bacterium strain from soil. We determined the nucleotide sequences and found an open reading frame for glutathione S-transferase (GST). The drug-hypersensitive Escherichia coli KAM3 cells transformed with a plasmid carrying the GST gene can grow in the presence of chlorothalonil. The GST of O. anthropi SH35B was expressed in E. coli and purified by affinity chromatography. The fungicide chlorothalonil was rapidly transformed by the purified GST in the presence of glutathione. No significant difference in the chlorothalonil-biotransformation effect was observed among the thiol compounds (cysteine, reduced glutathione, and $\beta$-mercaptoethanol). Thus, the result reported here is the first evidence on the chlorothalonil-biotransformation by conjugation with the cellular free thiol groups, especially glutathione, catalyzed by the bacterial GST.