• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chlorophyll a fluorescence

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An Overview of Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll Fluorescence

  • Xing, Xiao-Gang;Zhao, Dong-Zhi;Liu, Yu-Guang;Yang, Jian-Hong;Xiu, Peng;Wang, Lin
    • Ocean Science Journal
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.49-59
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    • 2007
  • Besides empirical algorithms with the blue-green ratio, the algorithms based on fluorescence are also important and valid methods for retrieving chlorophyll-a concentration in the ocean waters, especially for Case II waters and the sea with algal blooming. This study reviews the history of initial cognitions, investigations and detailed approaches towards chlorophyll fluorescence, and then introduces the biological mechanism of fluorescence remote sensing and main spectral characteristics such as the positive correlation between fluorescence and chlorophyll concentration, the red shift phenomena. Meanwhile, there exist many influence factors that increase complexity of fluorescence remote sensing, such as fluorescence quantum yield, physiological status of various algae, substances with related optical property in the ocean, atmospheric absorption etc. Based on these cognitions, scientists have found two ways to calculate the amount of fluorescence detected by ocean color sensors: fluorescence line height and reflectance ratio. These two ways are currently the foundation for retrieval of chlorophyll-a concentration in the ocean. As the in-situ measurements and synchronous satellite data are continuously being accumulated, the fluorescence remote sensing of chlorophyll-a concentration in Case II waters should be recognized more thoroughly and new algorithms could be expected.

Developmental Changes in Photosynthetic Pigments and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Etiolated Rice Seedlings During Greening

  • Chun, Hyun-Sik;Moon, Byoung-Yong;Suh, Kye-Hong;Lee, Chin-Bum
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.309-314
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    • 1996
  • Developmental of photosynthetic pigments and changes in chlorophyll fluorescence of dark-grown rice seedlings were studied during greening. Light-illumination stimulated accumulations of total chlorophylls and carotenoids in leaves of etiolated seedlings, accompanied by a decrease in the ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b. When the composition of carotenoids was analyzed, violaxanthin level was shown to increase up to 24 h after the beginning of light illumination, followed by a subsequent decline. In contrast to this, zeaxanthin level increased consistently with progress of deetiolatin. The role of zeaxanthin is discussed in relation to chlorophyll fluorescence quenching. A study on chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics of the rice seedlings being deetiolated showed a time-dependent increase in Fv/Fm (yield of variable fluorescence/maximum yield of fluoresecnece) ratios, indicating that greening is responsible for the activation of photochemical reaction centers of the photosystem. When chlorophyll fluorescence quenching was examined, qNP (nonphotochemical quenching) and qE (energy-dependent quenching) exhibited a time-dependent decline with progress of greening. The presented results indicate that greening-induced development of the photosynthetic machinery is associated the conversion of the carotenoid violaxanthin to zeaxanthin, suggesting that zeaxanthin synthesized in the illuminated leaves may provide the protection from the damage when etiolated plants are exposed to light.

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Use of Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Imaging for Photochemical Stress Assessment in Maize (Zea mays L.) Leaf under Hot Air Condition

  • Park, Jong Yong;Yoo, Sung Young;Kang, Hong Gyu;Kim, Tae Wan
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.61 no.4
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    • pp.270-276
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to find a rapid determination of the hot air stress in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves using a portable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging instrument. To assess the photosynthetic activity of maize leaves, an imaging analysis of the photochemical responses of maize was performed with chlorophyll fluorescence camera. The observed chlorophyll imaging photos were numerically transformed to the photochemical parameters on the basis of chlorophyll a fluorescence. Chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging (CFI) method showed that a rapid decrease in maximum fluorescence intensity ($F_m$) of leaf occurred under hot air stress. Although no change was observed in the maximum quantum yield ($F_v/F_m$) of the hot air stressed maize leaves, the other photochemical parameters such as maximum fluorescence intensity ($F_m$) and Maximum fluorescence value ($F_p$) were relatively lowered after hot air stress. In hot air stressed maize leaves, an increase was observed in the nonphotoquenching (NPQ) and decrease in the effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in photosystem II (${\Phi}PSII$). Thus, NPQ and ${\Phi}PSII$ were available to be determined non-destructively in maize leaves under hot air stress. Our results clearly indicated that the hot air could be a source of stress in maize leaves. Thus, the CFI analysis along with its related parameters can be used as a rapid indicating technique for the determining hot air stress in plants.

Differences in in vivo Fluorescence Yield for Netplankton and Nanoplankton Size Classes (Netplankton과 Nanoplankton 크기별 in vivo Fluorescence의 차이)

  • MOON Chang-Ho;LEE Seung-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.727-732
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    • 1994
  • In the South Sea of Korea, in vivo fluorescence intensity (IVF) and extractable chlorophyll a concentration were measured to determine whether there was significant defference in in vivo fluorescence per unit chlorophyll a (R) between netplankton and nanoplankton size classes (less than $22{\mu}m$). IVF and chlorophyll a were linearly related for both size classes, but R's were significantly different between two size classes. The R of nanoplankton was about 7 times higher than that of netplankton. Therefore, the size dependency of R must be taken into consideration when size fraction of phytoplankton biomass is determined from the measurements of in vivo fluorescence intensity.

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DEVELOPMENT OF CHLOROPHYLL ALGORITHM FOR GEOSTATIONARY OCEAN COLOR IMAGER (GOCI)

  • Min, Jee-Eun;Moon, Jeong-Eon;Shanmugam, Palanisamy;Ryu, Joo-Hyung;Ahn, Yu-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.162-165
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    • 2007
  • Chlorophyll concentration is an important factor for physical oceanography as well as biological oceanography. For these necessity many oceanographic researchers have been investigated it for a long time. But investigation using vessel is very inefficient, on the other hands, ocean color remote sensing is a powerful means to get fine-scale (spatial and temporal scale) measurements of chlorophyll concentration. Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), for ocean color sensor, loaded on COMS (Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite), will be launched on late 2008 in Korea. According to the necessity of algorithm for GOCI, we developed chlorophyll algorithm for GOCI in this study. There are two types of chlorophyll algorithms. One is an empirical algorithm using band ratio, and the other one is a fluorescence-based algorithms. To develop GOCI chlorophyll algorithm empirically we used bands centered at 412 nm, 443 nm and 555 nm for the DOM absorption, chlorophyll maximum absorption and for absorption of suspended solid material respectively. For the fluorescence-based algorithm we analyzed in-situ remote sensing reflectance $(R_{rs})$ data using baseline method. Fluorescence Line Height $({\Delta}Flu)$ calculated from $R_{rs}$ at bands centered on 681 nm and 688 nm, and ${\Delta}Flu_{(area)}$ are used for development of algorithm. As a result ${\Delta}Flu_{(area)}$ method leads the best fitting for squared correlation coefficient $(R^2)$.

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The Effect of NaCI on the Chl Fluorescence of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves (NaCI이 보리(Hordeum vulgare L.) 잎의 엽록소 형광에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung Hwa-Sook;Lim Young-Jin;Park Kang-Eun;Park Shin-Young
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.1015-1021
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to investigate the changes of chlorophyll contents and chlorophyll fluorescence in barley(Hordeum vulgare L.) 7 day old seedling treated with 0.2M, 0.4M, 0.6M, 0.8M, and 1.0M NaCI concentration containing Hepes buffer(pH 7.5). Barley was affected by NaCI treatment. The chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid of barley decreased with an increase in NaCI concentration. However, chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid of barley were not greatly influenced by o.8M and 1.0M NaCl. Fv, Fv/Fm and qP were gradually decreased by higher concentration of NaCI. qP, qNP, qR and qE were gradually decreased by 6hr. During barley chloroplast was development NaCI affected chlorophyll synthesis than photosynthetic activity. Whereas barley seedling leaves were more influenced photosynthetic activity than chlorophyll contents by NaCI.

Diurnal Changes of Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Antioxidative Enzyme Activity of the Leaves from Four Subtropical Plants (아열대성 식물 4종의 엽록소형광과 항산화효소 활성의 일주기적 변화)

  • Oh, Soon-Ja;Goh, Chang-Hyo;Koh, Seok-Chan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.633-640
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    • 2007
  • The diurnal changes of chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidative enzyme activity were investigated in the leaves from four subtropical plant species (Crinum asiaticum var. japonicum Bak., Osmanthus insularis Koidz., Asplenium antiquum Makino and Chloranthus glaber Makino) under the natural habitats in summer and winter. The intensity of chlorophyll fluorescence was lower in O-, I-, J-, P-steps of O-J-I-P transient in winter than summer, and prominent diurnal change was not found in the fluorescence intensity of four subtropical plant species in winter. The activity and isoenzyme pattern of SOD and catalase did irregularly change seasonally and diurnally in four subtropical plant species. In contrast, the peroxidase activity and isoenzyme pattern was different depending on plant species and growth seasons; The activity increased slightly more in winter than in summer in four subtropical plant species, and several isoenzymes appeared in the leaves from C. asiaticum var japonicum, O. insularis and A. antiquum in winter.

Photosystem I and II Reaction Centers in a New Type Oxygenic Photosynthesis of Acaryochloris marina Based on Chlorophyll d: Studies of Delayed Fluorescence and Triplet State ESR

  • Itoh, Shigeru;Fukushima, Yoshimasa;Itoh, Kunihiro;Maeda, Masanori;Mino, Hiroyuki;Kumazaki, Shigeichi
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.70-73
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    • 2002
  • A cyanobacteria-like organism Aaryochloris marina performs oxygenic photosynthesis with near far-red light by the use of chlorophyll d. Reaction center chlorophyll (Chl) of Photosystem (PS) II of A. marina was studied by analysis of millisecond-delayed fluorescence. Delayed fluorescence is emitted by Chi d indicating efficient energy transfer between antenna Chi d molecules and the unknown primary electron donor of PS II. P740 a reaction center Chl of PS I of A. marina is shown to give a dimer type cation, and triplet state with a D value of 245xlO$\^$-4/ cm$\^$-l/ in contrast to the 280-290 xlO$\^$-4/cm$\^$-l/ values of P700 suggesting triplet spins interacting at a 5% larger distance in P740 than in P700.

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Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Response to Mercury Stress in the Freshwater Microalga Chlorella Vulgaris (담수산 클로렐라(Chlorella vulgaris)의 수은 스트레스에 대한 엽록소형광 반응)

  • Oh, Soonja;Koh, Seok Chan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.705-715
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    • 2013
  • The response of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris to mercuric ion ($Hg^{2+}$) stress was examined using chlorophyll a fluorescence image analysis and O-J-I-P analysis as a way to monitor the toxic effects of mercury on water ecosystems. The levels of photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids, decreased with increasing $Hg^{2+}$ concentration. The maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II(Fv/Fm) changed remarkably with increasing $Hg^{2+}$ concentration and treatment time. In particular, above $200{\mu}M\;Hg^{2+}$, considerable mercury toxicity was seen within 2 h. The chlorophyll a fluorescence transient O-J-I-P was also remarkably affected by $Hg^{2+}$; the fluorescence emission decreased considerably in steps J, I, and P with an increase in $Hg^{2+}$ concentration when treated for 4 h. Subsequently, the JIP-test parameters (Fm, Fv/Fo, RC/CS, TRo/CS, ETo/CS, ${\Phi}_{PO}$, ${\Psi}_O$ and ${\Phi}_{EO}$) decreased with increasing $Hg^{2+}$ concentration, while N, Sm, ABS/RC, DIo/RC and DIo/CS increased. Therefore, a useful biomarker for investigating mercury stress in water ecosystems, and the parameters Fm, ${\Phi}_{PO}$, ${\Psi}_O$, and RC/CS can be used to monitor the environmental stress in water ecosystems quantitatively.

The study on the Fluorescence Characteristics of Several Freshwater Bloom Forming Algal Species and Its Application (수종 담수적조 원인종들의 형광특성과 적용연구)

  • Son, Moon-Ho;Zulfugarov, Ismayil S.;Kwon, O-Seob;Moon, Byoung-Young;Chung, Ik-Kyo;Lee, Choon-Hwan;Lee, Jin-Ae
    • ALGAE
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2005
  • The freshwater blooms mainly blue-green algal blooms occur frequently in the lower Naktong River in summer, which provoke many socio-economical problems; therefore, the early detection of bloom events are demanding through the quantitative and qualitative analyses of blue green algal species. The in vivo fluorescence properties of cultured strains of Microcystis aeruginosa, M. viridis, M. wesenbergii, M. ichthyoblabe, Anabaena cylindrica, A. flos-aquae, and Synedra sp. were investigated. Wild phytoplankton communities of the lower Naktong River were also monitored at four stations in terms of their standing stocks, biomass and fluorescence properties compared with its absorption spectram. The 77K fluorescence emission spectra of each cultured strains normalized at 620 nm was very specific and enabled to detect of blue green algal biomass qualitatively and quantitatively. The relative chlorophyll a concentration determined by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis method showed significant relationship with chlorophyll a concentration determined by solvent extraction method ($R^2$ = 0.906), and the blue-green algal cell number determined by microscopic observation ($R^2$ = 0.588), which gives insight into applications to early detection of blue green algal bloom.