• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chlorine decay

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Prediction of residual chlorine using two-component second-order decay model in water distribution network (이변량 감소모델을 적용한 배급수관망에서의 잔류염소농도 예측 및 이의 활용)

  • Kim, Young Hyo;Kweon, Ji Hyang;Kim, Doo Il
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.287-297
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    • 2014
  • It is important to predict chlorine decay with different water purification processes and distribution pipeline materials, especially because chlorine decay is in direct relationship with the stability of water quality. The degree of chlorine decay may affect the water quality at the end of the pipeline: it may produce disinfection by-products or cause unpleasant odor and taste. Sand filtrate and dual media filtrate were used as influents in this study, and cast iron (CI), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and stainless steel (SS) were used as pipeline materials. The results were analyzed via chlorine decay models by comparing the experimental and model parameters. The models were then used to estimate rechlorination time and chlorine decay time. The results indicated that water quality (e.g. organic matter and alkalinity) and pipeline materials were important factors influencing bulk decay and sand filtrate exhibited greater chlorine decay than dual media filtrate. The two-component second-order model was more applicable than the first decay model, and it enabled the estimation of chlorine decay time. These results are expected to provide the basis for modeling chlorine decay of different water purification processes and pipeline materials.

Studies on Chlorine Demand and Its Decay Kinetics in Chlorinated Sewage Effluents (하수의 염소 소독시 총잔류염소 감소 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Beck, Youngseog;Sohn, Jinsik
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.176-183
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    • 2005
  • Chlorination of wastewater is recently practiced in Korea. While many researchers have studied the kinetics of aqueous chlorine(HOCl) with nitrogeneous compounds and other organic/inorganic contaminants in drinking water, the researches of wastewater chlorination are relatively few. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chlorine decay kinetics and parameters on wastewater chlorination. Chlorine decay rate increased with increasing initial chlorine concentration. The parameters affecting chlorine decay rate were different in each wastewater treatment plant. One of the most important parameters affecting chlorine decay was initial chlorine concentration, and other parameters such as $NH_3-N$, total coliform, $UV_{254}$ and Fe were also affected. The decay ratio of chlorine was decreased with increasing initial chlorine concentration, and the disinfection efficiency showed good correlation with the decay ratio.

A comparative study for the decay of chlorine residual using EPANET2.0 and an experimental pipeline system (EPANET 2.0과 관망실험을 통한 배수관망 염소농도 감쇄 비교연구)

  • Baek, Dawon;Kim, Hyunjun;Kim, Sanghyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.411-419
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    • 2018
  • The residual chlorine concentration is an essential factor to secure reliable water quality in the water distribution systems. The chlorine concentration decays along the pipeline system and the main processes of the reaction can be divided into the bulk decay and the wall decay mechanisms. Using EPANET 2.0, it is possible to predict the chlorine decay through bulk decay and wall decay based on the pipeline geometry and the hydraulic analysis of the water distribution system. In this study, we tried to verify the predictability of EPANET 2.0 using data collected from experimental practices. We performed chlorine concentration measurement according to various Reynolds numbers in a pilot-scale water distribution system. The chlorine concentration was predicted using both bulk decay model and wall decay model. As a result of the comparison between experimental data and simulated data, the performance of the limited $1^{st}$-order model was found to the best in the bulk decay model. The wall decay model simulated the initial decay well, but the overall chlorine decay cannot be properly predicted. Simulation also indicated that as the Reynolds number increased, the impact of the wall.

Simulation of chlorine decay by waterhammer in water distribution system based on hypothetical water demand curve (가상의 물 수요곡선에 따른 수충격에 의한 염소농도변동 모의연구)

  • Baek, Dawon;Kim, Hyunjun;Kim, Sanghyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.107-113
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    • 2018
  • Maintaining adequate residual chlorine concentration is an important criteria to provide secure drinking water. The chlorine decay can be influenced by unstable flow due to the transient event caused by operation of hydraulic devices in the pipeline system. In order to understand the relationship between the transient event and the chlorine decay, the probability density function based on the water demand curve of a hypothetical water distribution system was used. The irregular transient events and the same number of events with regular interval were assumed and the fate of chlorine decay was compared. The chlorine decay was modeled using a generic chlorine decay model with optimized parameters to minimize the root mean square error between the experimental chlorine concentration and the simulated chlorine concentration using genetic algorithm. As a result, the chlorine decay can be determined through the number of transients regardless of the occurrence intervals.

Development of prediction models of chlorine bulk decay coefficient by rechlorination in water distribution network (상수도 공급과정 중 재염소 투입에 따른 잔류염소농도 수체감소계수 예측모델 개발)

  • Jeong, Bobae;Kim, Kibum;Seo, Jeewon;Koo, Jayong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.17-29
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    • 2019
  • This study developed prediction models of chlorine bulk decay coefficient by each condition of water quality, measuring chlorine bulk decay coefficients of the water and water quality by water purification processes. The second-reaction order of chlorine were selected as the optimal reaction order of research area because the decay of chlorine was best represented. Chlorine bulk decay coefficients of the water in conventional processes, advanced processes before rechlorination was respectively $5.9072(mg/L)^{-1}d^{-1}$ and $3.3974(mg/L)^{-1}d^{-1}$, and $1.2522(mg/L)^{-1}d^{-1}$ and $1.1998(mg/L)^{-1}d^{-1}$ after rechlorination. As a result, the reduction of organic material concentration during the retention time has greatly changed the chlorine bulk decay coefficient. All the coefficients of determination were higher than 0.8 in the developed models of the chlorine bulk decay coefficient, considering the drawn chlorine bulk decay coefficient and several parameters of water quality and statistically significant. Thus, it was judged that models that could express the actual values, properly were developed. In the meantime, the chlorine bulk decay coefficient was in proportion to the initial residual chlorine concentration and the concentration of rechlorination; however, it may greatly vary depending on rechlorination. Thus, it is judged that it is necessary to set a plan for the management of residual chlorine concentration after experimentally assessing this change, utilizing the methodology proposed in this study in the actual fields. The prediction models in this study would simulate the reduction of residual chlorine concentration according to the conditions of the operation of water purification plants and the introduction of rechlorination facilities, more reasonably considering water purification process and the time of chlorination. In addition, utilizing the prediction models, the reduction of residual chlorine concentration in the supply areas can be predicted, and it is judged that this can be utilized in setting plans for the management of residual chlorine concentration.

Modeling of Chlorine Disinfectant Decay in Seawater (해수에서의 소독제 거동 예측 모델에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Jihee;Sohn, Jinsik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2016
  • Disinfectant/oxidation process is a crucial process in water treatment for supplying safe drinking water. Chlorination is still widely used for water treatment area due to its effectiveness on microbial inactivation and economic feasibility. Recently, disinfection concern in marine environment is increasing, for example, movement of hazardous marine organism due to ballast water, marine environmental degradation due to power plant cooling water discharge, and increase of the amount of disinfectant in the offshore plant. It is needed to conduct the assessment of disinfectant behavior and the development of disinfectant prediction model in seawater. The appropriate prediction model for disinfectant behavior is not yet provided. The objective of the study is to develop chlorine decay model in seawater. Various model types were applied to develop the seawater chlorine decay model, such as first order decay model, EPA model, and two-phase model. The model simulation indicated that chlorine decay in seawater is influenced by both organic and inorganic matter in seawater. While inorganic matter has a negative correlation with the chlorine decay, organic matter has a positive correlation with the chlorine decay.

Prediction of Chlorine Concentration in a Pilot-Scaled Plant Distribution System (Pilot 규모의 모의 관망에서의 염소 농도 예측)

  • Kim, Hyun Jun;Kim, Sang Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.861-869
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    • 2012
  • The chlorine's residual concentration prevents the regrowth of microorganism in water transport along the pipeline system. Precise prediction of chlorine concentration is important in determining disinfectant injection for the water distribution system. In this study, a pilot scale water distribution system was designed and fabricated to measure the temporal variation of chlorine concentration for three flow conditions (V = 0.88, 1.33, 1.95 m/s). Various kinetic models were applied to identify the relationship between hydraulic condition and chlorine decay. Genetic Algorithm (GA) was integrated into five kinetic models and time series of chlorine were used to calibrate parameters. Model fitness was compared by Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between measurement and prediction. Limited first order model and Parallel first order showed good fitness for prediction of chlorine concentration.

Evaluation of Chlorine Demand and Chlorine Decay Kinetics for Drinking Water (정수처리에서 염수요구량 및 반응거동에 관한 연구)

  • 이윤진;조관형;최종헌;명복태;남상호
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 2001
  • This aim of the work presented in this paper is to investigate the factors that affcet chlorine decay and to develop functional relationships that can be used to enhance the durability of network models. predictive relationships were established that correlated the rate of chlorine decay to the various water conditions such as DOC, N $H_3$-N, initial chlorine, contact time, temperature and pH values. Free chlorine residual decreased with increasing temperature, DOC, N $H_3$-N, reaction time and chlorine dose. At 2$0^{\circ}C$, pH 7, The initial chlorine demand per mg as DOC/L and mg as N $H_3$-N/L was about 0.43, 2.69 mg/$\ell$ respectively at 180 minutes contact time. The Reaction between chlorine and humic acids was lasted intil 48hr, but the reaction between chlorine and N $H_3$-N was almost completed in 180 min. When the temperature is raised by 1$0^{\circ}C$, chlorine is more consumed about 0.25 mg/$\ell$ in the absence of organic substances and it is more consumed about 3.4 mg/$\ell$ in the presence of humic acid (5 mg/$\ell$) in water at pH 7 for 180 min. Regression Analysis created the resulting prediction equation for the chlorine decay in a SPSS package of the computer system. The model is as follows; $C_{t}$=1.239+0.707(Co)-0.000529(Time)-0.0112(Temp)+0.02227(pH)-0.42(DOC)-2.132(N $H_3$-N).).

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Chlorine Residual Prediction in Drinking Water Distribution System Using EPANET (EPANET을 이용한 상수도 관망의 잔류염소 거동 예측)

  • 유희종;김주원;정효준;이홍근
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 2003
  • In this study, chlorine dose at water storage tank was predicted to meet the recommended guideline for free chlorine residual in drinking water distribution system, using EPANET which is a computer program that performs extended Period simulation of hydraulic and water quality behavior within pressurized pipe networks. The results may be summarized as follows. The decay of chlorine residual by season varied considerably in the following order; in summer ($25^{\circ}C$) > spring and fall (15$^{\circ}C$) > winter (5$^{\circ}C$). For re-chlorination at water storage tank by season, season-varying chlorine dose was required at its maximum of 1.00 mg/l in summer and minimum of 0.40 mg/l in winter as free chlorine residual. The decay of chlorine residual through out the networks increased with water age spent by a parcel of water in the network except for some points with low water demand. In conclusion, the season-varying chlorine dose as well as the monitoring of water quality parameters at the some points which showed high decay of chlorine residual may be necessary to deliver the safe drinking water.

Characteristics of Residual Free Chlorine Decay in Reclaimed Water (하수재이용수의 유리잔류염소 수체감소 특성 연구)

  • Kang, Sungwon;Lee, Jaiyoung;Lee, Hyundong;Park, Jaehyun;Kwak, Pilljae;Oh, Hyunje
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.276-282
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    • 2013
  • The reclaimed water has been highlighted as a representative alternative to solve the lacking water resources. This study examined the reduction of residual free chlorine by temperature (5, 15, $25^{\circ}C$) and initial injection concentration (1, 2, 4, 6 mg/L) in the reclaimed water and carried out propose on the calculating method of the optimal chlorine dosage. As the reclaimed water showed a very fast reaction with chlorine at the intial time comparing to that of drinking water, the existing general first-order decay model ($C_t=C_o(e^{-k_bt})$) was not suitable for use. Accordingly, the reduction of residual free chlorine could be estimated in a more accurate way as a result of applying the exponential first-order decay model ($C_t=a+b(e^{-k_bt})$). ($r^2$=0.872~0.988). As a result of calculating the bulk decay constant, it showed the highest result at 653 $day^{-1}$ under the condition of 1 mg/L, $25^{\circ}C$ for the initial injection whereas it showed the lowest result at 3.42 $day^{-1}$ under the condition of 6 mg/L, $5^{\circ}C$ for the initial injection. The bulk decay constant tends to increase as temperature increases, whereas the bulk decay constant tends to decrease as the initial injection concentration increases. More accurate calculation for optimal chlorine dosage could be done by using the experimental results for 30~5,040 min, after the entire response time is classified into 0~30 min and 30~5,040 min to calculate the optimal chlorine dosage. In addition, as a result of calculating the optimal chlorine dosage by temperature, the relationships of initial chlorine demand (y) by temperature (x) could be obtained such as y=1.409+0.450x to maintain 0.2 mg/L of residual free chlorine at the time after 4 hours from the chlorine injection.