• Title/Summary/Keyword: Chlorination

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Development of Automatic Decision System for Chlorination Demand in Water Treatment Plant (정수장내 염소요구량 자동결정시스템 개발)

  • Oh, Sueg-Young
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.757-764
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    • 2002
  • Chlorination dosage in water treatment plant of field is determined by chlorination demand experiment through two or three hours after raw water was sampled in inflow. It is impossible to continuously control for real time because the sampled water is adapted chlorination dosage after water treatment process had been proceeded. Therefore in this study, we will design informal chlorination demand system, this designed system will be experimented as to water quality and accuracy of control in various conditions. Throughout these experimental results, we will revise the system and the revised system is enable to optimal control of chlorination dosage. Finally, we have developed chlorination demand system, which can automatically determination of chlorination dosage to be determined according to variety of raw water quality inflow in water treatment plant.

Development of Automatic Decision System for Cholrination Demand in Water treatment Plant (정수장내 염소요구량 자동결정시스템 개발)

  • Oh, Sueg-Young;Lee, Sung-Ryong
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.807-812
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    • 2000
  • Chlorination dosage in water treatment plant of field is determined by chlorination demand experiment through two or three hours after raw water was sampled in inflow. It is impossible to continuously control fer real time because sampled water is adapted chlorination dosage after water treatment process had been proceeded. Therefore in this study, we will design informal chlorination demand system this designed system will be experimented as to water quality and accuracy of control in various conditions. Throughout these. experimental results, we will revise the system and revised system is enable to optimal control of chlorination dosage. Finally, We have developed chlorination demand system, which can automatically determination of chlorination dosage to be determined according to variety of raw water quality inflow in water treatment plant.

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The Characteristics of Wiper Blade Rubber with Surface Treatments (와이퍼 블레이드 고무의 표면 처리에 따른 특성)

  • Rho, Seung-Baik;Lim, Mi-Ae;Park, Jin-Kyu;Son, Jeon-Ik
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 1998
  • The surface of wiper blade(W/B) rubber was chlorinated by chemical treatment method using the hydrochloric acid(HCI) and sodium hypochlorite(NaOCl). From the results of contact angle measurement, friction coefficient measurement, and ATR-IR spectra, the surface characteristics of chlorinated W/B rubber with time of chlorination were studied. Contact angles for W/B rubber with increasing time of chlorination and chlorine concentration were measured for the water and ethylene glycol. From the results, contact angle fell rapidly with increasing time of chlorination and chlorine concentration, reaching a constant value after about 10min. And the wettability of W/B rubber surface by means of chlorination has been improved. For an unchlorinated W/B rubber, the friction coefficient with time of chlorination decreased from 1.27 to 0.20~0.23 on full chlorination. As the results it was considered that abrasion resistance of W/B rubber surface has been also improved. The values of pH and $Cl^-$ ion concentration in a chlorine treatment solution decreased as the extent of chlorination of W/B rubber surface increased. From the results of ATR-IR spectra, it was observed that C=C double band of W/B rubber surface transformed into C-Cl band, but quantitative determination of the extent of chlorination was not feasible because of the complexity of chlorination reactions.

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The Use of Sodium Chlorate/Hydrochloric Acid Mixtures as a Novel and Selective Chlorination Agent

  • Moon, Byung-Seok;Choi, Han-Young;Koh, Hun-Yeong;Chi, Dae-Yoon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.472-476
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    • 2011
  • Sodium chlorate/hydrochloric acid mixtures were used to chlorinate activated arenes and the $\alpha$-position of ketones. This chlorination method was used to produce selectively mono-, di-, and trichlorinated compounds by controlling the molarity of sodium chlorate. This reagent proved to be much more efficient and easier to handle than chlorine gas.

Prediction Models to Control Pro-chlorination in Water Treatment Plant (정수장 후염소 공정제어를 위한 예측모델 개발)

  • Shin, Gang-Wook;Lee, Kyung-Hyuk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2008
  • Prediction models for post-chlorination require complicated information of reaction time, chlorine dosage considering flow rate as well as environmental conditions such as turbidity, temperature and pH. In order to operate post-chlorination process effectively, the correlations between inlet and outlet of clear well were investigated to develop prediction models of chlorine dosages in post-chlorination process. Correlations of environmental conditions including turbidity and chlorine dosage were investigated to predict residual chlorine at the outlet of clear well. A linear regression model and autoregressive model were developed to apply for the post-chlorination which take place time delay due to detention in clear well tank. The results from autoregressive model show the correlationship of 0.915~0.995. Consequently, the autoregressive model developed in this study would be applicable for real time control for post chlorination process. As a result, the autoregressive model for post chlorination which take place time delay and have multi parameters to control system would contribute to water treatment automation system by applying the process control algorithm.

Global Fitting Functions for Kinetics of Fe-Selective Chlorination in Ilmenite and Successive Chlorination of Beneficiated TiO2 (일메나이트 중 철의 선택적 염화와 선광된 TiO2의 추가 염화반응에 대한 글로벌 피팅함수)

  • Chung, Dong-Kyu;Won, Yong Sun;Kim, Yong-Ha;Jung, Eun-Jin;Song, Duk-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.412-424
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    • 2019
  • Global fitting functions for Fe-selective chlorination in ilmenite($FeTiO_2$) and successive chlorination of beneficiated $TiO_2$ are proposed and validated based on a comparison with experimental data collected from the literature. The Fe-selective chlorination reaction is expressed by the unreacted shrinking core model, which covers the diffusion-controlling step of chlorinated Fe gas that escapes through porous materials of beneficiated $TiO_2$ formed by Fe-selective chlorination, and the chemical reaction-controlling step of the surface reaction of unreacted solid ilmenite. The fitting function is applied for both chemical controlling steps of the unreacted shrinking core model. The validation shows that our fitting function is quite effective to fit with experimental data by minimum and maximum values of determination coefficients of $R^2$ as low as 0.9698 and 0.9988, respectively, for operating parameters such as temperature, $Cl_2$ pressure, carbon ratio and particle size that change comprehensively. The global fitting functions proposed in this study are expressed simply as exponential functions of chlorination rate(X) vs. time(t), and each of them are validated by a single equation for various reaction conditions. There is therefore a certain practical merit for the optimal process design and performance analysis for field engineers of chlorination reactions of ilmenite and $TiO_2$.

Prediction of Polychlorinated-dibenzofurans (PCDFs) Formation in Municipal Waste Incinerator (도시소각로에서 Polychlorinated-dibenzofurans (PCDFs)의 생성 예측)

  • Ryu, Jae-Yong;Suh, Jeong-Min
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.842-850
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    • 2006
  • The role of chlorination reactions in the formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in a municipal waste incinerator was assessed using a chlorination model for predicting PCDF isomer distributions. Complete distributions of PCDF congeners were obtained from a stoker-type municipal waste incinerator operated under 13 test conditions. Samples were collected from the flue gas prior to the gas cleaning system. While total PCDF yields varied by a factor of five to six, the distributions of congeners were similar. A chlorination model, dependent only on the observed distribution of monochlorinated isomers, was developed to predict the distributions of poly-chlorinated isomers formed by chlorination of dibenzofuran (DF). Agreement between predicted and measured PCDF isomer distributions was high for all homologues, supporting the hypothesis that DF chlorination can play an important role in the formation of PCDF byproducts.

Numerical Prediction for Fluidized Bed Chlorination Reaction of Ilmenite Ore (일메나이트광의 유동층 염화반응에 대한 수치적 예측)

  • Chung, Dong-Kyu;Jung, Eun-Jin;Lee, Mi Sun;Kim, Jinyoung;Song, Duk-Yong
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.107-113
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    • 2019
  • Numerical model that considered the shrinking core model and elutriation and degradation of particles was developed to predict selective chlorination of ilmenite and carbo-chlorination of $TiO_2$ in a two stage fluidized bed chlorination furnace. It is possible to analyze the fluidized bed chlorination reaction to be able to reflect particle distribution for mass balances and the chlorination reaction. The numerical model showed an accuracy with error less than 6% compared with fluidized bed experiments. The chlorination degree with particle size change was greater with a smaller particle size, and there was a 100 min difference to obtain a chlorination degree of 1 between $75{\mu}m$ and $275{\mu}m$. This was not shown to such a great extent with variation of temperature ($800{\sim}1000^{\circ}C$), and there was only a 10 min difference to obtain a chlorination degree of 0.9. In the first selective chlorination process, the mass reduction rate approached to the theoretical value of 0.4735 after 180 min, and chlorination changed the Fe component into $FeCl_2$ or $FeCl_3$ and showed nearly 1. In the second carbo-chlorination process, the chlorination degree of $TiO_2$ approached 0.98 and the mass fraction reached 0.02 with conversion into $TiCl_4$. In the first selective chlorination process, 98% of $TiO_2$ was produced at 180 min, and this was changed into 99% of $TiCl_4$ after an additional 90 min. Also the mass reduction rate of $TiO_2$ was reduced to 99% in the second continuous carbo-chlorination process.

Chlorination of Phenyl Derivatives : Chlorination of ethyl -${\alpha},{\beta}-dichloro-{\beta}$-phenyl propionate under gamma ray irradiation (芳香族 誘導體의 염素化反應 Ethyl-${\alpha},{\beta}-dichloro-{\beta}$-phenyl propionate의 gamma 線 鹽素化反應)

  • Kim, You-Sun;Kim, Ki-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 1968
  • Chlorination of aromatic derivatives under UV light and ${\gamma}$-ray irradiation was studied. Ethyl ${\alpha} ,{\beta} -dichloro-{\beta}$-phenyl propionate gave the p-chlorophenyl derivatives when chlorination was done under UV light. The same type of the product was obtained in the reaction where the mole ratio of the ester and chlorine was 1 to 2 and the chlorination was done under ${\gamma}$-ray irradiation. When the mole ratio of the ester and chlorine was 1 to 8, the chlorination reaction under ${\gamma}$-ray irradiation gave a poly-chlorinated derivatives which was identified as a side chain chlorinated p-chlorophenyl derivatives. Ethyl ${\alpha} ,{\beta} -dichloro-{\beta}$-(p-chlorophenyl) propionate gave the same type of the side chain chlorinated p-chloro derivatives by the chlorination under ${\gamma}$-ray irradiation, whereas ethyl ${\alpha} ,{\beta} -dichloro-{\beta}$-(o-chlorophenyl) derivatives gave o,p-dichlorophenyl derivatives. The identifications of the products were based on a radio thin layer chromatography and activation analysis of chlorine contents of product. The chlorination reaction was discussed in regards to the effect of phenyl substituents to the formation of reaction product and the procedures were described.

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Preparation of Porous Carbon by Chlorination of SiC (SiC의 염소화에 의한 다공성 탄소 입자 제조)

  • Park, Hoey Kyung;Park, Kyun Young;Kang, Tae Won;Jang, Hee Dong
    • Particle and aerosol research
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 2012
  • SiC particles, 8.3 ${\mu}m$ in volume average diameter, were chlorinated in an alumina tubular reactor, 2.4 cm in diameter and 32 cm in length, with reactor temperature varied from 100 to $1200^{\circ}C$. The flow rate of the gas admitted to the reactor was held constant at 300 cc/min, the mole fraction of chlorine in the gas at 0.1 and the reaction time at 4 h. The chlorination was negligibly small up to the temperature of $500^{\circ}C$. Thereafter, the degree of chlorination increased remarkably with increasing temperature until $900^{\circ}C$. As the temperature was increased further from 900 to $1200^{\circ}C$, the increments in chlorination degree were rather small. At $1200^{\circ}C$, the chlorination has nearly been completed. The surface area of the residual carbon varied with chlorination temperature in a manner similar to that with the variation of chlorination degree with temperature. The surface area at $1200^{\circ}C$ was 912 $m^{2}/g$. A simple model was developed to predict the conversion of a SiC under various conditions. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood type rate law with two rate constants was employed in the model. Assuming that the two rate constants, $k_{1}$ and $k_{2}$, can be expressed as $A_{1e}^{-E_{1}/RT}$ and $A_{2e}^{-E_{2}/RT}$, the four parameters, $A_{1}$, $E_{1}$, $A_{2}$, and $E_{2}$ were determined to be 32.0 m/min, 103,071 J/mol, 2.24 $m^{3}/mol$ and 39,526 J/mol, respectively, through regression to best fit experimental data.