• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chlorella vulgaris

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Removal of Nutrients and Heavy Metals from Swine Wastewater using Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella vulgaris를 이용한 양돈폐수 내 영양염류 및 중금속 제거)

  • Oh, Eun-Ji;Hwang, In-Sung;Yoo, Jin;Chung, Keun-Yook
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1059-1072
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    • 2018
  • Bioremediation has been recognized as a suitable alternative to conventional methods of removing contaminants, and it uses fungi, bacteria and microalgae. In contrast to other organisms, microalgae are unique in that they have the ability to perform photosynthesis like plants and to utilize organic/inorganic carbon substrates, in a process called phytoremediation. Microalgae can populate a reaction site rapidly and enhance the bioremediation efficiency. In this study, Chlorella vulgaris was used to evaluate the removal potentials of the nutrients (N and P) and heavy metals (Cu and Zn) from swine wastewater. The optimum growth conditions for Chlorella vulgaris and the removal potentials of N, P, Cu, and Zn from synthetic wastewater using Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. Based on the results, the applicability of this microalga to on-site wastewater treatment was examined. Optimal growth conditions for Chlorella vulgaris were established to be $28^{\circ}C$, a pH of 7, and light and dark cycles of 14:10 h. As the concentrations of the nutrients were increased, the efficiencies of N and P removal efficiencies by Chlorella vulgaris were decreased in the single and binary mixed treatments of the nutrients, respectively. Further, the efficiencies of Cu and Zn removal also decreased as the heavy metals concentrations added were increased, both in the single and binary mixed treatments. In addition, the efficiency of Cu removal was higher than that of Zn removal. Our results indicate that Chlorella vulgaris could be used in treatment plants for the removal of nutrients and heavy metals from swine wastewater.

Carbon Dioxide Mitigation by Microalgal Photosynthesis

  • Lee Jeong, Mi-Jeong;Gillis, James M.;Hwang, Jiann-Yang
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.1763-1766
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    • 2003
  • Algal growth studies of Chlorella strains were conducted in a batch mode with bench type experiments. Carbon dioxide fixation rates of the following green microalgae were determined: Chlorella sp. H84, Chlorella sp. A2, Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 1230, Chlorella vulgaris, and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. C. vulgaris, among other strains of microalgae, showed the highest growth rate (1.17 optical density/5 days). Cultivating conditions for C. vulgaris that produced the highest growth rate were at concentrations of 243 ${\mu}g\;CO_2$/mL, 10 mM ammonia, and 1 mM phosphate, with an initial pH range of 7-8.

Comparison of Models to Describe Growth of Green Algae Chlorella vulgaris for Nutrient Removal from Piggery Wastewater (양돈폐수의 영양염류 제거를 위한 녹조류 Chlorella vulgaris 성장 모형의 비교)

  • Lim, Byung-Ran;Jutidamrongphan, Warangkana;Park, Ki-Young
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2010
  • Batch experiments were conducted to investigate growth and nutrient removal performance of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris by using piggery wastewater in different concentration of pollutants and the common growth models (logistic, Gompertz and Richards) were applied to compare microalgal growth parameters. Removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) by Chlorella vulgaris showed correlation with biomass increase, implying nutrient uptake coupled with microalgae growth. The higher the levels of suspended solids (SS), COD and ammonia nitrogen were in the wastewater, the worse growth of Chlorella vulgaris was observed, showing the occurrence of growth inhibition in higher concentration of those pollutants. The growth parameters were estimated by non-linear regression of three growth curves for comparative analyses. Determination of growth parameters were more accurate with population as a variable than the logarithm of population in terms of R square. Richards model represented better fit comparing with logistic and Gompertz model. However, Richards model showed some complexity and sensitivity in calculation. In the cases tested, both logistic and Gompertz equation were proper to describe the growth of microalgae on piggery wastewater as well as easy to application.

Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet

  • Lee, Hee-Sun;Park, Hoon-Jung;Kim, Mi-Kyung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.204-210
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to investigate effects of Chiarella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Sixty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; normal diet group and high fat diet group, then the rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and fed 0%, 5% and 10% (w/w) chlorella-containing diets, respectively, and raised for 9 weeks, Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total protein and albumin concentration were not different among groups. Serum total lipids and liver TG concentration were significantly lower in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (p<0.05). Serum TG, serum total cholesterol, liver total lipid and liver total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (p<0.05). Fecal total lipid, TG and total cholesterol excretions were significantly higher in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella groups in normal diet and high fat diet groups, respectively (p<0.05). These results suggest that Chlorella vulgaris is effective for prevention of dyslipidemia which may be due to the modulation of lipid metabolism and increased fecal excretion of lipid.

Expression of bovine lactoferrin N-lobe by the green alga, Chlorella vulgaris

  • Koo, Jungmo;Park, Dongjun;Kim, Hakeung
    • ALGAE
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.379-387
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to express bovine lactoferrin N-lobe in Chlorella vulgaris, a green microalga, using the pCAMBIA1304 vector. Chlorella-codon-optimized bovine lactoferrin N-lobe (Lfb-N gene) was cloned in the expression vector pCAMBIA1304, creating the plasmid pCAMLfb-N. pCAMLfb-N was then introduced into C. vulgaris by electro-transformation. Transformants were separated from BG-11 plates containing 20 ${\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ hygromycin. Polymerase chain reaction was used to screen transformants harboring Lfb-N gene. Finally, total soluble protein was extracted from the transformants, and the expression of Lfb-N protein was detected using western blotting. Using this method, we successfully expressed bovine lactoferrin in C. vulgaris. Therefore, our results suggested that recombinant lactoferrin N-lobe, which has many uses in the biomedical and pharmaceutical industries, can be produced economically.

Growth and fatty acid composition of three heterotrophic Chlorella species

  • Kim, Dae Geun;Hur, Sung Bum
    • ALGAE
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.101-109
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    • 2013
  • Some Chlorella species grow heterotrophically with organic substrate in dark condition. However, heterotrophic Chlorella species are limited and their optimum culture conditions are not fully known. In this study, three heterotrophic Chlorella species, two strains (C4-3 and C4-4) of C. vulgaris and one Chlorella sp. (C4-8) were examined on optimum culture conditions such as carbon source, temperature, and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jaworski's medium (JM). And the growth and fatty acid composition of Chlorella were analyzed. For three heterotrophic Chlorella species, glucose (1-2%) as a carbon source only increased the growth and the range of optimum culture temperature was $26-28^{\circ}C$. Doubled concentrations of the nitrogen or phosphorus in JM medium also improved the growth of Chlorella. Chlorella cultured heterotrophically showed significantly higher growth rate and bigger cell size than those autotrophically did. C. vulgaris (C4-3) cultured heterotrophically showed the highest biomass in dry weight ($0.8g\;L^{-1}$) among three species. With respect to fatty acid composition, the contents of C16:0 and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) were significantly higher in autotrophic Chlorella than in heterotrophic one and those of total lipid were not different between different concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in JM medium. Among three Chlorella species in this study, C. vulgaris (C4-3) appeared to be the most ideal heterotrophic Chlorella species for industrial application since it had a high biomass and lipid content.

Development of Novel Microsatellite Markers for Strain-Specific Identification of Chlorella vulgaris

  • Jo, Beom-Ho;Lee, Chang Soo;Song, Hae-Ryong;Lee, Hyung-Gwan;Oh, Hee-Mock
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.9
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    • pp.1189-1195
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    • 2014
  • A strain-specific identification method is required to secure Chlorella strains with useful genetic traits, such as a fast growth rate or high lipid productivity, for application in biofuels, functional foods, and pharmaceuticals. Microsatellite markers based on simple sequence repeats can be a useful tool for this purpose. Therefore, this study developed five novel microsatellite markers (mChl-001, mChl-002, mChl-005, mChl-011, and mChl-012) using specific loci along the chloroplast genome of Chlorella vulgaris. The microsatellite markers were characterized based on their allelic diversities among nine strains of C. vulgaris with the same 18S rRNA sequence similarity. Each microsatellite marker exhibited 2~5 polymorphic allele types, and their combinations allowed discrimination between seven of the C. vulgaris strains. The two remaining strains were distinguished using one specific interspace region between the mChl-001 and mChl-005 loci, which was composed of about 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 13~15 specific sequence sites, and (T)n repeat sites. Thus, the polymorphic combination of the five microsatellite markers and one specific locus facilitated a clear distinction of C. vulgaris at the strain level, suggesting that the proposed microsatellite marker system can be useful for the accurate identification and classification of C. vulgaris.

Effects of volatile fatty acids on microalgae growth and N, P consumption in the advanced treatment process of digested food waste leachate by mixotrophic microalgae (Mixotrophic microalgae에 의한 음폐수 소화액 고도처리에 있어 유기산이 microalgae의 성장 및 질소, 인 제거에 미치는 영향)

  • Zhang, Shan;Hwan, Sun-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.357-362
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    • 2017
  • Acetate, propionate, butyrate are the major soluble volatile fatty acids metabolites of fermented food waste leachates. This work investigate the effects of volatile fatty acid on the growth rate and $NH_4-N$, $PO_4-P$ removal efficiency of mixotrophic microalgae Chlorella vulgaris to treat digested food waste leachates. The results showed that acetate, propionate and butyrate were efficiently utilized by Chlorella vulgaris and microalgae growth was higher than control condition. Similar trends were observed upon $NH_4-N$ and $PO_4-P$ consumption. Volatile fatty acids promoted Chlorella vulgaris growth, and nutrient removal efficiencies were highest when acetate was used, and butyrate and propionate showed second and third. From this work it could be said that using mixotrophic microalgae, in this work Chlorella vulgaris, fermented food waste leachates can be treated with high efficiencies.

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Oil from Chlorella vulgaris (초임계 이산화탄소를 이용한 Chlorella vulgaris의 오일 추출)

  • Ryu, Jong-Hoon;Park, Mi-Ran;Lim, Gio-Bin
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.453-458
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    • 2011
  • In this study, two different extraction techniques, organic solvent extraction and supercritical carbon dioxide ($SCCO_2$) extraction, were employed to evaluate the extraction efficiency of oil from Chlorella vulgaris. In the organic solvent extraction, the effects of various organic solvent on the extraction yield were investigated. The $SCCO_2$ extraction was carried out while varying such operating parameters as temperature, pressure, $SCCO_2$ flow rate, and cosolvent. About 4.9 wt% of oil was extracted from ground Chrollera vulgaris for 18 h when dichloromethane/methanol (2:1, v/v) was used as an extraction solvent. The oil yield of the $SCCO_2$ extraction was found to be very low (0.53 wt%) and to increase up to about 0.86 wt% with the addition of cosolvent.

Extraction of Oil from Chlorella vulgaris Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Organic Solvent (초임계 이산화탄소와 유기용매를 이용한 Chlorella vulgaris 오일의 추출)

  • Ryu, Jong-Hoon;Park, Mi-Ran;Lim, Giobin
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.98-105
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    • 2014
  • Three different types of extraction processes, which used supercritical carbon dioxide ($SCCO_2$) and organic solvent, were attempted to improve the extraction yield of oil from Chlorella vulgaris: cosolvent-modified $SCCO_2$ extraction, $SCCO_2$ extraction with ultrasonic sample treatment in organic solvent, and static extraction with organic solvent followed by dynamic $SCCO_2$ extraction. Among these, the last $SCCO_2$ extraction process was found to be most effective in the extraction of oil. Compared with pure $SCCO_2$ extraction, the extraction yield of oil was observed to increase about 7 times.