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A Study of Acoustic Analysis in the Chinese' Korean Language Learners (중국인 한국어 학습자 음성의 음향학적 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun-Ji;You, Jae-Yeon
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 2010
  • The present research investigated the characteristics of voice between genders and nationalities by measuring the acoustic parameter values of Korean and Chinese students. Sound Forge was used to collect voice samples and Praat was used to measure and analyze jitter, shimmer, NHR, $sF_0$, and pitch range. The results of this research are a follows. First, during prolongation of the vowels, there was no significant difference in $F_0$ between Korean and Chinese males and Korean and Chinese females. Korean males and females had higher $F_0$ values than Chinese males and females. Secondly, during sentence reading, there was no significant difference between Korean and Chinese males in $sF_0$. But between female groups, there was a significant difference in $sF_0$. Thirdly, during sentence reading, the pitch range in Korean males was found to be narrower compared to Korean and Chinese females who had wider pitch range, showing a significant difference. Fourthly, jitter in the five vowels /a, i, u, e, o/ was found to be higher in Chinese than Korean subjects. In the vowels /a, e, u/ females were higher than males showing a significant difference. Fifthly, shimmer in the vowels /a, e, u/ was found to be higher in Chinese than Korean subjects showing a significant difference. Finally, NHR in the vowels /a, u, o/ was found to be higher in Chinese than Korean subjects showing a significant difference.

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Comparison of Salty Taste Assessment and High-Salt Dietary Behaviors among University Students and Chinese Students in Daegu, South Korea and University Students in Shenyang, China (대구시 한국 대학생과 중국 유학생 및 중국 심양시 대학생의 짠맛에 대한 미각과 짜게 먹는 식행동 비교)

  • Jiang, Lin;Lee, Yeon-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.555-564
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the assessment of salty taste and high-salt dietary behaviors of Korean university students and their Chinese counterparts. The researchers developed a taste assessment computer program focusing on preference for salty taste, and it was applied to 300 university students, including 100 Korean students, and 100 Chinese students in Daegu of South Korea, and 100 Chinese students in Shenyang of China (144 males and 156 females). The results of the taste assessment of Chinese and Korean university students are as follows. Among males, Koreans (36.0%), Chinese students in Korea (36.2%), and Chinese (40.4%) scored highest in the "a bit salty" followed by "normal." Among females, Koreans (36.0%), Chinese students in Korea (49.1%), and Chinese (28.3%) scored highest in the "normal". In terms of salt concentration in solution, among the male subjects, most Koreans favored the salt concentration of 0.31%, which is considered to be a "normal" concentration; most Chinese students in Korea favored 0.63%, which is considered to be "a bit salty", and most Chinese favored the concentration of 1.25%, which is considered to be "salty". As for the female subjects, Koreans, Chinese students studying abroad, and Chinese favored 0.31%, the "normal" level of concentration. Korean students scored higher than Chinese students in Korea and Chinese students both in males and females (p < 0.001, p < 0.01), in terms of high-salt dietary behaviors favored salty taste. This study suggests that Chinese university students need nutrition education in terms of modifying eating behaviors to reduce dietary salt intake.

The difference in female image preference by nation and gender between Korea and China (한국과 중국의 국가와 성별에 따른 여성이미지 선호도의 차이)

  • Li, Jing;Lee, Hye Won;Kim, Mi Young
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.872-887
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    • 2018
  • This study aims to identify the differences between Korean and Chinese and males and females in terms of female image preferences. The survey was conducted for 1 month targeting male and female Korean and Chinese subjects. Among the 350 completed questionnaires, 309 were used for analysis. For the analysis, 11 female images were chosen based on theoretical study, then a t-test and a paired t-test were carried out using SPSS 19.0. The results of this study are as follows: First, differences in female image preferences were observed to depend on nationality and gender. Koreans prefer urban images while Chinese prefer cute, intelligent, and sexy images. Second, males prefer innocent or sexy images, while females prefer sophisticated images. Third, Korean males prefer innocent, active, sophisticated, gentle, cute, sexy, urban, natural, intelligent, spectacular, and neutral images in order. Chinese males prefer gentle, innocent, sexy, active, sophisticated, intelligent, cute, natural, urban, spectacular, and neutral images in order. Fourth, Korean females prefer sophisticated, gentle, urban, natural, intelligent, innocent, active, sexy, cute, spectacular, and neutral images in order. Chines females prefer sophisticated, intelligent, cute, gentle, innocent, active, natural, sexy, urban, spectacular, and neutral images in order. Using these results, it will be possible to design marketing strategies for global consumers.

TP63 Gene Polymorphisms, Cooking Oil Fume Exposure and Risk of Lung Adenocarcinoma in Chinese Non-smoking Females

  • Yin, Zhi-Hua;Cui, Zhi-Gang;Ren, Yang-Wu;Su, Meng;Ma, Rui;He, Qin-Cheng;Zhou, Bao-Sen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6519-6522
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    • 2013
  • Background: Genetic polymorphisms of TP63 have been suggested to influence susceptibility to lung adenocarcinoma development in East Asian populations. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between common polymorphisms in the TP63 gene and the risk of lung adenocarcinoma, as well as interactions of the polymorphisms with environmental risk factors in Chinese non-smoking females. Methods: A case-control study of 260 cases and 318 controls was conducted. Data concerning demographic and risk factors were obtained for each subject. The genetic polymorphisms were determined by Taqman real-time PCR and statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. Results: For 10937405, carriers of the CT genotype or at least one T allele (CT/TT) had lower risks of lung adenocarcinoma compared with the homozygous wild CC genotype in Chinese nonsmoking females (adjusted ORs were 0.68 and 0.69, 95%CIs were 0.48-0.97 and 0.50-0.97, P values were 0.033 and 0.030, respectively). Allele comparison showed that the T allele of rs10937405 was associated with a decreased risk of lung adenocarcinoma with an OR of 0.78 (95%CI=0.60-1.01, P=0.059). Our results showed that exposure to cooking oil fumes was associated with increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese nonsmoking females (adjusted OR=1.58, 95%CI=1.11-2.25, P=0.011). However, we did not observe a significant interaction of cooking oil fumes and TP63 polymorphisms. Conclusion: TP63 polymorphism might be a genetic susceptibility factor for lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese non-smoking females, but no significant interaction was found with cooking oil fume exposure.

A Survey on Chinese's Preference for Korean Kimchi in Shandong Province (김치에 대한 중국 산동성 지역 성인의 기호도 조사)

  • Zhang, Xiang Mei;Nam, Eun-Sook;Park, Shin-In
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.29-40
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    • 2009
  • This study investigates the preferences Chinese have of Korean Kimchi and improvements for Chinese market adaptation of Kimchi through a survey. The questionnaire was conducted on 298 Chinese(108 males, 190 females) residing in Weihai, Yantai and Qingdao in Shandong province. The questionnaire form was developed and used for self-administration. The collected data were analyzed by SAS package. Among the subjects, 88.9% had experienced eating Kimchi and 58.8% liked Kimchi. The preference of Kimchi was significantly higher among males, workers, persons who had visited Korea, and persons interested in Korea compared to females, university students, persons who hadn't visited Korea, and persons with no interest in Korea. The reasons for liking Kimchi, in order of popularity, were for its 'refreshing taste'(64.9%), 'spicy taste'(57.7%), 'chewy texture'(47.2%), and 'sour taste'(35.1%). The reasons for disliking Kimchi were for its 'smell'(19.6%), 'sour taste'(16.2%), 'salty taste'(14.3%), and 'appearance'(8.7%). Of those surveyed, 97.6% had a positive opinion of Kimchi intake in the future. The intention of future consumption of Kimchi was significantly higher in females than males. The type of Kimchi wanted by Chinese was 'less seasoning'(53.4%), 'less spicy'(46.0%), 'sweeter taste'(39.3%), 'less salty'(37.2%), and 'no fish-like smell'(35.6%). Improvements for increasing Chinese Kimchi consumption were 'development of Kimchi according to Chinese preference'(81.2%), 'improvement of sanitation'(73.5%), 'decrease in the sale price of Kimchi'(72.8%), and 'convenient place for the purchase of Kimchi'(63.8%).

Comparative Assessments of Dietary Intake of Korean-Chinese and Koreans (중국 연변 조선족 성인과 한국 구리지역 성인의 영양소 및 식품섭취 비교 평가)

  • Park, Eun-Mi;Paik, Hee-Young;Kim, Joung-Soon;Wen, Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.368-378
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to assess dietary intake and quality obtained by 24-hour recall method between Korean-Chinese in Yanbian, China(Korean-Chinese) and Koreans in Kuri, Korea(Koreans). The subjects consisted of 730 Korean-Chinese and 696 Koreans. Mean daily energy intake of Korean-Chinese was 1,788kcal and that of Korean was 1,844kcal. Proportions of energy intake from carbohydrate, fat, and protein were 62.6: 16.9: 14.2 for Korean-Chinese and 65.4: 16.3: 14.4 for Koreans. Nutrient intake levels of Koreans were higher than those of Korean-chinese in most nutrients. Calcium and vitamin $B_2$ intakes as percent of Korean RDA were less than 60% in Korean-Chinese. Koreans consumed calcium and vitamin A in the level less than 80% of Korean RDA. Iron intake level of Korean females was less than 75% of Korean RDA. Korean-Chinese consumed 90.4% of food from plant origin, and Koreans consumed 82.5% of food from plant origin. Mean dietary diversity score(DDS) of Korean-Chinese, $3.00{\pm}0.39$, was significantly lower than that of Koreans, $3.73{\pm}0.76(p<0.05)$. Mean dietary variety score(DVS) of Korean-Chinese, 13.6, was significantly lower than that of Koreans, 20.1(p<0.001). According to these results, some adults in the both Korean-Chinese and Koreans did not consume enough nutrients, especially calcium and vitamin $B_2$ intake for Korean-Chinese and calcium and vitamin A intake for Koreans. Dietary qualities of Korean-Chinese subjects and Korean females were not adequate. In the future, further research to promote dietary quality of Koreans including Korean-Chinese must consider the results of this study.

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Relative Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle Aged Adults with Different Weight Living in Urban Beijing, China

  • Cui Zhao-Hui;Li Yan-Ping;Liu Ai-Ling;Zhang Qian;Du Wei-Jing;Ma Guan-Sheng
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.131-136
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study is to compare the relative risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) in middle aged adults with different body weights. 155 subjects living in urban Beijing were recruited from 24 neighborhood committees of urban Beijing. They were divided into normal weight, overweight and obese groups according to their BMIs. The general information of the subjects was collected using an interview-administered questionnaire. Standard procedure was followed to measure subject's weight, height and waist. Biochemical parameters (total cholesterol (TC), low- and high­density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C ; HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and fasting glucose) and blood pressure were also determined. The results indicated that the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C of obese group was lower than that of the normal weight group. Fasting glucose of obese males was significantly higher than that of normal weight males. No significant difference of fasting glucose was found among female groups. No significant difference of TG was found among male groups, while TG of overweight and obese females was both significantly higher than normal weight females. There was no significant difference of TC and LDL-C among normal weight, overweight and obese groups in both males and females. The MS rate of obese males was significantly higher than the normal weight and overweight males, as was the female. The relative risk of MS in obese group was about 11 times higher (OR=11.249, $95\%CI$ = 3.812 - 33.191) than the normal weight group after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, drinking, family economic level and education status. It is concluded that obesity contributed to lower HDL-C, hypertriglyceride, hypertension and MS after controlling the effects of age, gender, socioeconomic status, alcohol drinking and smoking. Obese individuals have a higher risk of having MS than their normal weight counterparts.

The Average Nasalance as a Function of Korean and Chinese in Vowels (중국인과 한국인의 모음의 평균 비성도 연구)

  • Hwang, Young-Jin;Kim, Ha-Kyung;Jeong, Ok-Ran;Lee, Jae-Hong
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 2007
  • This study attempted to obtain differences as a function of Korean and Chinese in vowels. The $NasalView^{(R}}$ (Tiger Electronics Inc., Seattle, USA) was used to obtain nasalance values. Ninety eight subjects participated in this study (48 females from Korea and 48 females from China). The stimuli used in this experiment included vowel /i, a, u/. The stimuli were presented in a random order. The entire session was recorded and the average nasalance score was measured via the $NasalView^{(R)}$. The procedure took approximately 10 minutes. The results of this study showed that the difference between Korean and Chinese was significant in vowel /i, a, u/. The average nasalance scores were /i, a, u/ from highest to lowest in order in vowels. The average nasalance was higher in China than Korean in vowels.

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A Study on the Survey of the Meals outside Home in Seoul (서울 거주자를 대상으로 한 외식에 관한 조사연구)

  • 안숙자
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.82-93
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    • 1985
  • An investigation was conducted on Seoulites' meals outside home by age group and sex, and the resultant findings are as follows: 1. To effectively conduct this survey were taken 201 teen males, 242 teen females, 202 young males, 232 young females, 219 men and 195 women. 2. For the kinds of meals they have outside home, breakfast forms 0.7%, lunch 35.7%, supper 22.2%, and snacks 14.4%. 3. Men subjects "lunch out everyday" by 39.9%, young males by 30.7%, and young females by 29%. 4. The reason why they lunch out indicates "convenient" by 37.4%, "carrying a lunch box is inconvenient" by 21.2%, "hard to prepare the lunch box" by 12.9%. 5. Regarding the favorite food taken for lunch, almost all the men prefer Korean food by 73.9% 6. Ra Myun and noodle occupy the highest Percentage of young females by 79.3% ; Chinese food the highest percentage of women by 27.7%, but the lowest percentage come from Japanese food by 1.1%. 7. The preference of kinds of food when having a meal outside home is ascribed to "prefer"by 50~75.7%, the highest percentage of all. 9. The price they pay for lunch outside home amounts to less than 900 wons in teens and young males 1, 000~2, 000 wons in men and women. The price of a meal outside home per capita a day, when taken by family unit, averages to 3, 694 wons. For the number of meals outside home, "more than once a month" forms 41.7%. 9. On the mooted points raised when having a meal outside home, "unsanitary' forms 36.7%, "expensive in prices" 26.1%, "lack of nutritution" 10.6%. 10. Teen males, when viewed from food preference for lunch outside home, take Ra Myun, Ddokbokki, Chinese noodle, while teen females, Ddokbokki, bread, Chinese noodle: young males, Sundubu Baekban, Bibim Bab, Ra Myun, Yokge Jang; young females, Sundubu Baekban, pork cutlet, Bibin Bab: men, Solnone Tang, Daenjang Chikae, Baekban, Kalbi Jongsik Bibim Bab : women, Bulkogi Jongsik, Neang Moyn, and Chinese noodle. 11. When seen from the nutrition of meals taken outside home, the prices of noodle and boiled rice range from 600 to 1, 000 wons, while their energy ranges from 407 to 745 kcal, Protein from 14.2 to 30.3g. On the other hand, the Price of western food averages to 1, 900~2, 500 wons, while its energy ranges from 1, 061 to 1, 129 kcal, proteio from 45.9 to 72.9g. It is revealed that noodle or boiled rice is not nutritious enough to be taken as a meal.s revealed that noodle or boiled rice is not nutritious enough to be taken as a meal.

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Clinical Features of Multiple Primary Malignancies: a Retrospective Analysis of 72 Chinese Patients

  • Jiao, Feng;Yao, Li-Juan;Zhou, Jin;Hu, Hai;Wang, Li-Wei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.331-334
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    • 2014
  • There is a scarcity of reports addressing patients with multiple primary malignancies (MPM), especially for Chinese cses. The aim of this study was to present a detailed analysis of Chinese patients presenting with at least two primary malignancies. Particularly, the clinical characteristics and survival between synchronous and metachronous MPM were compared. Out of 6,545 cases, 72 patients (1.1%) including 39 males (54.2%) and 33 females (45.8%) were diagnosed as MPM, giving a male: female sex ratio of 1.2:1. Of these, there were 16 (22.2%) cases of synchronous MPM (7 males, 9 females), 55(76.4%) metachronous (31 males, 24 females), and 1 "mixed form". For first tumor diagnosis time, synchronous MPM patients generally presented later than the metachronous cases. The top three sites for malignancies with metachronous MPM were colorectum, head and neck, and lung, while for synchronous they were lung, colorectum and breast. Among MPM patients, the median survival time was 15.7 years and the 5-year survival was 56%, and there was statistical difference in MPM categories (P < 0.05). The median survival time was 17.3 years and 3.8 years for metachronous and synchronous MPM patients, respectively. In comparison with synchronous MPM patients, those metachronous had a longer survival. This studies increase understanding of the clinical features of Chinese MPM patients and suggest that those presenting with metachronous cancers have a higher incidence and a better prognosis.