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Change of Total Glucosinolates Level according to Processing Treatments in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) from Different Harvest Seasons (수확기간별 배추의 가공처리에 따른 total glucosinolates함량변화)

  • Kim, Mee-Kyung;Hong, Eun-Young;Kim, Gun-Hee
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.593-599
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the level of total glucosinolates in different parts (outer and inner part) of fresh, salted Chinese cabbage ($Brassica$ $campestris$ L. ssp. $Pekinensis$) and Kimchi at different harvesting periods (June-July, August-September, October-November, December-April, and May). For determination of total glucosinolates, Chinese cabbage was used for analytical sample preparation, provided with an anion exchanges column and measured by UV-visible Spectrophotometer. The fresh Chinese cabbage (FCC) that was harvested in June-July contained the highest level of total glucosinolates and was higher in outer part than inner part in all harvesting periods. The salted Chinese cabbage (SCC) that was harvested in May contained the lowest level of total glucosinolates. Total glucosinolates level of SCC in outer part was higher in June-July and August-September. The manufactured Kimchi (K) using harvested Chinese cabbage in June-July and August-September contained the highest level of total glucosinolates while that harvested in May contained the lowest level. The level of total glucosinolates in different parts was higher in inner part than outer part in all harvesting periods except for May. In all harvesting times, the level of total glucosinolates of FCC was higher than processed Chinese cabbage (SCC and K). Based on these results, levels of total glucosinolates are influenced by harvesting periods, parts and processing conditions of Chinese cabbage.

Expression Characteristics of Chinese Cabbage

  • Kim, Y.J.;Oh, Y.T.;Lee, D.H.;Lee, Y.B.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.1318-1328
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    • 1993
  • Expression of chinese cabbage was conducted in order to investigate its dewatering behavior. Chipped cabbage was packed into cylinder and pressed by piston up to the predetermined pressure on Instron-1000. The rates of dewatering were affected domintantly by the applied pressure, but not significantly by the packed amount of cabbage in the cylinder. The pressure effect was increased very abruptly at first, but the increase rate was very low at high pressure greater than 20 MPa, showing great deviation from linear dependence of flow rate on pressure in Darcy's Law. Therefore, water expression from cabbage was not Newtonian flow of water through cell wall. In fact, the squeezed water contained a lot of solid particles, showing destruction of cell wall. The content of solid particles in expressed water was only slightly lower than the dry matter content of fresh chinese cabbage, determined by drying oven method.

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Characteristics of Growth and Salting of Chinese Cabbage after Spring Culture Analyzed by Cultivar and Cultivation Method (봄배추 재배방법 및 품종에 따른 생육 및 절임 특성)

  • Lee, Jung-Soo;Park, Su-Hyung;Lee, Youn-Suk;Lim, Byung-Sun;Yim, Sang-Chul;Chun, Chang-Hoo
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.43-48
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    • 2008
  • This experiment investigated the characteristics of salted and fresh Chinese cabbages of different cultivars and using various cultivation methods. We measured the numbers of leaves, sizes, thicknesses, moisture contents, and firmness qualities of fresh Chinese cabbage grown in a plastic house, and outdoors. 'The bulb sizes, leaf thicknesses, and moisture contents of leaves were higher after plastic house cultivation than after growth in the field. Plastic house culture increased the growth rate of Chinese cabbage. Firmness and osmolarity showed better values after outdoor cultivation, however. The growth rates and the levels of chemical components were affected by interactions between cultivation methods and cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The salt levels of salted Chinese cabbage were 1.21.7% (w/w) after cabbages cultivated outdoors were preserved, and 0.91.2 % (w/w) after vegetables grown in a plastic house were treated. The quality properties of postharvest Chinese cabbages after salting varied with cultivation method even when the same cultivars of Chinese cabbage were used. The salt contents of salted Chinese cabbage thus varied with different cultivation methods. The results indicate that the properties of Chinese cabbage vary with the culture systems adapted.

Occurrence of Virus Disease of Chinese Cabbage and Its Influence on Cabbage Production in Alpine Area (고랭지배추 바이러스병의 발생 및 피해요인 분석)

  • 최준근;이재홍;이세원;함영일;안재훈;최장경
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.433-439
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    • 1998
  • The studies on the ecology of virus disease on Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris subsp. pekinensis) cultivated in alpine area of Kangwon province during summer season to analyse its influence on damage and develope a prediction model were performed from 1993 to 1997. Virus disease on Chinese cabbage occurring in the alpine area showed various symptom types and among there, necrotic spots and dwarf were mainly detected. The disease was increased from early August and continued mid September in every year. The occurrence of virus disease was the highest in 1994 with 20.5%, and the number of aphid vectors were also the highest during the same period. The number of aphids in the alpine areas showed twice peaks every year. For the analysis of damage by virus infection, the infection and injured ratio of all treatments were more than 90% and 80%, respectively. The most important factor for the occurrence of virus disease on Chinese cabbage was temperature. Factors influencing the development of the viral disease in the alpine area were maximum temperature and number of aphid vectors.

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Activation of Defense Responses in Chinese Cabbage by a Nonhost Pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato

  • Park, Yong-Soon;Jeon, Myeong-Hoon;Lee, Sung-Hee;Moon, Jee-Sook;Cha, Jae-Soon;Kim, Hak-Yong;Cho, Tae-Ju
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.748-754
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    • 2005
  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) causes a bacterial speck disease in tomato and Arabidopsis. In Chinese cabbage, in which host-pathogen interactions are not well understood, Pst does not cause disease but rather elicits a hypersensitive response. Pst induces localized cell death and $H_2O_2$ accumulation, a typical hypersensitive response, in infiltrated cabbage leaves. Pre-inoculation with Pst was found to induce resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, a pathogen that causes soft rot disease in Chinese cabbage. An examination of the expression profiles of 12 previously identified Pst-inducible genes revealed that the majority of these genes were activated by salicylic acid or BTH; however, expressions of the genes encoding PR4 and a class IV chitinase were induced by ethephon, an ethylene-releasing compound, but not by salicylic acid, BTH, or methyl jasmonate. This implies that Pst activates both salicylate-dependent and salicylate-independent defense responses in Chinese cabbage.

Effect of biochar application on growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis)

  • Oh, Taek-Keun;Lee, Jae-Han;Kim, Su-Hun;Lee, Ho Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.359-365
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    • 2017
  • Biochar has the ability to mitigate climate change, improve crop productivity, and adsorb various contaminants. The aim of this work was to confirm the effect of biochar as a soil amendment on growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis) using a pot experiment. Biochar was produced from residual-wood burnt at a pyrolytic temperature of $400^{\circ}C$ and consisted of 51.6 % carbon (C) by mass. The biochar was added to the soil at 0, 1, 3, and 5% by weight, which represent about 0, 18, 54, and $90t\;ha^{-1}$, respectively. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The Chinese cabbage was grown for 49 days in a glasshouse in pots filled with sandy loam soil. Experimental results showed that the residual-wood biochar used for the experiment was slightly alkaline (pH 7.5). The fresh weights of Chinese cabbage were 86.22 g, 84.1 g, 63.23 g and 70.87 g, respectively, for biochar applications at 0, 18, 54, and $90t\;ha^{-1}$. Compared with the control (i.e., no biochar), biochar application increased soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Addition of biochar (54 and $90t\;ha^{-1}$) to sandy loam soil had no effect on growth of Chinese cabbage. This might be due to excessive increase of soil pH from the biochar application, leading to reduced availability of plant nutrients. Based on these results, the authors conclude that an excessive addition of biochar may have negative effects on the healthy growth of Chinese cabbage.

The Investigation for the Effects of Citric Acid on the Uranium Transfer into the Plants by the Pilot Scale Feasibility Test (파일럿 규모의 실증실험 사례를 통한 구연산의 우라늄 식물 전이 효과 규명)

  • Han, Yikyeong;Lee, Minhee
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.146-155
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    • 2016
  • The field feasibility tests for a phytoextraction process were performed to identify the effect of citric acid as a chelate on the uranium (U) transfer into the plant for the naturally U contaminated soil in Duckpyeongri, Korea. For the feasibility tests, lettuce and Chinese cabbage were cultivated for 49 days on four testing grounds ($1m{\times}1m{\times}0.5m$ in each) in 2016. The citric acid solution was added to two testing grounds (one for lettuce and the other for Chinese cabbage) increasing the U transfer in two crop plants and their results were compared to those without the citric acid solution. When without the citric acid solution, the U concentration of plant after the cultivation was low (< $45{\mu}g/kg$ for leaves and < $450{\mu}g/kg$ for roots). However, with the addition of 50 mM citric acid solution, the U concentration of lettuce leaves and roots increased by 24 times and 1.8 times, and the U concentration of Chinese cabbage leaves and roots increased by 86.7 times and 5.4 times. The absolute accumulated U amount (${\mu}g$) in lettuce and Chinese cabbage also increased by 8.7 times and 50 times, compared to those without citric acid solution. Less than 8% of the U amount of exchangeable/carbonate phases was removed by using the lettuce and Chinese cabbage when the citric acid solution was not applied. However 52% and 66% of the U amount in exchangeable/carbonate phases were removed by the lettuce and the Chinese cabbage when the citric acid solution was added. The effect of the citric acid on the U transfer capability into the plants was quantitatively investigated by the field feasibility test, suggesting that U existing as exchangeable/carbonate phase in soil can be successfully removed by the phytoextraction process using Chinese cabbage with citric acid.

Changes in Free Amino Acid, Carotenoid, and Proline Content in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. Pekinensis) in Response to Drought Stress

  • Shawon, Rayhan Ahmed;Kang, Baek Song;Kim, Ho Cheol;Lee, Sang Gyu;Kim, Sung Kyeom;Lee, Hee Ju;Bae, Jong Hyang;Ku, Yang Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.622-633
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    • 2018
  • Chinese cabbage grown during autumn season is confronted with drought conditions for a certain period, especially during the early growth stage. In this study, we investigated the effects of drought stress on plant growth characteristics, as well as free amino acid, carotenoid, and proline in Chinese cabbage. Chinese cabbage seeds (Bulam Plus) were germinated, and all the seedlings were transplanted into plastic containers (28 cm diameter ${\times}$ 22 cm high) containing a commercial growth medium. The soil water content was measured and maintained at 10% for the drought-stressed plants and at 30% for the control plants, for three weeks. The results revealed that plant growth parameters were lower in the drought-stressed plants than in the control plants. The total free amino acid content tended to decrease in both drought-stressed and control plants with time. The total free amino acid content was found to be lower in the drought-stressed plants than in the control plants and the proline content was unaffected. Moreover, at three weeks after treatment, carotenoid content in drought stressed plants was significantly higher than that in the untreated plants. We believe that our study makes a significant contribution to the literature because the effects of drought stress on plant growth parameters, free amino acid, carotenoids, and proline accumulation in autumn growing cultivar of Chinese cabbage have not been widely studied in Korea, and our study provides valuable information in this regard, as Chinese cabbage is consumed throughout the year in Korea.

Leaf Rot and Leaf Ring Spot Caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Chinese Cabbage

  • Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Min-Jeong;Kim, Yong-Ki;Jee, Hyeong-Jin;Hong, Sung-Jun;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jung;Yun, Jong-Chul
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.300-307
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of leaf rot and leaf ring spot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Chinese cabbage under seedling nursery and cultivation greenhouses. Symptoms of leaf rot and leaf ring spot were found in three Chinese cabbage cultivars, Brassica campestris subsp. pekinensis, 'Ryeokgwang', 'Daetong', and 'CR mat'. In Hwacheon, the disease incidence was 73.8% in the seedling stage of the Chinese cabbage. In Icheon, the symptoms were observed on the upper leaves of the Chinese cabbage cultivar, 'Norangmini' with 20.5% of disease incidence. The symptoms appeared as primary lesions consisting of small, circular necrotic ring spots with gray color, 1.4-3.0 mm in diameter, accompanied by secondary rot lesions with large irregular borders of leaves. The color of mycelial mat of 20 isolates was dark brown and light brown. The average hyphal diameter of all the isolates was within 5.01-11.12 ${\mu}m$. Among the 20 strains isolated from Chinese cabbage, 16 isolates and four isolates anastomosed with the AG-1 (IB) and AG-1 (IC), respectively. Twenty isolates tested were only virulent on foliage parts of Chinese cabbage leaves but were avirulent on stem parts of the plants. Based on the mycological characteristics and pathogenicity test on host plants, the fungus was identified as Rhizoctonia solani.

Effect of Red Chinese Cabbage on the Organ Weight and Serum Lipid Levels of Rats Fed High Fat Diet (빨간배추가 고지방식이를 급여한 렛트의 장기무게 및 혈청지질 수치에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Da Won;Kwak, Jung Hyun;Lee, Hyo-Jeong;Ryu, Soo In;Kim, Donghee;Lee, Minho;Lim, Yong Pyo;Paik, Jean Kyung
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.711-716
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    • 2019
  • Red Chinese cabbage is rich in anthocyanins, with beneficial effects on anti-obesity and lipid profiles. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-obesity effects of red Chinese cabbage. Four-weeks old Spague-Dawley male rats were divided into four groups for six weeks as follow: Normal Diet (ND), High Fat Diet (HFD), HFD + Red Chinese Cabbage Diet (RCD), HFD + Red Chinese Cabbage Juice (RCJD). After six weeks, the liver weight was significantly higher in the HFD group than in the other groups, and the RCD and RCJD groups showed similar values to the ND group. The epididymal fats were significantly higher in all high fat diets (HFD, RCD, RCJD) than in the ND group and there was statistical significance in the post-tests when comparing the RCD and RCJD groups with the HFD group. Triglycerides significantly decreased in the RCD group. In conclusion, red Chinese cabbage is rich in anthocyanins, with beneficial effects on organ weight and lipid profiles.