• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chinese cabbage

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The Effect of Food Waste Compost and Livestock Manure on Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. glabra) Growth

  • Lee, Young Don;Yoo, Jae Hong;Joo, Jin Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.547-553
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    • 2017
  • Treatment of food waste is becoming a big issue due to their significant quantities. Composting could be an effective alternative for food waste management which could be used as soil conditioner or fertilizer with little concerns about heavy metals and pathogens. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of food waste on Chinese cabbage growth and soil properties. 9 different treatments (two livestock manures, two food wastes, two livestock manures + chemical fertilizer, two food wastes + chemical fertilizer, and control) were applied to Chinese cabbage. All treatments were carried out in 3 replicates. We measured leaf length, leaf width, fresh weight, dry weight, and leaf greenness of Chinese cabbage. Treatment of one of food waste composts significantly increased leaf length and leaf width of Chinese cabbage by 28.6, 26.6, 67.7, and 59.9%, respectively, in comparison to those of control, while no significant differences for leaf greenness were shown. Application of food waste compost resulted in significant increase of EC, available $P_2O_5$, CEC, organic matter, and exchangeable cations. However, further researches are needed to reduce NaCl content of food waste.

The Impacts of High Temperature and Heavy Precipitation Amount on Winter Chinese Cabbage Yields (노지 가을배추 단수의 고온 및 다우 피해 계측)

  • Cho, Jae-Hwan;Suh, Jeong-Min;Jin, Kyung-Ho;Kang, Jum-Soon;Hong, Chang-Oh;Lim, Woo-Taik;Lee, Sang-Gyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.235-242
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this article is analyzing the impacts of climate change on winter chinese cabbage yield in Korea, with employing a panel data regression model. Our results show that there is a negative impacts of high temperature and precipitation amount on winter chinese cabbage yields. Especially high temperature and rainfall in September cause serious damage to winter chinese cabbage yield. According to the reduction schedule on greenhouse gas emission(RCP 4.5 scenario.), winter chinese cabbage yield would be 7.7% lower than it is, for reasons of high temperature and rainfall damages by the end of 21st century.

Effects of the Low Temperature and Low Salt Solution on the Quality Characteristics of Salted Chinese Cabbage (저온-저염 절임기술이 절임배추의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Seog-Won;Cho, Sun-Rae;Han, Sung-Hee;Rhee, Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.377-386
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    • 2009
  • The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of temperature and salt concentration on the physicochemical properties of salted Chinese cabbage. Salted Chinese cabbage samples were prepared with various concentrations of salt(4, 5, 6 and 7%), and were stored for 10 days at three temperatures(8, 14, and $25^{\circ}C$). The salting ratio of Chinese cabbage evidenced a decreasing trend regardless of the salting temperature and salt concentration, and their decrement appeared relatively high as the salting temperature increased. The period required to achieve a critical salting ratio(85%) decreased with increases in the salt concentration at $25^{\circ}C$, and a similar trend was observed at lower temperatures(8 and $14^{\circ}C$). The salinity of all samples evidenced an increasing trend during the salting period, and at $25^{\circ}C$, in particular, a continuous increment was observed. At salt concentrations of 4%, the critical salinity(2.2%) was not achieved regardless of the temperature and salting period. The pH of salted Chinese cabbage achieved critical pH in 3 days at a salting temperature of $25^{\circ}C$, but the critical pH 5.5 of samples at 8 and $14^{\circ}C$ appeared after a long period of approximately 4 to 10 days. The average hardness values of salted Chinese cabbage at a salting ratio of 85% were approximately 1.49 MPa, 1.87 MPa, and 1.97 MPa, respectively, at three temperatures($25^{\circ}C$, $14^{\circ}C$, and $8^{\circ}C$). The initial reducing sugar content of cabbage juice was 11.8 mg/$m{\ell}$, and this value decreased substantially to 3 to 5 mg/$m{\ell}$ on day 1.

The Effect of Highland Weather and Soil Information on the Prediction of Chinese Cabbage Weight (기상 및 토양정보가 고랭지배추 단수예측에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Taeyong;Kim, Rae Yong;Yoon, Sanghoo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.701-707
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    • 2019
  • Highland farming is agriculture that takes place 400 m above sea level and typically involves both low temperatures and long sunshine hours. Most highland Chinese cabbages are harvested in the Gangwon province. The Ubiquitous Sensor Network (USN) has been deployed to observe Chinese cabbages growth because of the lack of installed weather stations in the highlands. Five representative Chinese cabbage cultivation spots were selected for USN and meteorological data collection between 2015 and 2017. The purpose of this study is to develop a weight prediction model for Chinese cabbages using the meteorological and growth data that were collected one week prior. Both a regression and random forest model were considered for this study, with the regression assumptions being satisfied. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was used to evaluate the predictive performance of the models. The variables influencing the weight of cabbage were the number of cabbage leaves, wind speed, precipitation and soil electrical conductivity in the regression model. In the random forest model, cabbage width, the number of cabbage leaves, soil temperature, precipitation, temperature, soil moisture at a depth of 30 cm, cabbage leaf width, soil electrical conductivity, humidity, and cabbage leaf length were screened. The RMSE of the random forest model was 265.478, a value that was relatively lower than that of the regression model (404.493); this is because the random forest model could explain nonlinearity.

Effect of Crop Rotation on Control of Clubroot Disease of Chinese Cabbage Caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae (윤작작물 재배에 의한 배추 뿌리혹병 방제 효과)

  • Kim, Jeom-Soon;Lee, Jeong-Tae;Lee, Gye-Jun
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.242-247
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    • 2009
  • To select rotation crops for control of clubroot of Chinese cabbage, potato, corn, soybean, onion and groundsel were planted in the field infected with clubroot pathogen (Plasmodiophora brassicae) in highland area in 2000. In comparison of economical efficiency among rotation crops, potato and onion gained about 16.9 and 14.9 times higher, respectively, than successive cultivation of Chinese cabbage. Resting spore densities of Plasmodiophora brassicae after harvesting rotation crops were in the range of $0.3{\sim}1.2{\times}10^3/g$ soil in all cultivated soils with rotation crops while that of successive Chinese cabbage cultivation soil was very high as much as $89.3{\times}10^3/g$ soil. And disease severity of Chinese cabbage clubroot was 4.9, 20.2, 24.4, 25.1 and 27.8% in onion, soybean, potato, corn, and groundsel cultivation plot, respectively, while that of successive Chinese cabbage cultivation plot was very high as 77.8%. Effect of rotation period of onion, potato, soybean on disease control was investigated from 2002 to 2005. Resting spore densities of Plasmodiophora brassicae after cultivating rotation crops were decreased until $2^{nd}$ year and maintained low density at $3^{rd}$ year in all plots, while that of successive Chinese cabbage cultivation plot was increased 2.6 to 23.6 times for three years. When Chinese cabbage was rotation-cultivated with potato, soybean and onion for three years, disease severities of Chinese cabbage clubroot decreased 92 to 4.4%, 72 to 10.4% and 72 to 12.2%, respectively, while that of successive Chinese cabbage cultivation plot maintained 100%. As the rotation period increased, the yields of Chinese cabbage increased, while that of successive Chinese cabbage cultivation plot decreased. At $3^{rd}$ year, Chinese cabbage with high quality could be much more produced 2,205, 2,493 and 2,476 g in potato, soybean and onion cultivation plot, respectively, than 95 g in successive Chinese cabbage cultivation plot.

Soil Microbial Community Assessment for the Rhizosphere Soil of Herbicide Resistant Genetically Modified Chinese Cabbage

  • Sohn, Soo-In;Oh, Young-Ju;Ahn, Byung-Ohg;Ryu, Tae-Hoon;Cho, Hyun-Suk;Park, Jong-Sug;Lee, Ki-Jong;Oh, Sung-Dug;Lee, Jang-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.52-59
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    • 2012
  • BACKGROUND: Cultivation of genetically modified(GM) crops rapidly has increased in the global agricultural area. Among those, herbicide resistant GM crops are reported to have occupied 89.3 million hectares in 2010. However, cultivation of GM crops in the field evoked the concern of the possibility of gene transfer from transgenic plant into soil microorganisms. In our present study, we have assessed the effects of herbicide-resistant GM Chinese cabbage on the surrounding soil microbial community. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of a herbicide-resistant genetically modified (GM) Chinese cabbage on the soil microbial community in its field of growth were assessed using a conventional culture technique and also culture-independent molecular methods. Three replicate field plots were planted with a single GM and four non-GM Chinese cabbages (these included a non-GM counterpart). The soils around these plants were compared using colony counting, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and a species diversity index assessment during the growing periods. The bacterial, fungal and actinomycetes population densities of the GM Chinese cabbage soils were found to be within the range of those of the non-GM Chinese cabbage soils. The DGGE banding patterns of the GM and non-GM soils were also similar, suggesting that the bacterial community structures were stable within a given month and were unaffected by the presence of a GM plant. The similarities of the bacterial species diversity indices were consistent with this finding. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that soil microbial communities are unaffected by the cultivation of herbicide-resistant GM Chinese cabbage within the experimental time frame.

Change of Total Glucosinolates Level according to Processing Treatments in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) from Different Harvest Seasons (수확기간별 배추의 가공처리에 따른 total glucosinolates함량변화)

  • Kim, Mee-Kyung;Hong, Eun-Young;Kim, Gun-Hee
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.593-599
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the level of total glucosinolates in different parts (outer and inner part) of fresh, salted Chinese cabbage ($Brassica$ $campestris$ L. ssp. $Pekinensis$) and Kimchi at different harvesting periods (June-July, August-September, October-November, December-April, and May). For determination of total glucosinolates, Chinese cabbage was used for analytical sample preparation, provided with an anion exchanges column and measured by UV-visible Spectrophotometer. The fresh Chinese cabbage (FCC) that was harvested in June-July contained the highest level of total glucosinolates and was higher in outer part than inner part in all harvesting periods. The salted Chinese cabbage (SCC) that was harvested in May contained the lowest level of total glucosinolates. Total glucosinolates level of SCC in outer part was higher in June-July and August-September. The manufactured Kimchi (K) using harvested Chinese cabbage in June-July and August-September contained the highest level of total glucosinolates while that harvested in May contained the lowest level. The level of total glucosinolates in different parts was higher in inner part than outer part in all harvesting periods except for May. In all harvesting times, the level of total glucosinolates of FCC was higher than processed Chinese cabbage (SCC and K). Based on these results, levels of total glucosinolates are influenced by harvesting periods, parts and processing conditions of Chinese cabbage.

Carbon Footprint and Mitigation of Vegetables Produced at Open Fields and Film House using Life Cycle Assessment

  • Lee, Deog Bae;Jung, Sun Chul;So, Kyu Ho;Kim, Gun Yeob;Jeong, Hyun Cheol;Sonn, Yeon Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.457-463
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to find out major factors to mitigate carbon emission using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). System boundary of LCA was confined from sowing to packaging during vegetable production. Input amount of agri-materials was calculated on 2007 Income reference of white radish, chinese cabbage and chive produced at open field and film house published by Rural Development Administration. Domestic data and Ecoinvent data were used for emission factors of each agri-material based on the 1996 IPCC guideline. Carbon footprint of white radish was 0.19 kg $CO_2kg^{-1}$ at open fields, 0.133 kg $CO_2kg^{-1}$ at film house, that of chinese cabbage was 0.22 kg $CO_2kg^{-1}$ at open fields, 0.19 kg $CO_2kg^{-1}$ at film house, and that of chive was 0.66 kg $CO_2kg^{-1}$ at open fields and 1.04 kg $CO_2kg^{-1}$ at film house. The high carbon footprint of chive was related to lower vegetable production and higher fuel usage as compared to white radish and Chinese cabbage. The mean proportion of carbon emission was 35.7% during the manufacturing byproduct fertilizer; white radish at open fields was 50.6%, white radish at film house 13.1%, Chinese cabbage at outdoor 38.4%, Chinese cabbage at film house 34.0%, chive at outdoor 50.6%, and chive at film house 36.0%. Carbon emission, on average, for the step of manufacturing and combustion accounted for 16.1% of the total emission; white radish at open fields was 4.3%, white radish at film house 15.6%, Chinese cabbage at open fields 6.9%, Chinese cabbage at film house 19.0%, chive at open fields 12.5%, and chive at film house 29.1%. On the while, mean proportion of carbon footprint for the step of $N_2O$ emission was 29.2%; white radish at open fields was 39.2%, white radish at film house 41.9%, Chinese cabbage at open fields 34.4%, Chinese cabbage at film house 23.1%, chive at open fields 28.8%, and chive at film house 17.1%. Fertilizer was the primary factor and fuel was the secondary factor for carbon emission among the vegetables of this study. It was suggested to use Heug-To-Ram web-service system, http://soil.rda.go.kr, for the scientific fertilization based on soil testing, and for increase of energy efficiency to produce low carbon vegetable.

Determination of the effective spray- interval of Bacillus thuringiensis against diamond-back moth (Plutella xylostella) on chinese cabbage

  • Han, E.J.;Park, J.H.;Hong, S.J.;Ahn, N.H.;Jee, H.J.;Kim, Y.K.
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.259-262
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    • 2011
  • In organic Chinese cabbage fields, Commercial Bacillus thuringiensis products are used widely against diamond back moth, Plutella xylostella. We conducted the study to determine the effective spray-interval of commercialized B. thuringiensis against diamond back moth on Chinese cabbages. Chinese cabbage leaves were collected 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 10days after treatment in first trial and 0, 2, 4, 7, 9, 11days after treatment. We compared the insecticidal property of sprayed B. thuringiensis and the density of it on surface of Chinese cabbages using collected leaves. The insecticidal property maintained high until nine days after commercial B. thuringiensis products sprayed.

Increased Antimutagenic and Anticancer Activities of Chinese Cabbage Kimchi by Changing Kinds and Levels of Sub-Ingredient (부재료 첨가 배추김치의 항돌연변이 및 항암성 증진효과)

  • 박건영;조은주;이숙희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.625-632
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    • 1998
  • To enhance the antimutagenic and anticancer activities of chinese cabbage kimchi, 13 kinds of kimchi, which were different kinds and levels of sub-ingredient added kimchi, were prepared and fermented at 15℃ for 1 day and then at 5℃ up to pH 4.3. The antimutagenic effects of the methanol extracts of the kimchi were studied by using Ames mutagenicity test in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and SOS chromotest in E. coli PQ37. Among the kimchi samples, high ratio of red pepper powder(7%) and garlic(2.8% or 5.2%) added kimchi, 1% chinese pepper powder added kimchi and organic cultivated chinese cabbage kimchi significantly reduced(p<0.05) the mutagenicity induced by aflatoxin B1(AFB1) in Ames test and SOS response against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG) in SOS chromotest, and also the kimchi inhibited more effectively(p<0.05) the survival and growth of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells than the standarized kimchi on the SRB assay, MTT assay and growth inhibition test. These results suggest that the antimutagenic and anticancer activites of kimchi can be increased by the sub-ingredients such as organic cultivated chinese cabbage, red pepper powder, garlic and chinese pepper powder.

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