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Studies On Whole Chinese Cabbage Kimchi -An Investigation on the Method of Making Kimchi and a Taste in the Taegu Area- (통배추김치에 관한 연구 -대구지역을 중심으로 담그는 방법과 기호에 관한 실태조사-)

  • 김명선;한재숙
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the method of making whole Chinese cabbage Kimchi, the family's taste in Kimchi and the reason for disliking the taste of Kimchi in the Taegu area. The results were as follows; 1) Most housewives learned the method of making the Kimchi from their mothers. Method was as follows; First, scatter salt on the whole Chinese cabbage and soak that for 3∼6 hours. After, wash the whole Chinese cabbage 3 times. Then, add red pepper powder, garlic, ginger and salted fermented anchovy as basic seasoning. Be sure to, mix the red pepper powder and salted fermented anchovy until they taste hot and salty. Store the whole Chinese cabbage until they ferment. Afterwards store the whole Chinese cabbage in the refrigerator. 2) It was the whole Chinese cabbage Kimchi that most family members preferred. 3) Among the family members, the old age group preferred newly made Kimchi because of the cool and fresh taste. The adult group preferred fresh taste, also smell and peculiar taste of the seasoning were important. The adolescent group preferred fresh taste and sour taste. 4) It shows that most of the family likes Kimchi, and among the family members, about 25% of the sons and daughters dislike Kimchi. And it shows that all family members dislike salty taste. 5) The older housewives’ Kimchi was preferred over the younger housewives’ Kimchi.

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Sodium nitroprusside mediates seedling development and attenuation of oxidative stresses in Chinese cabbage

  • Sung, Chang-Hyun;Hong, Jeum-Kyu
    • Plant Biotechnology Reports
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.243-251
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    • 2010
  • Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be involved in diverse physiological processes in microbes, animals and plants. In this study, the involvement of NO in the development and possible roles in oxidative stress protection of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis cv. Samrack-ulgari) seedlings were investigated. Exogenous application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) retarded root elongation, while increasing lateral root formation of Chinese cabbage. Plants showed no signs of external stress due to SNP application in true leaves. Cotyledons of 3-week-old Chinese cabbage plants were found to be highly sensitive to SNP application. Treated cotyledons displayed rapid tissue collapse and associated cell death. Although SNP application reduced root growth under normal growth conditions, it also enhanced methyl viologen (MV)-mediated oxidative stress tolerance. Analysis of SNP application to Chinese cabbage leaf disks, revealed SNP-induced tolerance against oxidative stresses by MV and $H_2O_2$, and evidence includes prevention of chlorophyll loss, superoxide anion (${O_2}^-$) accumulation and lipid peroxidation. This report supports a role for nitric oxide in modulating early seedling development, programmed cell death and stress tolerance in Chinese cabbage.

Molecular Characterization of a thiJ-like Gene in Chinese Cabbage

  • Oh, Kyung-Jin;Park, Yong-Soon;Lee, Kyung-Ah;Chung, Yong-Je;Cho, Tae-Ju
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.343-350
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    • 2004
  • A cDNA clone for a salicylic acid-induced gene in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) was isolated and characterized. The cabbage gene encoding a protein of 392 amino acids contained a tandem array of two thiJ-like sequences. ThiJ is a thiamin biosynthesis enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of hydroxymethylpyrimidine (HMP) to HMP monophosphate. Although the cabbage gene shows a similarity to bacterial thiJ genes, it also shares a similarity with the human DJ-1, a multifunctional protein that is involved in transcription regulation, male fertility, and parkinsonism. The cabbage thiJ-like gene is strongly induced by salicylic acid and a nonhost pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, which elicits a hypersensitive response in Chinese cabbage. Treatment of the cabbage leaves with BTH, methyl jasmonate, or ethephon showed that the cabbage thiJ-like gene expression is also strongly induced by BTH, but not by methyl jasmonate or ethylene. This indicates that the cabbage gene is activated via a salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway. Examination of the tissue-specific expression revealed that the induction of the cabbage gene expression by BTH occurs in the leaf, stem, and floral tissues but not in the root.

Study on the Salt Tolerance of Rice and Other Crops in Reclaimed 2. On the Salt Tolerance of Chinese Cabbage and Cabbage in Various Salty Conditions (간척지에서 수도 및 기타작물의 내염성에 관한 연구 2. 여러 가지 염분조건에서 배추와 양배추의 내염성에 관하여)

  • 임형빈
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 1969
  • Salt tolerances of Chinese cabbage and cabbage were observed by means of the sand culture and field experiment. The point of 50% yield reduction of Chinese Cabbage was 1% of salt concentration in sand culture. The Na absorption in the salty upland conditions was increased but the absorption of Ca, Mg were interrupted as the salt concentration was raised and there were no differences in the absorption of N and P. The Si absorption was increased at low salty conditions, but the salt concentration was raised, the absorption was interrupted drastically. The cabbage was more stronger salt tolerance than Chinese cabbage, and it was possible to prevent the salt damage significantly by planting on sloping beds instead of planting on the double-row beds in field condition.

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Recent Occurrence of TuMV disease on Radish and Chinese Cabbage in Alpine Region, Kang-won Province (최근 강원도 고랭지 무,배추 바이러스(TuMV)병 발생('92-94))

  • 함영일
    • Plant Disease and Agriculture
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.45-46
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    • 1995
  • In recent years, there were considerably severe occurrences of TuMV(turnip mosaic virus) disease on radish and Chinese cabbage cultivated at alpine or sub-alpine regions, especially more severe on young Chinese cabbage sowed after late June. Started from 1991, those were very severe in 1992 and 1994, for the number of migrated aphids was increased enormously according to the weather condition of high temperature and low humidity then. This disease started at late June to early July, and continued to late August. It seemed that TuMV was transmitted easily and completely to the young chinese cabbages, but hardly and rarely the old. The regions over 1,000m of altitude had less possibility of disease-occurring, but there was severe occurrence on the second cropping of Chinese cabbage in a year. It is considered that more researches on control method of TuMV disease will be needed very urgently.

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Quality Changes of Salted Chinese Cabbage and Kimchi during Freezing Storage (절임 배추 및 김치의 동결 저장에 따른 품질변화)

  • Koh, Ha-Young;Lee, Hyun;Yang, Hee-Cheon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.62-67
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    • 1993
  • The effect of frozen storage on some physicochemical and sensory quality of salted Chinese cabbage and Kimchi were investigated. The texture of the fresh Chinese cabbage was preserved better by emersion quirk freezing or predrying than by air slow freezing or no predrying while no effect was measured on the salted Chinese cabbage. The salted cabbage had less frozen damages than the fresh one and had the similar texture characteristics of the fermented Kimchi. The frozen Kimchi had the similar overall quality to the unfrozen fermented Kimchi in spite of a little higher chewness values. The color of the salted Chinese cabbage was a little changed to pinkish after 3 months frozen storage but Kimchi was maintained the good quality after 6 months.

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Changes in Isothiocyanate Levels in Korean Chinese Cabbage Leaves during Kimchi Storage

  • Hong, Eun-Young;Kim, Gun-Hee
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.688-693
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    • 2006
  • Glucosinolates are hydrolyzed by the enzyme myrosinase and are mainly found in cruciferous vegetables such as Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis). lsothiocyanates (ITCs) are glucosinolate degradation products with reported anticarcinogenic properties. Korean Chinese cabbage in the form of 'kimchi' is a staple part of the Korean diet. In this study, we examined the effects of storage temperature and duration on glucosinolate, ITC, soluble sugar, and organic acid levels in kimchi. Changes in pH and the impact of various parts of the Korean Chinese cabbage being used during the preparation of the dish were also assessed. Extracted ITC levels, analyzed via gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), were higher in the midrib parts than in the cabbage leaves after storage at both 4 and $20^{\circ}C$. During storage, organic acid levels increased while soluble sugars were depleted. The pH initially increased (after 1 day at $20^{\circ}C$, and 1 week at $4^{\circ}C$), but subsequently decreased over time at both temperatures. Glucosinolate and ITC levels increased in the beginning of storage but then generally fell during further storage. Our data suggest that acidity-related reduction in myrosinase activity during storage may decrease glucosinolate and ITC levels. The changes in these levels depended on the storage conditions and the Korean Chinese cabbage parts used for the kimchi preparation.

Incidence, Pathogenicity of Clubroot Fungus(Plasmodiophora brassicae) and Varietal Resistance in Chinese Cabbage (배추 무사마귀병의 발생상황과 병원균(Plasmodiophora brassicae)의 병원성 및 배추품종의 병저항성)

  • 김두욱;오정행
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.95-99
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    • 1997
  • To obtain a basic information of breeding for resistance to clubroot in Chinese cabbage, disease incidence, pathogenicity, and varietal response to the pathogen were studied. Incidence of clubroot was observed at 3 districts in Gyeonggi-Do, 2 districts in Kangwon-Do, and 1 district each in Gyeongnam, Geongbuk and Jeonbuk, respectively. Disease infection rate and diseased ara were most severe in northern part of Gyeonggi-Do. The isolates of clubroot collected from 8 different districts were not different in their virulence one another in view of their infection rate and disease severity in Chinese cabbage. The clubroot fungus had a wide host range for the cruciferous vegetables. Disease severity was high in rape, turnip and mustard, moderate in Chinese cabbage and broccoli, and low in kale and cauliflower. All of Korean hybrids of Chinese cabbage tested were highly susceptible to clubroot, but Japanese varieties were resistant to the highly pathogenic isolate (EJ-93) which was isolated from the Chinese cabbage in Korea. The hybrid(F1) between clubroot resistant line(930WG) and the susceptible line(332MS) showed completely resistant reaction, which indicated that clubroot resistance was governed by a dominant gene.

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Determination of 3-Butenyl Isothiocyanate in Different Parts and Cultivars of Chinese Cabbages

  • Kim, Youn-Kyung;Kim, Gun-Hee
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.466-469
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    • 2005
  • Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. Pekinensis) is Brassica vegetable that contains high amounts of glucosinolates. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are thought to contribute to health promotion by preventing some cancers. Chinese cabbage is the most commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries including Korea. In this study, qualitative and quantitative analyses of 3-butenyl glucosinolate (Gluconapin) from different cultivars and different parts of the cabbage were performed. Gluconapin of Chinese cabbage was extracted by hot ethanol ($80^{\circ}C$), isolated by an anion exchange column and identified by GC/MS and LC/MS. The levels of glucosinolates in Chinese cabbage varied according to the different parts, cultivars, and blanching time. In general, the concentrations of 3-butenyl isothiocyanate (ITC) were higher in the leaf than in the midribs parts. The cultivar 'Bulam no. 3' had a much greater content of 3-butenyl ITC than the cultivar 'Garak no. 1,' and the levels of butenyl ITC were highest after two weeks of storage. Blanching treatment decreased the concentration of 3-butenyl ITC. The ITC concentration varied extensively among different crops of the same species, and according to the different parts on the cabbage, the storage duration and the boiling time.

Phlox subulata, Cover Plant for Soil Conservation in Chinese Cabbage-Cultivated Highland (고랭지배추 재배지 토양보전을 위한 동반작물 지면패랭이)

  • Kim, Ki-Deog;Ahn, Jae-Hoon;Lee, Jeong-Tae;Hong, Soon-Choon;Hwang, Seon-Woong;Kim, Chung-Guk
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.465-470
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    • 2007
  • To evaluate the effect of companion plant (Phlox subulata and Glechoma hederacea var. longituba) on conservation of soil in slopped highland, coverage of crops and soil erosion were investigated with 3 different conditions. The coverage rate of Phlox subulata with Chinese cabbage cultivation was kept on approximately 100% from Chinese cabbage-transplanting to -harvest. The coverage rate of Glechoma hederacea var. longituba with Chinese cabbage cultivation was low at it's early stage, however, reached to approximately 100% at the time of Chinese cabbage harvest. In contrast, the coverage rate of Chinese cabbage cultivation without cover crop, and simultaneous transplanting with Chinese cabbage and cover crop were approximately 60%. Losses of soil and nitrate nitrogen were much lower in Phlox subulata with Chinese cabbage cultivation ($0.1{\sim}0.2ton\;ha^{-1}$, $0.2{\sim}0.4kg\;NO_3{^-}-N\;ha^{-1}$) than those in Chinese cabbage cultivation without cover crop ($20.8ton\;ha^{-1}$, $2.1kg\;NO_3{^-}-N\;ha^{-1}$), and simultaneous transplanting with Chinese cabbage and cover crop ($8.9{\sim}10.5ton\;ha^{-1}$, $1.5{\sim}2.2kg\;NO_3{^-}-N\;ha^{-1}$). Cover plants suppressed the weed occurrence up to about 70%. Live mulching with cover plants set a good effects on weed suppression and reduction of soil and nutrient loss. Therefore intercropping with Phlox subulata will make great contributions to soil conservation in Chinese cabbage cultivated highland.