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Changes of Physico-chemical Properties and Maturity Assessment during Composting of Turfgrass Clipping Types from the Golf Courses (골프장 잔디예초물 종류에 따른 퇴비화 과정 중 이화학성 변화와 부숙도 평가)

  • Ha, Seung Myung;Chang, Ki Woon;Han, Ki Pil;Hong, Joo Hwah;Lee, Jong Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.89-99
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    • 2005
  • The golf courses more than about 200 are operating in Korea. From the golf courses, a great amount of turfgrass clippings tend to increase, steadily. Materials used in the experiment were Creeping Bentgrass(CB), Kentucky Bluegrass(KB), Korean Lawngrass(KL), rice bran and composted chicken drop. Treatments are CB, KB, and KL. The temperature during the composting of all treatments increased rapidly and reached at the highest temperature($57.9^{\circ}C$, $67.8^{\circ}C$, $74.3^{\circ}C$) within 20 days, and then stabilized to the range of $35.2{\sim}41.6^{\circ}C$ at the 30th day. The pH values of all treatments decreased on the first day. However, they were increased rapidly after three days and decreased again on 10~20 days. The pH values of all treatments at the final day were stabilized to the low alkali levels. The contents of total carbon during the period of composting tend to decrease and total nitrogen was increased for factor of reduction of volume. CEC value of all treatments during the period of composting tends to increase. The round paper chromatogram of extracted solution of KL sample was the sharpest and clearest among all treatments. The G.I. values of CB, KB, and KL in 30th day of composting were about 95.1, 77.7, and 98.7 in germination test using chinese cabbage, respectively. Conclusively, all turfgrass clippings used in this experiment were composted well, suitable as composting products standardized by KSC. The maturity of the final compost samples is best in KL, followed by CB and KB treatments. The turfgrass compost can contribute to the plant cultivation for environment-friendly farm, and the results of this study can become the basic data of turfgrass clippings compost. Further research on the mixing ratio of each material is required to produce compost of good quality.

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Effect of Pyroligneous Acid Liquor on the Maturity of Pig Manure Compost (목초액 처리가 돈분퇴비의 부숙도에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jong-Eun;Hong, Joo-Hwa;Chang, Ki-Woon;Hwang, Joon-Young
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.101-107
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    • 2005
  • To investigate the effect of pyroligneous acid liquor (PAL) on the maturity of pig manure compost, PAL was treated to the compost piles. The treatments included applications of 100 and 300 times diluted PAL in addition to the control. The compost piles were stirred in three times at the 1st, 10th, and 25th day of composting. Temperature in the compost pile of control treatment increased from 28 to $60^{\circ}C$ within 10 days and remained nearly at the level until 30th day, then it began to decrease. On the other hand, temperature of the PAL-100 and PAL-300 treatments reached 65 to $70^{\circ}C$ within 8 days and became stabilized until 30th day, then the temperature decreased to about $28^{\circ}C$. However, the temperature of control was stabilized approximately at the 40th day. Initially, the pH of control treatment dropped from 8.2 to slightly above pH 8.0 during 4th day, but that of the PAL-100 treatment declined to 7.8. Among treatments, pH value of PAL-100 treatment was the lowest, which was about 7.3 after becoming stabilization. Also the germination index (GI) was increased at all treatments. The C/N ratio range of PAL-100 treatment was better balanced than others and was at 24.3. Moreover the round paper chromatogram of extracted solution of compost of PAL-100 treatment was the sharpest and clearest among treatments. The GI values of control, PAL-100, and PAL-300 in 60 days of composting were about 108, 120, and 118 in germination test using chinese cabbage, respectively. It can be concluded that the addition of diluted PAL solution is effective in composting of pig manure.

Influence of Daytime Temperature on the Time Required for Fruit Harvest and Yield of Hot Pepper (주간온도가 고추의 수확 소요일수 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Gyu;Choi, Chang-Sun;Lee, Jun-Gu;Jang, Yoon-Ah;Nam, Chun-Woo;Lee, Hee-Ju;Suh, Jeong-Min;Kang, Jum-Soon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1181-1186
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    • 2013
  • Due to climate change, the occurrence of abnormal weather conditions has become more frequent, causing damage to vegetable crops grown in Korea. Hot pepper, Chinese cabbage and radish, the three most popular vegetables in Korea, are produced more in the field than in the greenhouse. It has been a trend that the time for field transplanting of seedlings is getting earlier and earlier as the spring temperatures keep rising. Seedlings transplanted too early in the spring take a longer time to resume the normal growth, because they are exposed to suboptimal temperature conditions. This study examined the influence of air temperature during seedling growth on the time required to reach the first fruit maturity and yield of hot pepper. Seedling plants of 'Super Manita' hot pepper was grown in temperatures $2.5^{\circ}C$ and $5.0^{\circ}C$ lower than the optimum temperature (determined by the average of temperatures for the past 5 years). Seedlings were transplanted into round plastic containers (30-cm diam., 45-cm height) and were placed in growth chambers in which the ambient temperature was controlled under natural sunlight. The growth of seedlings under lowered temperatures was reduced compared to the control. The mineral (K, Mg, P, N) concentrations in the leaf tissues were higher when plants were grown with the ambient temperature $2.5^{\circ}C$ lower than the optimum, regardless of changes in other growth parameters. Tissue calcium (Ca) concentration was the highest in the plants grown with optimum temperature. The carbohydrate to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which was the highest (18.3) in the plants grown with optimum temperature, decreased concomitantly as the ambient temperature was lowered $2.5^{\circ}C$ and $5.0^{\circ}C$. The yield of the early harvested fruits was also reduced as the ambient temperature became lower. The first fruit harvest date for the plants grown with optimum temperature (June 27) was 13 days and 40 days, respectively, earlier than that in plants grown with $2.5^{\circ}C$ (July 10) and $5.0^{\circ}C$ (Aug 6) lower ambient temperatures. The fruit yield per plant for the optimum temperature (724 g) was the greatest compared to those grown with $2.5^{\circ}C$ (446 g) and $5.0^{\circ}C$ (236 g) lower temperatures. The result of this study suggests that the growers should be cautioned not to transplant their hot pepper seedlings too early into the field, since it may delay the time of first harvest eventually reducing total fruit yield.

Efficiency of microspore embryogenesis in Brassica rapa using different genotypes and culture conditions (배추 유전자원의 소포자 유래 배 발생 효율에 미치는 배양 조건 구명)

  • Seo, Mi-Suk;Sohn, Seong-Han;Park, Beom-Seok;Ko, Ho-Cheol;Jin, Mina
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.116-122
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    • 2014
  • Total of fifty accessions of Brassica rapa with various morphological characteristics were used for production of double haploid plants though microspore culture in Brassica rapa. Among them, only 30 accessions induced embryos from microspores. The highest efficiency of embryo induction of 1.194 per bud was obtained from IT135449 of turnip type, while 3 accessions of sarson (winter oil) type did not generate embryo. The effect of heat shock periods for embryogenesis was also investigated with 4 accessions (IT135449; Turnip type, IT199710; Chinese cabbage type, IT212886; Pak choi type, IT218043; Summer oil type). The high productions of embryos were observed in IT135449, IT199710 and IT212886 when microspores were pre-cultured to $32^{\circ}C$ for 2 days. In IT218043, high embryogenesis was observed at the 3 days of heat shock treatment. The optimal condition of shoot regeneration for IT199710 was observed in MS medium supplemented with NAA $0.5mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ and BAP $1mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$. In contrast, the IT135449 and IT212886 were observed high regeneration frequency in MS medium without plant growth regulators. All the plantlets regenerated from microspore-derived embryos have been successfully transplanted to soil, and bud self-pollinated seeds were produced from doubled haploid plants. This indicated that double-haploid genotype was likely generated naturally during embryogenesis process.

Determination of cyromazine residues in agricultural commodities using HPLC-UVD/MS (HPLC-UVD/MS를 이용한 농산물 중 Cyromazine의 잔류분석법)

  • Song, Lee-Seul;Kim, Young-Hak;Lee, Su-Jin;Hwang, Young-Sun;Kwon, Chan-Hyeok;Do, Jung-Ah;Oh, Jae-Ho;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Chang, Woo-Suk;Lee, Young-Deuk;Choung, Myoung-Gun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.202-208
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    • 2012
  • A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed to determine residues of cyromazine, a triazine insecticide, in agricultural commodities. Cyromazine was extracted with 90% aqueous methanol from representative crops which comprised brown rice, oyster mushroom, oriental melon, watermelon, and Chinese cabbage. Following to evaporation of methanol in the extract, the aqueous concentrate was acidified to form the protonated cyromazine. Dichloromethane partition was then applied to remove nonpolar co-extractives in the aqueous phase. Strong cation-exchange chromatography using Dowex 50W-X4 resin was employed for final purification of the extract. Cyromazine was successfully separated on a Zorbax SB-Aq $C_{18}$ column showing high retention for polar compounds. Cyromazine was sensitively quantitated by ultraviolet absorption at 214 nm. Limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the method was 0.04 mg/kg irrespective of sample types. Each crops were fortified at 3 different concentrations of cyromazine for recovery test. Mean recoveries from samples fortified at LOQ~2.0 mg/kg in triplicate ranged 80.2~103.3% in five agricultural commodities. Relative standard deviations in recoveries were all less than 6%. A selected-ion monitoring LC/MS method with electrospray ionization in positive-ion mode was also provided to confirm the suspected residue. The proposed method was reproducible and sensitive enough to routinely determine and inspect the residue of cyromazine in agricultural commodities.

The continuous application effect of the food waste composts on the cultivated upland soils and plants (밭에서 음식물류폐기물 활용 퇴비의 연용이 토양 및 작물에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Soon-Ik;So, Kyu-Ho;Hong, Seung-Gil;Kim, Gun-Yeob;Seong, Ki-Seog;Park, Woo-Kyun;Kim, Kwon-Rae;Lee, Deog-Bae;Jung, Kwang-Yong
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.71-81
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    • 2009
  • Food waste has been actively used as a composting material in order to reduce the environmental pollution load and to enhance the recycling of resources. In this study, the longterm effects of continuous application of food waste compost to soils on both the crop production and the soil properties were examined to ensure the safety of food waste compost in agricultural use. In addition, we collected the preliminary data for establishing standard application rate of food waste compost for agricultural utilization. Based on conventional nitrogen application rate of chemical fertilizer for crop cultivation, pig manure compost $(24g\;N\;kg^{-1}$, $8g\;P_2O_5\;kg^{-1}$, and $10.4g\;K_2O\;kg^{-1})$ and food waste compost ($20g\;N\;kg^{-1}$, $20.1g\;P_2O_5\;kg^{-1}$, and $6.5g\;K_2O\;kg^{-1}$) were applied to the upland soil in $2{\times}2{\times}2m$ lysimeter in which lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa), Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris subsp. napus var. pekinensis), red pepper (Capsicum annuum), and potato (Solanum tuberosum) were grown continuously. The crops grown in soils to which food waste compost applied showed better growth responses than the control, whereas some variations were observed in the crops grown in chemical fertilizer treated soils. Continuous application of food waste compost increased the contents of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus, which resulted in improving soil aeration.

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A Study on the Business of the Situation Analysis of Food Waste Recycling (음식물류 폐기물 재활용현황 분석을 통한 사업화 연구)

  • Park, Yong Soo;Seol, Byung Moon
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.209-217
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    • 2015
  • Development of food industry and increased city life induced enlarged generation of food waste which is currently reused in a wide range of way. In this study, treatment of food waste generated from the public agricultural product wholesale markets (they are categorized as business places which imposes the duty for reducing the food waste discarded) in Korea was investigated, and subsequently, a scheme for improving the food waste recycling business was suggested. The food waste treatment plants are mainly located in Kyeongki-do at 39.5% of total plants in Korea and the other provinces have less than 10% of the total numbers, among which public treatment plant was 38.0% and private plant was 62.0%. The treatment methods included recycling as animal feed at 47.5%, as compost at 36.4%, and the rest of food waste (12.6%) was treated in other ways. Remarkably, it was noticed that the amount of food waste treated in anaerobic digestion have been increased up to 5.4% since 2011. This implied that food waste treated in anaerobic digestion method is gradually increased according to government policy. Amongst 33 public agricultural product wholesale markets distributed all over the country, the trading volume dealt in Garakdong market in Seoul, Gangseo market in Seoul, Daegu market in Daeju, Eomgung market in Busan, Guri market in Guri accounted for 34.67, 7.47, 6.98, 5.41, and 5.30% of the total trading volume in Korea, respectively. 2.65% of the total trading agricultural products dealt in the markets were remained as food waste and treated. In 2006, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs implemented the package policy for radish and Chinese cabbage in order to reduce the amount of food waste and indeed, food waste generated in Garakdong market declined to one third of the food waste before the package policy implementation. In 2010, the food waste amount treated by 'dehydration', 'discarding as raw materials', and 'drying after dehydration' accounted for 56.3%, 33.7%, and 10.0% of the total food waste generated in the public agricultural product wholesale market. However, in 2013, discarding as raw materials accounted for the most at 56.3% followed by dehydration at 37.5%, and by drying after dehydration at 6.3%. The remarkable increment of the food waste discarded as raw materials was attributed to the increase of them in Garakdong market in Seoul. In general, the agricultural food waste contains high amount of moisture at 88% in average and low amount of salt at 0.02% in average. Therefore, it is highly recommended to treat the agricultural food waste through drying after dehydration in order for improving the treatment capability. Also, this recommendation can be supported by the fact that the end-products via drying after dehydration can be utilized as compost material. Overall, the agricultural food waste recycling business can be developed through integration of the treatment via 'drying after dehydration' and compost production.

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Studies on the Improvement of the Cropping System (I) (작부체계(作付體系) 개선(改善)에 관(關)한 조사연구(調査硏究)(I))

  • Choi, Chang Yeol
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.61-73
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    • 1983
  • This study was conducted to obtain fundamental informations on the improvement of cropping system to increase in land utilization rate and crop production. In order to group the characteristics of areas, Chungnam province was classified into 4 classes: Suburb (Daedeog Gun, Cheonwon Gun), Plain (Nonsan Gun, Dangjin Gun) Coastal (Seosan Gun, Boryeong Gun) and Hilly region (Gongju Gun, Cheongyang Gun). 100 farm households were sampled from each region, and cropping system and utilization state of paddy and upland in 1982 were surveyed. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. Average utilization rate of upland was 161.9 % The utilization rate of upland at plain was highest (188.9 %), and that at suburb showed lowest value (152.0%). 2. Number of crops cultivated at upland was 32 kinds. Among the rate of planting area of each crop. soybean showed highest rate of 18.8%, barley 15.4%, red-pepper 13.1% and chinese' cabbage 10.1% respectively, but the red pepper showed highest rate of planting area at suburb, the barley at hilly region and the soybean at plain and coastal region. 3. Average utilization rate of paddy was 115.6% and the utilization rate of paddy at suburb showed the highest value (140.0%) and that at coastal region the lowest value (108.2%). 4. 12 kinds of crops were cultivated at paddy before or after rice cultivation. Among the crops cultivated at paddy before or after rice cultivation, barley showed the highest area rate (5.0%) of cultivation and strawberry the next but the strawberry showed the highest area rate of cultivation at suburb and barley at other regions. 5. The cropping systems at upland were divided into single cropping and double cropping. Types of double cropping at upland were classified into 38 types by the combinations of crops. Among the types of double cropping, the rate of cultivation area of soybean after barley combination was 35.0%, but at suburb the rate of this type of cropping system was low and the double cropping of vegetable combinations showed high rate. 6. Types of double cropping at paddy were classified into 6 types. As a whole, double cropping of barley after rice combination showed highest rate of cultivation area (42.8%) among crop combinations but at suburb, the area rate of this type cropping was low and cultivation of fruit vegetable after rice showed highest rate. The area rate of post - cropping to rice was 76.3% of whole double cropping area at paddy and significantly higher than the rate of precropping to rice. 7. Some kinds of crop combinations were consisted of same family or closely related crops and the characteristics of the crop rotation between those crops are almost same. The area cultivated those unreasonable crop combinations were 19.09 ha. 8. At upland, planting area of the cereal crops, vegetale crops and industrial crops crops and industrial crops was 88.92ha, 93.70ha and 21.80ha respectively. The Planting area of cereal crops was significantly less than that of vegetable crops. 9. Most of all the research reports on the cropping system from 1910 to 1980 were about the post cropping after rice harvest. The objectives of researches could be classified into 14 kinds and the important objectives of researches were the planting time, the amounting of manuring, the quantity of seeding, the transplanting time, the ridging method, the sowing method and the variety test.

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