• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Chinese cabbage

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김치의 숙성기간에 따른 외국인의 관능적 선호도 조사 (A Study on Foreigner Preferences and Sensory Characteristics of Kimchi Fermented for Different Periods)

  • 정은희;류정표;이상일
    • 한국식생활문화학회지
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.346-353
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    • 2012
  • This study was designed to investigate foreigner preferences for the sensory characteristics of kimchi with different fermentation periods. After fermentation in a 5 freezer for 1, 7, and 15 days, Red Chinese Cabbage Kimchi, White Chinese Cabbage Kimchi, Kkakdugi, Chonggak Kimchi, Cucumber Kimchi, Green Onion Kimchi, and Mustard Kimchi were served to the respondents. The respondents had resided in Seoul and Kyunggi province for 3 years or less, and were from Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. Most respondents (62.9%) consumed a Korean meal daily, and 45% of all respondents reported eating kimchi 3 or 4 times a week. As a result, it can be said that foreigners residing in Korea preferred to eat kimchi as a side dish. Based on the respondents answers, we were able to determine the relative popularity of the different types of kimchi. They were, from most popular to least popular, Red Chinese Cabbage Kimchi, Kkakdugi Kimchi, Cucumber Kimchi, White Chinese Cabbage Kimchi, Chonggak Kimchi, Green Onion Kimchi, and Mustard Kimchi. Among those fermented for 1 day, Cucumber Kimchi was most preferred for its. When evaluating the overall preference of Kimchi, the best was in the order of Chinese cabbage (red)>Kkakdugi>Cucumber>Chinese cabbage (white)>Chonggak>Green onion>Mustard Kimchi. For 1 day in a fermented period, Cucumber Kimchi had the most preferred taste (5.76), appearance (5.66), odor (5.89), and texture (5.70). However, Cucumber Kimchi was least popular after 15 days of fermentation (p<0.01). The most preferred Kimchi after 15 days of fermentation was Red Chinese Cabbage Kimchi. Among the kimchi fermented for 7 days, White Chinese Cabbage Kimchi was most preferred. While foreigners indicated that they were satisfied with all the types of kimchi fermented for 1 day and 15 days, they were not satisfied with any of the kimchi fermented for 7 days, save for the White Chinese Cabbage Kimchi. Kkakdugi Kimchi had very high satisfaction scores for appearance, but low scores in taste. On the other hand, Chinese Cabbage Kimchi had low scores in odor (5.02-5.29), but high in texture (5.37-5.62) and taste (4.80-5.30), which are not factors sensitive to a change in acidity. These results showed that foreigners were generally satisfied with Kimchi, but became less satisfied as the Kimchi ripened. Most foreigners were not satisfied with the types of Kimchi that had a strong flavor. Chinese Cabbage Kimchi became the least sour after fermentation, and Cucumber Kimchi became most sour after fermentation.

배추김치즙의 Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus 및 Enterobacter cloacae에 대한 항균작용 (The Antibacterial Action of Chinese Cabbage Kimchi Juice on Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae)

  • 서화중;서유석
    • 한국식품영양과학회지
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.1351-1356
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    • 2003
  • 배추김치의 항균작용을 실험한 본 연구에서 1개월간 발효된 배추김치즙 시료(염분 2.8%, 산도 1.34%, PH 4.1)를 2% 함유한 보통 한천 배지에서 실험군의 집락수 억제율은Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076이 가장 낮은 63%이었고 Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 13047과 Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538p은 각각 72%, 76%이었고 Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802은 가장 높은 90%를 보였다. Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802는 배추김치즙 함량이 6%에서 100%발육 억제효과를 보여 실험균 중 배추김치즙에 대한 저항력이 가장 약했으나 동일한 배추김치즙 시료농도(6%)에서 Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 13047, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538p는 각각 89%, 90%, 91% 의 집락수 억제 효과를 보였다. 배추김치즙 함량 10%에서 모든 실험군의 집락가100% 억제되는 효과를 보였다. 실험결과 1개월간 충분히 발효된 배추김치에는 어떤 식중독균도 생존할 수 없을 것으로 밝혀졌다.

APEX 모형을 이용한 밭작물(콩, 배추) 물발자국 영향 평가 (Assessment & Estimation of Water Footprint on Soybean and Chinese Cabbage by APEX Model)

  • 허승오;최순군;홍성창
    • 한국환경농학회지
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.159-165
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND: The water footprint (WF) is an indicator of freshwater use that appears not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. As an indicator of 'water use', the water footprint includes the green, blue, and grey WF, and differs from the classical measure of 'water withdrawal' because of green and grey WF. This study was conducted to assess and estimate the water footprint of the soybean and Chinese cabbage. METHODS AND RESULTS: APEX model with weather data, soil and water quality data from NAS (National Institute of Agricultural Sciences), and farming data from RDA (Rural Development Administration) was operated for analyzing the WF of the crops. As the result of comparing the yield estimated from APEX with the yield extracted from statistic data of each county, the coefficients of determination were 0.83 for soybean and 0.97 for Chinese cabbage and p-value was statistically significant. The WFs of the soybean and Chinese cabbage at production procedure were 1,985 L/Kg and 58 L/Kg, respectively. This difference may have originated from the cultivation duration. The WF ratios of soybean were 91.1% for green WF and 8.9% for grey WF, but the WF ratios of Chinese cabbage were 41.5% for green WF and 58.5% for grey WF. CONCLUSION: These results mean that the efficiency of water use for soybean is better than that for Chinese cabbage. The results could also be useful as an information to assess environmental impact of water use and agricultural farming on soybean and Chinese cabbage.

가축액상분뇨 사용이 헤어리베치 질소흡수와 후작 배추 생육에 미치는 영향 (Effects of Animal Slurry Application on Nitrogen Uptake of Hairy Vetch and Growth of Chinese Cabbage)

  • 류종원
    • 한국유기농업학회지
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.211-221
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    • 2005
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of animal slurry on nitrogen uptake of hairy vetch and growth of chinese cabbage in cropping system. Hairy vetch was seeded on September 20 in 2003 . We examined the effect of cover crop(hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) and slurry application(0, l00, 200kg N/ha) on yield and N uptake. Dry matter yield and nitrogen uptake of hairy vetch were measured. The chinese cabbage succeeding cover crop was harvested in 2004. The nitrogen uptake of hairy vetch was 84, 121, 148kg N/ha respectively, when the slurry application was 0, 100 and 200kg N/ha. In addition. N uptake of hairy vetch at the plot of 100kg and 200 kg N/ha slurry were 44% and 76% higher than that of the plot without slurry application respectively. Slurry application of hairy vetch could increase nitrogen uptake by application of green manure at the harvesting time. the content of organic matter and P-content of soil with hairy vetch plot was higher than that of fallow plot due to inhibition of soil erosion. The organic matter levels tend to improve with the addition of hairy vetch. Hairy vetch could improve soil quality by reducing erosion compared with bare fallow. The green manure of hairy vetch with animal slurry maintained soil nutrient and reduced nitrogen fertilizer of chinese cabbage. The hairy vetch residues decomposed rapidly releasing half of their residues within 40 days after burial. The yield of chinese cabbage was 90% in the plot of manure of hairy vetch compared with chemical fertilizer. The yield in the plot treated with green manure of hairy vetch and 50% of chemical fertilizer was reduced 5% less than that of chemical fertilizer. Therefore, it was estimated that the green manure of hairy vetch-chinese cabbage cropping system could reduce nitrogen chemical fertilizer as much as 84~148kgN/ha. the green manure of hairy vetch with animal slurry maintained soil nutrient and reduced nitrogen fertilizer of chinese cabbage.

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배추 생산량 추정에 영향을 미치는 기상요소 연구 (Study on Meteorological Factors affecting Estimation of Chinese Cabbage Yield)

  • 김용석;심교문;정명표;최인태
    • 한국기후변화학회지
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.277-281
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    • 2015
  • A Chinese cabbage is one of important vegetables which accounts for more than 60 percent of leaf vegetable. However, cultivation area and yield of Chinese cabbage are steadily decreasing recently. Because meteorological changes destabilize the balance of Chinese cabbage, we need to study on meteorological factors affecting estimation of Chinese cabbage yield. So we conducted a panel analysis using mean temperature, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation and sunshine's duration from August to November for estimation of Chinese cabbage yield. As the results, we found that if the mean temperature of September increase by $1^{\circ}C$ the amount of production of Chinese cabbage per unit area was increased by 348.6 kg/10a. We also found that the mean temperature of October increased by 174.8 kg/10a, that of November 148 kg/10a, the difference between the maxium temperature and the minimum temperature of October equals 443.3 kg/10a. However, we found that the difference between the maximum temperature and the minimum temperature of November decreased 274.1 kg/10a.

밭작물소비수량에 관한 기초적 연구 -토마토 및 가을배추- (Basic Studies on the Consumptive Use of Water Required for Dry Field Crops -Tomato and Chinese Cabbage-)

  • 김철기;김진한;최홍규
    • 한국농공학회지
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.25-37
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    • 1988
  • The purpose of this study is to fmd out the bask data for irrigation plans of tomato and chinese cabbage during the growing period, such as total amount of evapotranspiration, coefficients of evapotranspiration at each growth stage, the peak stage of evapotranspiration, the maximum evapotranspiration, optimum irrigation point, total readily available moisture and intervals of irrigation date. The plots of experiment were arranged with split plot design which were composed of two factors, irrigation point for main plot and soji texture for split plot, and three levels, irrigation points with PF 1.8, PF 2.2, PF 2.6 for tomato and those with PF 1.9, PF 2.3, PF 2.7, for Chinese cabbage, soil textures of silty clay, sandy loam and sandy soil for both tomato and Chinese cabbage, with two replications. The results obtained are summarized as follows 1. There was the highest significant correlation between the evapotranspiration and the pan evaporation, beyond all other meteoralogical factors considered. Therefore, the pan evaporation is enough to be used as a meteorological index measuring the quantity of evapotranspiration. 2. 1/10 probability values of maximum total pan evaporation during growing period for tomato and Chinese cabbage were shown as 355.8 mm and 233.0 mm, respectively, and those of maximum ten day pan evaporation for tomato and Chinese cabbage, 68.0 mm and 43.8 mm, respectively. 3. The time that annual maximum of ten day pan evaporation can be occurred, exists at any stage of growing period for tomato, and at any growth stage till the late of Septemberfor Chinese cabbage. 4. The magnitude of evapotranspiration and of its coefficient for tomato and Chinese cabbage was occurred in the order of pF 1.8>pF 2.2>pF 2.6 and of pF 1.9>pF 2.3>pF 2.7 respectively in aspect of irrigation point and of silty clay>sandy loam>sandy soil in aspect of soil texture. 5. 1/10 probability value of evapotranspiration and its coefficient during the growing period of tomato were shown as 327.3 mm and 0.92 respectively, while those of Chinese cabbage, 261.0 mm and 1.12 respectively. 6. The time that maximum evapotranspiration of tomato can be occurred is at the date of fortieth to fiftieth after transplanting and the time for Chinese cabbage is presumed to he in the late of septemben At that time, 1/10 probability value of ten day evapotranspiration and its coefficient for tomato is presumed to be 74.8 mm and 1.10 respectively, while those of Chinese cabbage, 43.8 mm and 1.00. 7. In aspect of only irrigaton point, the weight of raw tomato and Chinese cabbage were mcreased in the order of pF 2.2>pF 1.8>pF 2.6 and of pF 1.9>pF 2.3>pF 2.7, respectively but optimum irrigation point for tomato and Chinese cabbage, is presumed to be pF 2.6 - 2.7 if nonsignificance of the yield between the different irrigation treatments, economy of water, and reduction in labour of irrigaion are synthetically considered. 8. The soil moisture extraction patterns of tomato and Chinese cabbage have shown that maximum extraction rate exists at 7 cm deep layer at the beginning stage of growth m any soil texture and that extraction rates of 21 cm to 35 cm deep layer are increased as getting closer to the late stage of growth. And especially the extraction rates of 21 cm deep layer and 35 cm deep layer have shown tendency to be more increased in silty clay than in any other soils. 9. As optimum irrigation point is presumed to be pF Z6-2.7, total readily available moisture of tomato in silty clay, sandy loam and sandy sofl becomes to be 19.06 mm, 21.37 mm and 20.91 mm respectively while that of Chinese cabbage, 18.51 mm, 20.27 mm, 21.11 mm respectively. 10. On the basis of optimum irrigation point with pF 2.6 - 2.7 the intervals of irrigation date of tomato and Chinese cabbage at the growth stage of maximum consumptive use become to be three days and five days respectively.

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Molecular Characterization of a PR4 Gene in Chinese Cabbage

  • Chung, Sam-Young;Lee, Kyung-Ah;Oh, Kyung-Jin;Cho, Tae-Ju
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.239-244
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    • 2005
  • A cDNA clone for a wound- and pathogen-induced gene in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) was isolated and characterized. The cabbage gene, designated BrPR4, encodes a pathogenesis-related protein 4 (PR4) of 140 amino acids. The BrPR4 protein shows high similarity with wound-inducible antifungal proteins of tobacco, potato, barley, and wheat. The BrPR4 gene is locally induced by a nonhost pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, that elicits a hypersensitive response in Chinese cabbage. Treatment of the cabbage leaves with benzothiadiazole (BTH), methyl jasmonate or ethephon showed that the BrPR4 gene expression is strongly induced by ethylene, but not by methyl jasmonate or BTH. The BrPR4 gene is also activated by wounding. Interestingly, however, the wound-inducible BrPR4 gene expression is repressed by salicylic acid or BTH, suggesting that there is cross-talk between salicylate-dependent and -independent signaling pathways.

배추김치 분획물의 in vitro 항암효과 (Invitro Anticancer Effect of Chinese Cabbage Kimchi Fractions)

  • 박건영;조은주;이숙희;강갑석
    • 한국식품영양과학회지
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.1326-1331
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    • 1999
  • In vitro anticancer effect of Chinese cabbage kimchi fractions was investigated by using human cancer cells, AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and HT 29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. The Chinese cabbage kimchi(fermented for 4 days at 15oC) was fractionated into 7 groups, methanol extract, hexane fraction(fr.), methanol soluble fr., dichloromethane fr., ethylacetate fr., butanol fr. and aqueous fr.. Chinese cabbage kimchi fractions inhibited the growth of AGS and HT 29 cancer cells as dose dependent. In particular, the dichloromethane fr. showed the highest inhibitory effect among other fractions. When the dichloromethane fr.(0.2mg/ml) was treated, the number of AGS and HT 29 survival cancer cells reduced to 12$\times$104/ml and 11$\times$104/ml compared to 166$\times$104/ml and 50$\times$104/ml of the controls, respectively. Chinese cabbage kimchi fractions also inhibited the DNA synthesis of the cancer cells. They inhibited the DNA synthesis of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells more efficiently than that of HT 29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. These results indicate that Chinese cabbage kimchi fractions show in vitro anticancer activity and the dichloromethane fr. among them reveals the highest effect.

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Antimutagenic and Anticance Effects of Buchu Kimchi

  • Jung, Keun-Ok;Lee, Kyeoung-Im;Suh, Myoung-Ja;Park, Kun-Young
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 1999
  • The antimutagenic effects of buchu kimchi and Chinese cabbage kimchi and theri cytotoxic effects against human cancer cell line were investigated in the Salmonella typhimurium system and MTT assay, respectively. Leek and Chinese cabbage were aslo evaluated in the same system. Buchu kimchi was fermented at 15 $^{\circ}C$ for 4 days . Buchu kimchi samples showed somewhat higher antimutagenic effects against aflatoxin B1(AFB1) than CHinese cabbage kimchi in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain. There was no difference onthe antimutagenic activity according to the length of fermentation . Leek exerted stronger antimutagenicity against AFB1 than Chinese cabbage in the Ames assay. In MTT assay, 6-day fermented buchu kimchin revealed the highest cytotoxicity against AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in which 62% and 82% of the inhibition were observed wiht the addition of 100ug, 400ug/well, respectively. Buchu kimchi samples caused 60~70% inhibition on the proliferation of HT-29 at 400ug/well. Leek exhibited higher antiproliferative effect against both AGS cells and HT-29 cells than Chinese cabbage in MTT assay. From these results, it is considered that buchu kimchi has stronger antimutagenic and in vitro anticancer effects than Chinese cabbage kimchi and the high inhibition rate of buchu kimchi probably results from leek, the major ingredient of buchu kimchi .

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칼슘비료 처리에 의한 배추 무름병 발생 억제 (Suppression of Bacterial Soft Rot on Chinese Cabbage by Calcium Fertilizer Treatment)

  • 김병섭;용영록
    • 식물병연구
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.82-85
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    • 2004
  • Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora에 의한 배추 무름병은 배추에서 가장 큰 문제가 되고 있는 병 중 하나이다. 본 연구는 칼슘비료 시비가 배추 무름병 발생에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위하여 실시하였다 칼슘 비료 7종을 선발하여 배추 유묘에 엽면 살포한 후, 세균현탁액과 mineral oil을 4:1로 혼합하여 배추의 중앙 기부에 10 m1 관주 접종하는 mineral oil 접종법으로 접종하였다. 배추 유묘에 엽면 살포한 결과 calcium hydroxide가 다른 calcium 비료보다 무름병 방제에 효과가 높게 나타났다. 질소 비료시비는 무름병 발생을 촉진한 반면, calcium hydroxide를 수용액으로 엽면시비할 때 유묘에서뿐 아니라 포장 시험에서도 무름병 발생을 억제하였다. Calcium과 질소를 혼합 살포할 때도 calcium 단독살포와 마찬가지로 무름병 발생을 억제하였다.