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Comparative studies of systems and questions between Chinese I in the Korea National Scholastic Aptitude Test and Chinese with Listening in the SAT (대학수학능력시험의 '중국어 I'과 SAT의 'Chinese with Listening' 비교 - 체제와 문항을 중심으로)

  • Park, Chan Wook
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.23
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    • pp.351-382
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    • 2011
  • This paper aims to compare systems and questions between Chinese I in the Korea National Scholastic Aptitude Test(abbreviated by KNSAT) and Chinese with Listening in the SAT. In the beginning, we compared KNSAT and SAT, and then focused our attention on Chinese I in KNSAT and Chinese with Listening in SAT in terms of assessment purposes, sections, ranges, questions. Through the research, the following results were obtained: Firstly, compared KNSAT with SAT, it is found that Chinese I is less important in KNSAT than Chinese with Listening in SAT. Chinese I belongs to one of the second foreign languages section, and it is placed under common rule of its section. However, Chinese with Listening is similar to Chinese I in that it also belongs to one of the languages section, but it keeps under its control, so it has its own system e.g. purpose, range etc.. Next, compared Chinese I with Chinese with Listening, in the matter of purposes of them, Chinese I is less explicit and less concrete to explain it than Chinese with Listening, and in respect of sections of them, the sections of Chinese I are leaning more toward language materials contrary to Chinese with Listening leaning more toward language functions. And in terms of ranges of them, Chinese I is limited to Basic vocabulary and Examples of communicative function in curriculum of Chinese I, but Chinese with Listening has not any limit on the ranges of questions. Lastly, with regard to questions of them, Chinese I has more tendency toward assessing knowledge of Chinese, on the contrary, Chinese with Listening has more tendency toward assessing performance of it.

Cross-Cultural Differences in Temperament Among Korean-Chinese, Chinese in Yanji and Korean Children (연변 지역의 조선족과 한족 및 한국 아동의 기질 비교)

  • Park Hyewon;Park Min-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.221-231
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    • 2005
  • This study investigated the cross-cultural differences in temperament among Chinese, Korean-Chinese, and Korean children. Subjects were 1,046(258 Korean-Chinese, 290 Chinese, and 498 Korean) 4th graders from Yanji in China and Seoul and Ulsan in Korea. The short form of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire Scale-Revised containing 10 scales of 54 items was translated into Korean for Korean and Korean-Chinese children and into Chinese for Chinese children and was administered to children via home-room teachers. Chinese children rated themselves higher on activation control, attention, and pleasure- and perceptual-sensitivity subscales than other groups. On the contrary, Chinese-Korean children rated themselves higher on the affiliation subscale and Korean children rated themselves higher on the aggression subscale than other groups. There were larger gender differences among Chinese and Korean-Chinese than among Korean children: Gender difference was found in activation control, aggression, and attention subscales among Chinese children and in affiliation, aggression, attention and fear subscales among Korean-Chinese. There was only significant difference in pleasure sensitivity among Korean. Rapid westernization in Korea seems to be responsible for this result. Since there were significant differences of temperament between Korean and Korean-Chinese, and between Chinese and Korean-Chinese, it was interpreted that children's temperament is influenced by both their environment and genetic endowment.

Study on Chinese Character Borrowing in Korean Language (우리말 중 한자차용 실태 고찰 - 중국어의 한자차용 사례와의 비교를 중심으로)

  • PARK, SEOK HONG
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.33
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    • pp.359-384
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    • 2013
  • There is linguistic phenomenon that Korean syllable, morpheme and word are substituted with Chinese Character. These phenomenon is called Chinese Character Borrowing, the Chinese character used here is called Borrowed Chinese Character. Whereas borrowing Chinese character in Chinese is used for borrowing only sound for different word, borrowing Chinese character in Korean is used for assigning new meaning. Hence, by borrowing Chinese character in Korean, a syllable which had no meaning originally get new meaning, morpheme and word meaning has changed. At advertisement and campaign, Chinese Character Borrowing has lots of linguistical advantage such as visual immediacy, effectiveness of meaning expression. However, there are number of cases found that violate grammar rule and word constitution practice by Chinese Character Borrowing. For this reason, Chinese Character Borrowing has the problem polluting Korean along with another foreign words. Thus, this paper focus on study Chinese Character Borrowing phenomenon in Korean, and analysis its effectiveness and impact in Korean. In addition, analysis the problem of Borrowed chinese Character, and suggestion several alternative for right use of Korean is followed.

Stem-leaf saponins from Panax notoginseng counteract aberrant autophagy and apoptosis in hippocampal neurons of mice with cognitive impairment induced by sleep deprivation

  • Cao, Yin;Yang, Yingbo;Wu, Hui;Lu, Yi;Wu, Shuang;Liu, Lulu;Wang, Changhong;Huang, Fei;Shi, Hailian;Zhang, Beibei;Wu, Xiaojun;Wang, Zhengtao
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.442-452
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    • 2020
  • Backgroud: Sleep deprivation (SD) impairs learning and memory by inhibiting hippocampal functioning at molecular and cellular levels. Abnormal autophagy and apoptosis are closely associated with neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. This study is aimed to explore the alleviative effect and the underlying molecular mechanism of stem-leaf saponins of Panax notoginseng (SLSP) on the abnormal neuronal autophagy and apoptosis in hippocampus of mice with impaired learning and memory induced by SD. Methods: Mouse spatial learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze test. Neuronal morphological changes were observed by Nissl staining. Autophagosome formation was examined by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescent staining, acridine orange staining, and transient transfection of the tf-LC3 plasmid. Apoptotic event was analyzed by flow cytometry after PI/annexin V staining. The expression or activation of autophagy and apoptosis-related proteins were detected by Western blotting assay. Results: SLSP was shown to improve the spatial learning and memory of mice after SD for 48 h, accomanied with restrained excessive autophage and apoptosis, whereas enhanced activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in hippocampal neurons. Meanwhile, it improved the aberrant autophagy and apoptosis induced by rapamycin and re-activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling transduction in HT-22 cells, a hippocampal neuronal cell line. Conclusion: SLSP could alleviate cognitive impairment induced by SD, which was achieved probably through suppressing the abnormal autophagy and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. The findings may contribute to the clinical application of SLSP in the prevention or therapy of neurological disorders associated with SD.

Biosynthesis of rare 20(R)-protopanaxadiol/protopanaxatriol type ginsenosides through Escherichia coli engineered with uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase genes

  • Yu, Lu;Chen, Yuan;Shi, Jie;Wang, Rufeng;Yang, Yingbo;Yang, Li;Zhao, Shujuan;Wang, Zhengtao
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.116-124
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    • 2019
  • Background: Ginsenosides are known as the principal pharmacological active constituents in Panax medicinal plants such as Asian ginseng, American ginseng, and Notoginseng. Some ginsenosides, especially the 20(R) isomers, are found in trace amounts in natural sources and are difficult to chemically synthesize. The present study provides an approach to produce such trace ginsenosides applying biotransformation through Escherichia coli modified with relevant genes. Methods: Seven uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes originating from Panax notoginseng, Medicago sativa, and Bacillus subtilis were synthesized or cloned and constructed into pETM6, an ePathBrick vector, which were then introduced into E. coli BL21star (DE3) separately. 20(R)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), 20(R)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), and 20(R)-type ginsenosides were used as substrates for biotransformation with recombinant E. coli modified with those UGT genes. Results: E. coli engineered with $GT95^{syn}$ selectively transfers a glucose moiety to the C20 hydroxyl of 20(R)-PPD and 20(R)-PPT to produce 20(R)-CK and 20(R)-F1, respectively. GTK1- and GTC1-modified E. coli glycosylated the C3-OH of 20(R)-PPD to form 20(R)-Rh2. Moreover, E. coli containing $p2GT95^{syn}K1$, a recreated two-step glycosylation pathway via the ePathBrich, implemented the successive glycosylation at C20-OH and C3-OH of 20(R)-PPD and yielded 20(R)-F2 in the biotransformation broth. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that rare 20(R)-ginsenosides can be produced through E. coli engineered with UTG genes.

Developing contents model of Chinese phonology education - By Focusing on Korean-Chinese character phonetic (중국어음운학 교육의 콘텐츠 모형 개발 연구 - 한국 한자음을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Young Wol
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.21
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    • pp.255-270
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    • 2010
  • Chinese phonology is called 'juexue(絶學)' in Chinese linguistics field. For this, students of in Chinese universities as well as college students in Korea is unwilling to learn it. Chinese character phonetic is a very valuable resource in Sino-China comparative study as well as the Chinese phonology area. This study was attempt to develop the content model on education of Chinese phonology, such as Middle Chinese, Old Chinese, using close the data of Chinese character phonetic for students of Korea. In addition, I also make it known that contents of this paper is not a new discovery or analysis but recycling research of existing.

A Comparison of Health-promoting Behavior of Han-Chinese to Korean-Chinese University Students in Korea (재한 중국 조선족과 한족 유학생의 건강증진행위)

  • Jin, Xiao Ling;Kim, Jung-Soon;Kim, Dong-Hee
    • The Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.89-98
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the difference in health-promoting behavior of Han-Chinese to Korean-Chinese university students in Korea. Methods: Subjects were 111 Han-Chinese and 105 Korean- Chinese university students. The data was collected using structured questionnaires from January 5 to May 30, 2009. The data analysis was carried out using the SPSS/WIN 12.0 program. Results: The average score of health- promoting behavior for Chinese students was 2.55, 2.49 for Korean-Chinese students and 2.61 for Han-Chinese students. The mean score of health-promoting behavior of Korean-Chinese students was lower than that of the Han-Chinese group (t=2.048, p=.042). There were significant differences in health- promoting behaviors according to socio-demographic characteristics between Han-Chinese and Korean-Chinese university students. The mean score of health-promoting behavior showed significant differences according to marital status (t=2.019, p=.046) in Han-Chinese students while there were significant differences in health-promoting behaviors according to motivation for studying abroad (t=2.732, p=.033) in Korean-Chinese students. Conclusion: Health-promoting programs should be developed for both Han-Chinese and Korean-Chinese students by considering socio-demographic characteristics. Korean-Chinese may be targeted as a priority group for promoting health behaviors.

Remarkable impact of steam temperature on ginsenosides transformation from fresh ginseng to red ginseng

  • Xu, Xin-Fang;Gao, Yan;Xu, Shu-Ya;Liu, Huan;Xue, Xue;Zhang, Ying;Zhang, Hui;Liu, Meng-Nan;Xiong, Hui;Lin, Rui-Chao;Li, Xiang-Ri
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.277-287
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    • 2018
  • Background: Temperature is an essential condition in red ginseng processing. The pharmacological activities of red ginseng under different steam temperatures are significantly different. Methods: In this study, an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was developed to distinguish the red ginseng products that were steamed at high and low temperatures. Multivariate statistical analyses such as principal component analysis and supervised orthogonal partial least squared discrimination analysis were used to determine the influential components of the different samples. Results: The results showed that different steamed red ginseng samples can be identified, and the characteristic components were 20-gluco-ginsenoside Rf, ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rg1, and malonyl-ginsenoside Rb1 in red ginseng steamed at low temperature. Meanwhile, the characteristic components in red ginseng steamed at high temperature were 20R-ginsenoside Rs3 and ginsenoside Rs4. Polar ginsenosides were abundant in red ginseng steamed at low temperature, whereas higher levels of less polar ginsenosides were detected in red ginseng steamed at high temperature. Conclusion: This study makes the first time that differences between red ginseng steamed under different temperatures and their ginsenosides transformation have been observed systematically at the chemistry level. The results suggested that the identified chemical markers can be used to illustrate the transformation of ginsenosides in red ginseng processing.

A Comparative Study on the Architetural Characteristics of Traditional Korean-Chinese and Chinese Dwellings of Sujoenchon Village in Jilin Province of Northeast China (중국(中國) 길림성(吉林省) 수전촌(水田村)의 조선족(朝鮮族) 주거(住居)와 한족(漢族) 주거(住居)의 비교(比較))

  • Lee, sang-hae
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.34
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    • pp.138-171
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    • 2001
  • This paper, based on the filed survey conducted from August 14 to 21, 2000, examines the architectural characteristics of traditional dwellings of Sujeonchon(수전촌, 水田村) village. Sujeonchon village is located on the northen slope of Changbaishan Mt., Andohyun(안도현, 安圖縣) of jilin Province(吉林省), a province in the northeastern region of China. The village was established between late 1940's and early 1950's by the Korean-Chinese. Later on, some of the Korean-Chinese residents moved out of the village and presently, the residents are composed of both the Korean-Chinese and the Chinese consisting about fifty-fifty. Since the cultural background and the living custom are different from each other ethnic group, that is, the Korean-Chinese and the Chinese, their dwellings reveal some differences between them. Through the study, the architectural characteristics and distinctions of the Korean-Chinese and Chinese dwellings are found and summarized as follows: 1.The way of building layout is different between them: the Chinese mainly follows the north-south direction of building layout, while the Korean-Chinese considers the surrounding environmental condition. 2.The floor level of kitchen is different between them: that of the Chinese house is same as the outdoor earth level, while that of the Korean-Chinese is lower than the outdoor level. 3.The way of providing the kitchen space is different between them: the kitchen of the Chinese house is consist of one separate room, while that of the Korean-Chinese is open to the living area. 4.The way of heating system is different between them: the Chinese house has kang only at the sleeping area, while the Korean-Chinese install whole under-floor heating of gudeul in the living area. 5.The attitude to the way of building is different between them: the Chinese are easily adapt to the new building materials and construction method, while the Korean-Chinese are showing strong attachment to the traditional way of building. 6.The houses of the Chinese and the Korean-Chinese have their own traditional ornaments and talismans on and in the building.

Similarities and Differences in Temperament Among Korean-Chinese, Chinese-Korean, Chinese and Korean Children (조선족, 화교, 한족 그리고 한국 아동의 기질에서의 유사점과 차이점에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Min-Jung;Park Choi, Hyewon
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.129-145
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    • 2007
  • The short form of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised(Ellis & Rothbart, 1999) was translated into Korean for Korean(N=367) and Korean-Chinese(N=258) children and into Chinese for Chinese-Korean(N=232) and Chinese(N=211) children. This 43 item scale of self-ratings was administered to 4th graders by home-room teachers in China and in Korea. Korean-Chinese children rated themselves higher on affiliation, depression, fear, pleasure- and perceptual - sensitivity and shyness than other groups. Chinese-Korean children were higher on affiliation, aggression and frustration, Chinese children were higher on activation control and Korean children rated themselves lowest on all subscales. Korean girls were higher than boys on activation control and affiliation. Korean boys were higher than girls on pleasure sensitivity. Chinese boys were higher than girls on aggression.

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