• Title, Summary, Keyword: Childhood cancer

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Perceived Social Support as a Predictor on Adaptation of Family Who has a Child with Pediatric Cancer (소아암 환아 가족이 인지한 사회적 지지가 적응에 미치는 영향)

  • Tak Young-Ran;Yun E-Hwa;Chon Young-Shin;An Ji-Yeon
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2003
  • Families of children with cancer face many illness-related demands. The perceived social support is a critical resource for the family adaptation process. And the patterns of family adaptation to childhood cancer varies as characteristics of disease, which is prognosis, the influence of cognition function, and treatment process. The conceptual definition of social support is not unidimensional. However, most studies focus on general aspect of mediating effects on adaptation. Diverse dimensions of perceived social support should be considered in its effectiveness for intervention. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine whether family's perceived social support influences the family adaptation of family with pediatric cancer and what dimension influences mostly in family adaptation as the characteristics of disease in the family of children with cancer. The subject was consisted of 102 families with pediatric cancer who had been diagnosed as leukemia or brain tumor last 2 years. Those families had participated in the education program or meetings for family who have with pediatric cancer children. The measurement for this study were Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) Part-Ⅱ developed by Brandt and Weinert to measure parents' perceived social support, and the McCubbin's Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP) to measure family coping. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; Regression analysis showed that perceived social support has effect on family adaptation with β=.43, p<.01. In the group of family of child with leukemia, social support as general has effect on adaptation (β=.40, p<.01) and specially, social support perceived as intimacy was strongly effect on family adaptation. And In the group of brain tumor, Social support has effect on adaptation(β=.46, p<.01) and among the social support domains, the self esteem dimension was most predictable to family adaptation. In conclusion, the perceived social support is a predictor on family adaptation and useful vehicle to help family who has child with pediatric cancer. An important clinical implication is that specified support program for intervention may be useful and critical for the family who has diverse pediatric conditions of childhood cancer. Further studies should stress the effects of family support for clinical intervention and is needed with diverse stage of development and pediatric conditions.

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Association of Genetic Variants in ARID5B, IKZF1 and CEBPE with Risk of Childhood de novo B-Lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in India

  • Bhandari, Prerana;Ahmad, Firoz;Mandava, Swarna;Das, Bibhu Ranjan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.3989-3995
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    • 2016
  • Background: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous genetic disease and its etiology remains poorly understood. Recent genome wide association and replication studies have highlighted specific polymorphisms contributing to childhood ALL predispositions mostly in European populations. It is unclear if these observations generalize to other populations with a lower incidence of ALL. The current case-control study evaluated variants in ARID5B (rs7089424, rs10821936), IKZF1 (rs4132601) and CEBPE (rs2239633) genes, which appear most significantly associated with risk of developing childhood B-lineage ALL. Materials and Methods: Using TaqMan assays, genotyping was conducted for 162 de novo B-lineage ALL cases and 150 unrelated healthy controls in India. Appropriate statistical methods were applied. Results: Genotypic and allelic frequencies differed significantly between cases and controls at IKZF1-rs4132601 (p=0.039, p=0.015) and ARID5B-rs10821936 (p=0.028, p=0.026). Both rs10821936 (p=0.019; OR 0.67; 95% CI=0.47-0.94) and rs4132601 (p=0.018; OR 0.67; 95%CI 0.48-0.94) were associated with reduced disease risk. Moreover, gender-analysis revealed male-specific risk associations for rs10821936 (p=0.041 CT+CC) and rs4132601 (p=0.005 G allele). Further, ARID5B-rs7089424 and CEBPE-rs2239633 showed a trend towards decreased disease risk but without significance (p=0.073; p=0.73). Conclusions: Our findings provide the first evidence that SNPs ARID5B-rs10821936 and IKZF1-rs4132601 are associated with decreased B-lineage ALL susceptibility in Indian children. Understanding the effects of these variants in different ethnic groups is crucial as they may confer different risk of ALL within different populations.

Outcome of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treated Using the Thai National Protocols

  • Seksarn, Panya;Wiangnon, Surapon;Veerakul, Gavivann;Chotsampancharoen, Thirachit;Kanjanapongkul, Somjai;Chainansamit, Su-On
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4609-4614
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    • 2015
  • Background: In recent decades, the prognosis for childhood leukemia has improved, especially for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In Thailand, though, the survival rate for ALL is unimpressive. In 2006, standard national protocols for childhood leukemia treatment were implemented. We herein report the outcome of the ALL national protocols and explanations behind discrepancies in outcomes between institutions. Materials and Methods: Between March 2006 and February 2008, 486 children with ALL from 12 institutions were enrolled in the Thai national protocols. There were 3 different protocols based on specific criteria: one each for standard risk, high risk and Burkitt's ALL. We classified participating centers into 4 groups of institutions, namely: medical schools in Bangkok, provincial medical schools, hospitals in Bangkok and provincial hospitals. We also evaluated supportive care, laboratory facilities in participating centers, socioeconomics, and patient compliance. Overall and event-free survival were determined for each group using the Kaplan Meier method. Statistical differences were determined using the log-rank test. Previous outcomes of Thai childhood ALL treatment between 2003 and 2005 served as the historic control. Results: Five-year overall survival of ALL treated using the Thai national protocol was 67.2%; an improvement from the 63.7% of the 12-institute historical control (p-value=0.06). There were discrepancies in event-free survival of ALL between centers in Bangkok and up-country provinces (69.9% vs 51.2%, p-value <0.01). Socioeconomics and patient compliance were key elements in determining the outcome (65.5% vs 47.5%, 59.4% vs 42.9%) (p-value < 0.02). Conclusions: Implementation of standard national protocols for childhood leukemia in Thailand did not significantly improve the outcome of ALL. Factors leading to better outcomes included (a) improvement of treatment compliance (b) prevention of treatment abandonment and (c) financial support to the family.

Lack of Association between the MiR146a Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Thai Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  • Chansing, Kochpinchon;Pakakasama, Samart;Hongeng, Suradej;Thongmee, Acharawan;Pongstaporn, Wanida
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.2435-2438
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    • 2016
  • Background: MiRNAs, small non coding RNAs, play a role in the regulation of hematopoiesis, with effects on cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition, MiRNAs are thought to play an important role in tumorigenesis. The miR146a G>C polymorphism can lead to alteration of miR146 expression, which appears to be associated with development and progression of several cancers. This study aimed to investigate the association of the miRNA146a (rs2910164) G>C polymorphism and susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods: Totals of 100 childhood ALL patients and 200 healthy children were studied for miR146a polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: The frequency of the miR146a G allele in controls was 0.40 compared with 0.38 in ALL patients. There was no association between miRNA146a (rs2910164) G>C polymorphism and susceptibility to childhood ALL (OR=1.484, 95%CI=0.712-3.093, p=0.290). Moreover, the frequencies of miR146a (rs2910164) G>C polymorphism were not associated with demographic data and clinical outcomes in ALL cases. Conclusions: The miRNA146a polymorphism was not significantly associated with susceptibility to Thai childhood ALL or any clinico-pathological variables.

Lack of Association between Polymorphisms in Genes MTHFR and MDR1 with Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  • Kreile, Madara;Rots, Dmitrijs;Piekuse, Linda;Cebura, Elizabete;Grutupa, Marika;Kovalova, Zhanna;Lace, Baiba
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9707-9711
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    • 2014
  • Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a complex disease caused by interactions between hazardous exogenous or/and endogenous agents and many mild effect inherited susceptibility mutations. Some of them are known, but their functional roles still requireinvestigation. Age is a recognized risk factor; children with disease onset after the age of ten have worse prognosis, presumably also triggered by inherited factors. Materials and Methods: The MDR1 gene polymorphisms rs1045642, rs2032582 and MTHFR gene polymorphisms rs1801131 and rs1801133 were genotyped in 68 ALL patients in remission and 102 age and gender matched controls; parental DNA samples were also available for 42 probands. Results: No case control association was found between analyzed polymorphisms and a risk of childhood ALL development. Linkage disequilibrium was not observed in a family-based association study either. Only marginal association was observed between genetic marker rs2032582A and later disease onset (p=0.04). Conclusions: Our data suggest that late age of ALL onset could be triggered by mild effect common alleles.

Combined Study of Cytogenetics and Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) Analysis in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) in a Tertiary Cancer Centre in South India

  • Mazloumi, Seyed Hashem Mir;Madhumathi, D.S.;Appaji, L.;Prasannakumari, Prasannakumari
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3825-3827
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    • 2012
  • FISH is one of the most sensitive molecular methods to detect genetic abnormalities with DNA probes. When cytogenetic studies are normal or insufficient, FISH may detect cryptic rearrangements, rare or slowly proliferative abnormal populations in non-mitotic cells. We cytogenetically evaluated 70 childhood ALL - 67.1% were found to have an abnormal karyotype. The 23 patients (32.9%) with a normal karyotype were analyzed by FISH applying two probes; TEL/AML1 and MYB which detect cryptic rearrangements of t(12;21)(p13;q22) and deletion of (6q) respectively, associated with a good prognosis. Out of 23 patients, one was positive for t(12;21)(p13;q22) (4.3%). None of our patients were positive for MYB del(6q). Two patients showed an extra signal for MYB on chromosomes other than 6 (8.6 %) indicating amplification or duplication. Findings were compared with the available literature. Our study clearly indicated the integrated FISH screening method to increase the abnormality detection rate in a narrow range. FISH is less useful for diagnostic study of patients with suspected del(6q) but it helps in detecting known cryptic rearrangements as well as identification of new abnormalities(translocation , duplication and amplification) at the gene level.

Parental Age-Related Risk of Retinoblastoma in Iranian Children

  • Saremi, Leila;Imani, Saber;Rostaminia, Maryam;Nadeali, Zakiye
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2847-2850
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    • 2014
  • Background: Retinoblastoma is a rare malignant intraocular neoplasm. About 90% of cases feature a germline mutation in the RB1 gene and these will develop retinoblastoma during their early childhood. An association between mutations in germline cells and aging has been demonstrated. This suggests a higher incidence of childhood cancer including retinoblastoma among children of older parents. Materials and Methods: In the present study we aimed to determine the association of paternal and maternal age with an increased risk of retinoblastoma in a case-control study in Iranian population. The study was carried out on 240 persons who were born during 1984-2012 in Mahak and Mofid hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The statistical analysis included studying the mean age of parents and in order to know whether parental age of patients is different from parental age of control group, (t-test) compare averages test is used perfectly. By binary logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: The results of statistical analysis including the study of mean parental age by the use of (t-test) compare averages test showed a significant difference between parental ages of patients and controls. Logistic regression showed that coefficients were significant for maternal but not paternal age. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that advanced maternal age can increase the risk of retinoblastoma in offspring, but the paternal age has no significant effect.

Molecular Genetic Studies on 167 Pediatric ALL Patients from Different Areas of Pakistan Confirm a Low Frequency of the Favorable Prognosis Fusion Oncogene TEL-AML1 (t 12; 21) in Underdeveloped Countries of the Region

  • Iqbal, Zafar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3541-3546
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    • 2014
  • TEL-AML1 fusion oncogene (t 12; 21) is the most common chromosomal abnormality in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This translocation is associated with a good prognosis and rarely shows chemotherapeutic resistance to 3-drug based remission induction phase of treatment as well as overall treatment. Thus, the higher the frequency of this fusion oncogene, the easier to manage childhood ALL in a given region with less intensive chemotherapy. Although global frequency of TEL-AML1 has been reported to be 20-30%, a very low frequency has been found in some geographical regions, including one study from Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan and others from India. The objective of present study was to investigate if this low frequency of TEL-AML1 in pediatric ALL is only in Lahore region or similar situation exists at other representative oncology centers of Pakistan. A total of 167 pediatric ALL patients were recruited from major pediatric oncology centers situated in Lahore, Faisalabad, Peshawar and Islamabad. Patients were tested for TEL-AML1 using nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Only 17 out of 167 (10.2%) patients were found to be TEL-AML1 positive. TEL-AML1+ALL patients had favorable prognosis, most of them (82.4%, 14/17) showing early remission and good overall survival. Thus, our findings indicate an overall low frequency of TEL-AML1 in Pakistan pediatric ALL patients, in accordance with lower representation of this prognostically important genetic abnormality in other less developed countries, specifically in south Asia, thus associating it with poor living standards in these ethnic groups. It also indicates ethnic and geographical differences in the distribution of this prognostically important genetic abnormality among childhood ALL patients, which may have a significant bearing on ALL management strategies in different parts of the world.

Rapping as a Means of Improving Self-Expression: A Case Study of Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Cancer (소아암 완치 청소년의 자기표현 경험을 위한 랩 만들기 사례)

  • Choi, Jieun
    • Journal of Music and Human Behavior
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.27-51
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    • 2019
  • This case study aimed to investigate changes in self-expression following participation in a rap making program with adolescent survivors of childhood cancer. The rap making program was constructed based on the contextual support music therapy model. Three adolescent survivors of childhood cancer participated in six 80-minute individual sessions. During the sessions, each participant engaged in the following tasks: song discussion, lyric creation, and rapping over a selected beat. At pre and posttest, the Self-Expression Scale was completed by participants. Their verbal expressions lyrics were observed during the sessions, and individual interviews with the participants were conducted at the completion of the program. The results demonstrated that the mean rating of the Self-Expression Scale increased after the rap making intervention. Analysis of the participants' verbal expressions and lyrics demonstrated that participants were experiencing difficulties adjusting to school that they wanted to resolve. Furthermore, the analysis of the interviews at posttest found that participants experienced positive changes in self-perception, self-expression, and expectations for their future, compared to the pretest when the participants expressed negative self-perceptions due to difficulties in interpersonal relationships at school and physical limitations. This indicates that rap making can be an effective resource for providing this population with the means to recognize positive attributes about themselves and improve self-expression.