• Title, Summary, Keyword: Childhood cancer

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Patterns of Childhood Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia (1999-2008)

  • Al-Mutlaq, Hind M.;Bawazir, Amen Ahmed;Jradi, Hoda;Al-Dhalaan, Zeyad Abdulaziz;Al-Shehri, Ali
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.431-435
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    • 2015
  • Background: Although childhood cancer is a rare disease, 100,000 children younger than 15 years of age die from cancer each year, the majority of them in developing countries. More data need to be gathered and published particularly in developing countries to better understand the scale of the problem. Aims: This study aimed to describe the patterns of childhood cancers in Saudi Arabia over a period of ten years (1999-2008). Materials and Methods: This descriptive retrospective study was based on secondary data from the Saudi Cancer Registry from 1999 to 2008. All Saudi cases (both genders), under the age of 15 years, who were diagnosed with cancer during the study period, were included in this study. Results: Childhood cancer in Saudi Arabia, in the period between 1999 and 2008, accounted for about 8% of total cancer cases. The most common encountered cancers were leukemia (34.1%), followed by lymphoma (15.2%), brain (12.4%), and kidney cancers (5.3%). The overall incidence of childhood cancers increased from 8.8 per 100,000 in 1999 to 9.8 per 100,000 in 2008. The incidence rates of cancers per 100,000 in the years 1999 and 2008 were generally higher among males, (9.4 and 11.5 in males vs. 8.3 and 8.1 in females). The highest incidence rate in the surveyed years was apparent in the birth to age 4 years group. Conclusions: Cancer is an important public health problem in Saudi Arabia and a major ascending contributor to mortality and morbidity in children. More studies are required to describe the patterns of childhood cancers and related risk factors in Saudi Arabia.

Late physical effects of childhood cancer survivors

  • Lee, Young-Ho
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.477-480
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    • 2010
  • Advances in research and medical and supportive care have contributed to a growing population of adults formerly treated for childhood cancer. History of cancer and its therapy can have significant life-long health implications. Late effects of cancer therapy can be insidious on onset, occur outside the pediatric age, and contribute to premature morbidity and mortality. In this review, I have focused on the key long-term effects of pediatric cancer therapy, particularly on the metabolic syndrome, including cardiopulmonary complications, infertility, and secondary neoplasm.

Gonadal and Sexual Dysfunction in Childhood Cancer Survivors

  • Yoon, Ju Young;Park, Hyeon Jin;Ju, Hee Young;Yoon, Jong Hyung;Chung, Jin Soo;Hwang, Sang Hyun;Lee, Dong Ock;Shim, Hye Young;Park, Byung-Kiu
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.1057-1064
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    • 2017
  • Purpose Few studies have addressed gonadal and sexual dysfunctions in childhood cancer survivors. We evaluated the prevalence rates and risk factors for gonadal failure among adolescent/young adult childhood cancer survivors and their sexual function. Materials and Methods Subjects were childhood cancer survivors aged 15-29 years who had completed therapy more than 2 years ago. Demographic and medical characteristics were obtained from the patients' medical records. In addition, hormonal evaluation and semen analysis were performed and sexual function was evaluated via questionnaire. Results The study included 105 survivors (57 males, 48 females), of which 61 were adults (age > 19 years) and 44 were adolescents. In both males and females, the proportion of survivors with low sex hormone levels did not differ among age groups or follow-up period. Thirteen female subjects (27.1%) needed sex hormone replacement, while five males subjects (8.8%) were suspected of having hypogonadism, but none were receiving sex hormone replacement. Of 27 semen samples, 14 showed azospermia or oligospermia. The proportion of normospermia was lower in the high cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (CED) group (CED ${\geq}8,000mg/m^2$) than the low CED group (27.3% vs. 62.5%, p=0.047). Among adults, none were married and only 10 men (35.7%) and eight women (34.3%) were in a romantic relationship. Though a significant proportion (12.0% of males and 5.3% of females) of adolescent survivors had experienced sexual activity, 13.6% had not experienced sex education. Conclusion The childhood cancer survivors in this study showed a high prevalence of gonadal/sexual dysfunction; accordingly, proper strategies are needed to manage these complications.

Epidemiology of Childhood Cancer in Northwest Iran

  • Fathi, Afshin;Amani, Firouz;Bahadoram, Mohammad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.13
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    • pp.5459-5462
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    • 2015
  • This case series study was performed for all 83 children below 14 years old suffering from cancer during 2010-2013 who were registered in Ardabil pediatric cancer registry (APCR). The required data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS.19 statistical methods software. Some 51 (61.4%) of cases were male. The mean age of patients was 5.8 years. Of the total, 60 (72.3%) of cases were from urban areas. Results showed that leukemia with 54.2%, CNS with 12% and neuroblastoma with 8.4% were the most prevalent childhood malignancies in Ardabil province. Based on the under 14 year old population estimated from Ardabil province, the cumulative incidence rate was 95.4 patients per one million. The incidence rate was relatively high so that childhood cancers should be considered as an important issue in health policy making in Ardabil province of Iran.

Knowledge of Turkish Mothers with Children in the 0-13 Age Group about Cancer Symptoms

  • Demirbag, Birsel Canan;Kurtuncu, Meltem;Guven, Hadiye
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.1031-1035
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    • 2013
  • Background: There have been few studies in Turkey on the incidence of childhood cancers. A mother's knowledge about signs and symptoms of cancer is important for early diagnosis, effective treatment, and improvement of life expectancy. This study was conducted with a group of mothers of children, aged 0-13, at a Family Health Center (FHC) in Turkey's Eastern Black Sea Region, to analyze their knowledge about cancer symptoms in childhood. Materials and Methods: The study group of this descriptive/cross-sectional research comprised 2,061 mothers, ages 19-49, at an FHC in the Eastern Black Sea Region in February 1, 2011 - June 1, 2011. Before the study, permission was obtained from the local ethics board and the institutions concerned. A value of p<0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results: Of the mothers, 34.9% were between the ages of 40-47, 40.5% had three children, 73.8% had no experience with children with cancer, 45.9% said they learned about cancer on television, 39.7% stated that the primary reason for childhood cancer was the mother's smoking during pregnancy, 68.8% said that early diagnosis would save a child, and 98% wanted to learn about childhood cancer. Conclusion: It was determined that the mothers' knowledge of cancer was deficient.

A study on the childhood cancer survivors' perceived difficulties : Focus group interview (소아암 생존자가 인지한 어려움에 대한 탐색적 연구 : 포커스그룹 인터뷰를 중심으로)

  • Lim, Su-Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.9 no.12
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    • pp.467-474
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    • 2018
  • This is a qualitative research that was carried out to analyze the childhood cancer survivors' perceived difficulties using the result of focus group interviews. This study conducted interviews with 22 childhood cancer survivors under follow-up management after cancer treatment at general hospitals in Korea. 22 persons were divided into 3 groups, and interviews were carried out with each group for 80-100 minutes. As a result of the research, four topic collections consisting of 'Physical limitation', 'Influence of lasting childhood cancer', 'Difficulty in forming relationships' and 'Lack of reliable information' and seven subjects, which consist of 'Lack of energy', 'Potential late-effects', 'Fears about cancer recurrence', 'Negative social awareness', 'Difficulty in interacting with', 'Difficulty in interacting with peers', and 'Difficulty in interacting with families' were derived. Based on the findings of this research, it is hoped that provides a basis for developing appropriate and effective services and programs for childhood cancer survivors.

The Protective Effect of Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation on Childhood Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Case-control Studies

  • Ismail, Wan Rosmawati Wan;Rahman, Raudah Abdul;Rahman, Nur Ashiqin Abd;Atil, Azman;Nawi, Azmawati Mohammed
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.205-213
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: Maternal folic acid supplementation is considered mandatory in almost every country in the world to prevent congenital malformations. However, little is known about the association of maternal folic acid intake with the occurrence of childhood cancer. Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of maternal folic acid consumption on the risk of childhood cancer. Methods: A total of 158 related articles were obtained from PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ProQuest using standardized keywords, of which 17 were included in the final review. Results: Eleven of the 17 articles showed a significant protective association between maternal folic acid supplementation and childhood cancer. Using a random-effects model, pooled odds ratios (ORs) showed a protective association between maternal folic acid supplementation and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (OR, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.86). However, there was no significant association between maternal folic acid supplementation and acute myeloid leukaemia (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.46 to 1.06) or childhood brain tumours (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.19). Conclusions: Maternal folic acid supplementation was found to have a protective effect against childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Thus, healthcare professionals are recommended to provide regular health education and health promotion to the community on the benefits of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy.

Associations between AT-rich Interactive Domain 5B gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: a Meta-analysis

  • Zeng, Hui;Wang, Xue-Bin;Cui, Ning-Hua;Nam, Seungyoon;Zeng, Tuo;Long, Xinghua
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6211-6217
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    • 2014
  • Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AT-rich interactive domain 5B (ARID5B) gene with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, replicated studies reported some inconsistent results in different populations. Using meta-analysis, we here aimed to clarify the nature of the genetic risks contributed by the two polymorphisms (rs10994982, rs7089424) for developing childhood ALL. Through searches of PubMed, EMBASE, and manually searching relevant references, a total of 14 articles with 16 independent studies were included. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated to assess the associations. Both SNPs rs10994982 and rs7089424 showed significant associations with childhood ALL risk in all genetic models after Bonferroni correction. Furthermore, subtype analyses of B-lineage ALL provided strong evidence that SNP rs10994982 is highly associated with the risk of developing B-hyperdiploid ALL. These results indicate that SNPs rs10994982 and rs7089424 are indeed significantly associated with increased risk of childhood ALL.

Increased Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) by Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to High Voltage Power Lines : A Case Control Study in Isfahan, Iran

  • Tabrizi, Maral Mazloomi;Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2347-2350
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    • 2015
  • Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common hematologic malignancies, accounting for one fourth of all childhood cancer cases. Exposure to environmental factors around the time of conception or pregnancy can increase the risk of ALL in the offspring.This study aimed to evaluted the role of prenatal and postnatal exposure to high voltage power lines on the incidence of childhood ALL.This cross-sectional case control study was carried out on 22 cases and 100 controls who were born and lived in low socioeconomic families in Isfahan and hospitalized for therapeutic purposes in different hospitals from 2013-2014.With regard to the underlying risk factors, familial history and parental factors were noted but in this age, socioeonomic and zonal matched case control study, prenatal and childhood exposure to high voltage power lines was considered as the most important environmental risk factors of ALL (p=0.006, OR=3.651, CI 95%, 1.692-7.878). As the population was of low socioeconomic background, use of mobiles, computers and microwave was negligible. Moreover prenatal and postnatal exposure to indoor electrically charged objects was not determined to be a significant environmental factor. Thus, pre and post natal exposure to high voltage power lines and living in pollutant regions as well as familial influence could be described as risk factors of ALL for the first time in a low socioeconomic status Iranian population.

The Activities of Childhood Cancer Foundation in Taiwan (대만 어린이암재단의 활동)

  • Lee ChungHsiang
    • Korean Journal of Hospice Care
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.182-192
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    • 2002
  • Childhood Cancer Foundation of ROC(CCFROC) has been founded since 1982. Its goal is to provide comprehensive care for cancer children and their families. And in turn, under the provision of good and complete care, they can be back to the school and society. To achieve this goal, it needs to get every body's effort of the society together. The foundation has been founder under this concept and tried to fulfil this task. The first step is to educate the public to know that childhood cancer can be cured and the process of treatment is long and expensive. In order to reach this life-saving procedure, campaigns for raising money is most important thing. Then, pediatric hematologists / oncologists try to organize study group, named Taiwan Pediatric Qncology Goupp(TPOG), to make treatment protocols for childhood cancers. Its primary purpose is to increase the cure rate to prove the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the prognosis. The second step is to provide full support of medical expenses and further to give help for emergent need to living. Through the varieties of active exercises of cancer children or families, foundation provides opportunities for them to share the experience during the different periods of diseases. The third step is to extend the scope of training activities for many kinds of personnel who devote to the care for cancer children. On the other hand, it promotes the cooperation or communication with international organizations and sets up recreation playing ground in the communities. The aim is to provide a comprehensive and integrated care for cancer children during their education, breeding and even accomplishment period. Besides the financial support of medical care, it provides social services to give psychological support for children and their families, to strengthen doctor-patients or doctor-families relationship. The foundation provides the mourning religious activities to cherish the memory of their children who passed away and to comfort their sadness. Since the childhood cancer is curable, its treatment should be active, comprehensive and it needs to provide to all cancer children without exception. Indeed, the work of CCFROC should be changed according to the environment and different time period. But, it needs the full support from the society. We hope the scope and content of the work will be more extended and its achievement will be better than now in the future.

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