• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chicks

Search Result 918, Processing Time 0.035 seconds

Corn Particle Size Affects Nutritional Value of Simple and Complex Diets for Nursery Pigs and Broiler Chicks

  • Kim, I.H.;Hancock, J.D.;Hong, J.W.;Cabrera, M.R.;Hines, R.H.;Behnke, K.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.15 no.6
    • /
    • pp.872-877
    • /
    • 2002
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of reducing particle size of corn from 1,000 to 500 ${\mu}m$ in simple and complex diets for nursery pigs and broiler chicks. In Exp 1., 192 nursery pigs were used in a 24 d growth assay. Treatments were: 1) 1,000 ${\mu}m$ corn in a simple diet; 2) 500 ${\mu}m$ corn in a simple diet; 3) 1,000 ${\mu}m$ corn in a complex diet; and 4) 500 ${\mu}m$ corn in a complex diet. Overall, pigs fed complex diets had 9% greater ADG (p<0.005) and 5% greater gain/feed (p<0.01) compared to pigs fed simple diets. Also, pigs fed the 500 ${\mu}m$ treatments had 3% better overall gain/feed than those fed the 1,000 ${\mu}m$ treatments (p<0.007). At d 9, apparent digestibilities of DM, N and GE were greater for complex diets and diets with smaller particle size (p<0.02). At d 23, there were no differences in nutrient digestibility resulting from diet complexity, but pigs fed diets with corn ground to 500 ${\mu}m$ had greater digestibility of DM (p<0.02) and GE (p<0.003) than pigs fed diets with corn ground to 1,000 ${\mu}m$. A second experiment was designed to determine if four days old broiler chicks were an acceptable model for predicting the effects of feed processing procedures on nursery pigs. Chicks fed complex diets had 3% greater gain/feed than chicks fed simple diets (p<0.001). Rate of gain and feed intake were improved by 3 and 2%, respectively, for chicks fed crumbled diets (p<0.03). However, there were several significant interactions among the main effects. For instance, crumbling did not affect gain/feed in chicks fed complex diets, but rate of gain and feed intake were increased by 7 and 6%, respectively, when simple diets were crumbled (diet complexity${\times}$diet form, p<0.001). Also, gain/feed of chicks was improved by 3% when particle size was reduced in meal diets, but not affected in chicks fed crumbles (diet form${\times}$particle size, p<0.005). Thus, our data suggested that reduction of particle size of corn was important for simple and complex diets and that a complex diet with 1,000 ${\mu}m$ corn gave no better performance than a simple diet with 500 ${\mu}m$ corn.

Evaluation of mango saponin in broilers: effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and plasma biochemical indices

  • Zhang, Y.N.;Wang, J.;Qi, B.;Wu, S.G.;Chen, H.R.;Luo, H.Y.;Yin, D.J.;Lu, F.J.;Zhang, H.J.;Qi, G.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.30 no.8
    • /
    • pp.1143-1149
    • /
    • 2017
  • Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine whether mango saponin (MS) could be used as a feed additive in broiler chicks by evaluating growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and plasma biochemical indices. Methods: A total of 216 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into three dietary treatments supplemented with 0 (control), 0.14% (MS 0.14%), or 0.28% (MS 0.28%) MS. Each treatment had six replicates (cages) with 12 chicks each. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks. Results: Compared with the control, dietary supplemented with 0.14% or 0.28% MS increased average daily weight gain of chicks in the grower (22 to 42 d) and the whole (1 to 42 d) phases, and the final body weight of chicks on d 42 was higher in MS supplemented groups (p<0.05). Lower $L_{45min}{^{\star}}$ (lightness) and $L_{24h}{^{\star}}$ values, lower $b_{24h}{^{\star}}$ (yellowness) value, and higher $a_{45min}{^{\star}}$ (redness) and $a_{24h}{^{\star}}$ values of the breast muscle were observed in chicks fed with 0.28% MS on d 42 (p<0.05). The total antioxidant capacity in plasma increased in MS 0.14% group on d 21 (p<0.001). Lower contents of plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride were observed in chicks fed with 0.28% MS on d 21 and d 42, whereas the group supplemented with 0.14% MS only decreased plasma triglyceride content on d 21 (p<0.05). The glucose content in plasma decreased in MS 0.28% group on d 42 (p<0.001). Conclusion: Overall, MS could be used as a feed additive in broiler chicks, and the supplemental level of 0.28% MS in diet could improve growth performance, meat quality, and plasma lipid metabolism in broiler chicks.

Utilization of Egg Type Male Chicks From Hatchery to Produce Yeast Culture for Animal Feed. (부화부산물 수평아리 사체를 이용한 사료용 효모 배양에 관한 연구)

  • 심관섭;박강희;김정학
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
    • /
    • v.6 no.3
    • /
    • pp.201-209
    • /
    • 2000
  • Optimal conditions to utilize egg type male chicks from hatchery for cultivating yeast(Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and the effects of the yeast culture on growth of broiler chicks were investigated. The protein concentration of the spent cockerel extracts was the highest when extracted for 72 hours. Optimal water volume added to the spent cockerel chicks for the extraction was 1.5 times to the cockerel chicks weight (v/w ratio). Lipid in the extracts from the spent cockerel chicks did not affect on the yeast growth. The number of yeast cultured in the SCELP2 medium containing spent cockerel extracts and 4 % sugarcane molasses was higher by 26 % than that in the YEPD medium containing 1 % yeast extract, 2 % bacto pepton and 2 % glucose. Also the number of yeast cultured in the SBYW2 medium containing SCEP2 medium containing SCELP2 and 4 % brewer's yeast waste was increased by 8 %, compared to that in the SCELP2 medium. Body weight gain of chicks fed 4 % yeast culture supplementations cultivated in the SBYW2 medium was increased at 5 weeks by 9 %, relative to no supplementation(P<0.05). The results from this study suggest that the spent cockerel chicks can be utilized as nitrogen sources to produce yeast culture for animal feed.

  • PDF

Effect of Dietary Supplemental Astragalus membranaceus on Performance, Blood Components and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks (황기의 첨가.급여가 육계의 생산성 및 혈액의 성상과 육질에 미치는 영향)

  • 류경선;강창원;송근섭;백승운
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.25 no.4
    • /
    • pp.185-193
    • /
    • 1998
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplemental Astragalus membranaceus on performance and meat quality of broiler chicks for 5 weeks. Basal diets based on corn and soybean meal contained 21% crude protein for the first three weeks and 19% for the rest of two weeks. Four levels of dietary Astragalus membranaceus(0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00%) were fed in a one way design. There were four replicates of 50 chicks per treatment. Weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, blood component, breast meat lipid and protein were measured at the end of experiment. No increased growth rate was observed in chicks fed the basal diet supplemented with Astragalus membranaceus. Chicks fed the diet containing 0.5 and 1.00% Astragalus membranaceus tended to depress the growth rate. Feed intake of 0.25% Astragalus membranaceus treatment was significantly lower than control group(P<0.05), Dietary supplemental Astragalus membranaceus improved the feed efficiency compared to the control group, but was not significantly different between them. However, Astragalus membranaceus treatment exhibited decreased serum cholesterol and AST compared to those of control group, but was not significantly different between supplemental groups. Serum hematocrit, triglyceride, phosphate and BUN decreased at 0.25% Asparagus membranaceous supplementation. Growth hormone and IGF-1 (ng/ml) of chicks fed more than 0.50% Astragalus membranaceus significantly decreased compared to those of control(P<0.05). The total lipid and protein content of chicks fed 0.25 and 0.50% Astragalus membranaceus tended to increase, but did not show consistency at more than 0.50% supplement. The results of this experiment indicated that optimum dietary Astragalus membranaceus level to improve the performance and meat quality of broiler chicks may be less than 0.25%.

  • PDF

Effects of Dietary Supplemental Phosphate from Different Sources on Performance of Young Broiler Chicks and It's Biological Availability (서로 다른 인 공급원들의 생물학적 이용율과 어린 육계의 능력에 미치는 영향)

  • 류경선
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.23 no.4
    • /
    • pp.169-175
    • /
    • 1996
  • An experiment was conducted with male broiler chicks to determine the effect of different dietary phosphorus sources and evaluate the biological availability of phosphorus sources. The biological availability of phosphorus from dicalcium phosphate (DCP) was used as a reference standard (100%) compared to defluorinate phosphate (DFP). DCP and DFP was supplemented to a corn-soy basal diet at levels of 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35%. Each of 24 pens of 10 male broiler chicks with three replications was used for three weeks. The results indicated that weight gain, feed in-take, feed efficiency, nonphytic phosphorus (NPP) and tibia ash were significantly different among treatments. Dietary supplemental phosphorus of DFP improved weight gain, NPP intake and feed efficiency consistently, whereas supplements of DCP did not show consistent increase. Regression equations was used for the availability of DPP compared with DCP when percent bone ash was a function of total phosphorus in the diet. The percent (%) bone ash of DFP groups compared to that of DCP groups showed a value of 59.98% as a slope ratio. DFP indicated lower biological availability compared to DCP, but it's dietary supplementation tended to increase bone ash and maximize the growth of young broiler chicks.

  • PDF

Effects of Dietary Supplemental Folic Acid and Choline on the Performance of Starting Broiler Chicks (육계 전기 사료에 엽산과 콜린의 첨가 수준이 육계의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 류경선;최호성;박강희;신원집
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.22 no.4
    • /
    • pp.213-221
    • /
    • 1995
  • Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplemental folic acid(FA) in starting broiler chicks. In the first two experiments, basal diets based on corn and soybean meal contained 0.6 mg/kg FA but no supplemental methionine or choline. At 18 d of age, chicks showed curvilinear responses to folic acid supplementation with maximum growth and feed efficiencies at 1.45 mg/kg FA diet. The liver FA response was also curvilinear but reached a plateau at 1.70 mg/kg FA diet. The basal diet for 3 additional experiments contained soybean meal that had been washed with methanol to remove most of the choline. The diet contained only 0.6 mg /kg folic acid and 754 mg /kg choline. Chicks exhibited a larger growth response to folic acid at low choline levels as evidenced by a significant FA x choline interaction. FA supplementation increased but then decreased valgus leg deformity. Choline supplementation also decreased the incidences of valgus and varus leg deformities and decreased bone ash and increased the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia. It is concluded that chicks fed diets based on practical ingredients require from 1.45 to 1.70 mg /kg FA diet and also 1.60 mg/kg FA when choline is offered near the NRC recommended level of 1,300 mg/kg.

  • PDF

Relative Biopotency of Tri-iodothyronine and Thyroxine for Inducing Oxygen Consumption in Young Chicks (유추의 산소소비량 촉진에 관한 Tri-iodothyronine과 Thyroxine의 생물학적 효력)

  • 황보종;하정기
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.17 no.2
    • /
    • pp.79-82
    • /
    • 1990
  • An experiment was conducted to evaluate relative biopotency of tri-iodothyronine ($T_3$) and thyroxine ($T_4$) to induce oxygen consumption in young chicks. Four experimental groups of 3 chicks were injected with $T_3$ or $T_4$ at a dose of 500 or 1000mg per kg body weight, and thereafter oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry using a respiration apparatus. Oxygen consumption was significantly increased at 2 and 4 hour in the $T_3$ or $T_4$ treated chicks at 500mg at 2 hour. From coefficient of a multiple regression equation of oxygen consumption on $T_3$ or $T_4$, it was concluded that $T_3$ was shown to be two to three times as biologically active as $T_4$.

  • PDF

Developmental Changes of Serum IgA, IgG and IgM Concentrations in Broiler Chicks - II. Isolation of IgA and Developmental Changes of Serum IgA Levels (육계의 혈청중 면역글로부린(IgA, IgG, IgM)농도의 발육시기별 변화상 - II. IgA 분리 및 발육시기별 농도수준)

  • 김정우;이민호;김춘수;김상희;박근식
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.21 no.3
    • /
    • pp.169-174
    • /
    • 1994
  • An experiment was conducted to establish a large scale production method of anti-serum against chicken IgA and to profile the developmental changes of serum IgA levels during the feeding period(from hatching to 7 weeks of age) in broiler chicks. Blood samples were taken from Hubbard chicken at the age of hatching, 3 days of age, and weekly thereafter till to 7 weeks of age. The pure IgA was isolated from ammonium sulfate treated chicken bile juice by gel filtration chromatography ( Sepharose GL-6B) - The quantitative assay of serum IgA were carried by RID method. Developmental changes of serum IgA concentrations were 0.42 mg /mL at hatching, thereafter dicreased gradually, lowest at 1 week of age(0.17 mg /mL), and gradually increased to 7 weeks of age(2.73 mg /mL). There was no sexual difference in serum IgA level, but female chicks showed higher IgA levels than male chicks during the experimental period.

  • PDF

EFFECTS OF DIETARY PROTEINS ON THE ACTIVITIES OF LIPOGENIC ENZYMES IN THE LIVER OF GROWING CHICKS

  • Tanaka, K.;Okamoto, T.;Ohtani, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.5 no.1
    • /
    • pp.123-128
    • /
    • 1992
  • In Experiment 1, when fasted chicks were fed diets containing various sources of protein for 3 days, the activities of lipogenic enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase, citrate cleavage enzyme and malic enzyme) in the liver of growing chicks were significantly lower in the soybean protein or gluten diet than in the casein or fish protein diet. Triglycride contents of the liver and plasma of chicks fed the casein or fish protein diet were significantly lower than that of those fed soybean protein or gluten diet. In Experiment 2, the effects of dietary amino acid mixture simulating casein or protein on the activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes were examined. The activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase in the liver of chicks fed the casein diet were significantly higher than that of those fed the soybean protein diet or two diets of amino acid mixtures. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between the two diets of amino acid mixture based on casein or soybean protein. However, the activities of malic enzyme and citrate cleavage enzyme tended to be lower in the soybean-type amino acid diet than in the casein-type amino acid diet. Thus, some effects can be ascribed to the protein itself and some to the amino acid composition of the protein sources.

EFFECT OF DIETARY EXCESSIVE CHROMIUM PICOLINATE ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, NUTRIENT UTILIZABILITY AND SERUM TRAITS IN BROILER CHICKS

  • Kim, Y.H.;Han, In K.;Shin, I.S.;Chae, B.J.;Kang, T.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.9 no.3
    • /
    • pp.349-354
    • /
    • 1996
  • An Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary excessive chromium picolinate on growth performance, nutrient utilizability and the content of serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, glucose, triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid in broiler chicks. Experimental diets based on corn-soybean meal were supplemented at 0, 800, 1,600 and 2,400 ppb chromium in the form of chromium picolinate. Each treatment had six replicates of six female chicks each (average initial weight=45.6 g). Experimental period lasted for six weeks. Excessive supplementation of chromium as chromium picolinate had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and nutrient utilizability of broiler chicks. Mortality was improved with a supplementation of chromium (p < 0.05). However, serum glucose decreased as chromium level increased (p < 0.05). Up to 2,400 ppb chromium as chromium picolinate, signs of toxicity were not noticed in this study.