• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chicks

Search Result 918, Processing Time 0.042 seconds

EFFECTS OF DIETARY VITAMIN B6 LEVELS ON LIPID CONCENTRATION AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN GROWING CHICKS

  • An, B.K.;Tanaka, K.;Ohtani, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.8 no.6
    • /
    • pp.627-633
    • /
    • 1995
  • This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of various dietary vitamin $B_6$ levels on conversion from linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in various tissues in growing chicks. Growing chicks were fed the purified diet containing 7% safflower oil with different levels of vitamin $B_6$ (0, 4, 8, 40, 80 mg per kg diet) for 14 days. Feed intake and weight gain in chicks fed the vitamin $B_6$-free diet were markedly depressed. Esterified and free cholesterol concentrations in serum were significantly higher, while the serum triglyceride concentration was significantly lover in chicks fed the vitamin $B_6$-free diet compared to that fed diets with vitamin $B_6$. The liver triglyceride content was also lower in chicks fed the vitamin $B_6$-free diet. The liver and serum cholesterol ester fractions in chicks fed the vitamin $B_6$-free diet showed higher rate of $C_{18:2n6}$ and lower rates of $C_{18:3n6}$, $C_{20:3n6}$ and $C_{20:4n6}$ as compared with vitamin $B_6$ fed groups. In serum phospholipid fraction of chicks fed the vitamin $B_6$-free diet, rates of $C_{20:3n6}$ and $C_{20:4n6}$ were markedly lower. As dietary vitamin $B_6$ level was increased, the rate of $C_{20:4n6}$ was slightly increased, although it was statistically not significant. The fatty acid compositions of adipose tissue showed almost the same pattern as those in liver and serum. This result suggests that the desaturation of $C_{18:2n6}$ to $C_{18:3n6}$, elongation to $C_{20:3n6}$ or both steps might be impaired by vitamin $B_6$ deficiency in growing chicks.

By-product of Tropical Vermicelli Waste as a Novel Alternative Feedstuff in Broiler Diets

  • Rungcharoen, P.;Therdthai, N.;Dhamvithee, P.;Attamangkune, S.;Ruangpanit, Y.;Ferket, P.R.;Amornthewaphat, N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.26 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1732-1741
    • /
    • 2013
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine physical and chemical properties of vermicelli waste (VW) and effect of VW inclusion levels on growth performance of broilers. In experiment 1, VW samples were randomly collected from vermicelli industry in Thailand to analyze nutritional composition. Vermicelli waste contained 9.96% moisture, 12.06% CP, 32.30% crude fiber (CF), and 0.57% ether extract (EE), as DM basis. The ratio of insoluble:soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) was 43.4:8.9. A total of 120 chicks (6 pens per treatment and 10 chicks per pen) were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet or 20% VW substituted diet to determine the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen retention ($AME_n$) of VW. The $AME_n$ of VW was $1,844.7{\pm}130.71$ kcal/kg. In experiment 2, a total of 1,200 chicks were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for 42-d growth assay. There were 300 chicks with 6 pens per treatment and 50 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments contained 0%, 5%, 10%, or 15% VW, respectively. All diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. From 0 to 18 d of age chicks fed VW diets had higher (p<0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with those fed the control diet. No difference was observed during grower and finisher phase (19 to 42 d). Chicks fed VW diets had lower relative weight of abdominal fat (p<0.001) but higher relative weight of gizzard (p<0.05) than those of chicks fed the control diet. Increasing VW inclusion levels increased ileal digesta viscosity (p<0.05) and intestinal villus height of chicks (p<0.001). For apparent total tract digestibility assay, there were 4 metabolic cages of 6 chicks that were fed experimental treatment diets (the same as in the growth assay) in a 10-d total excreta collection. Increasing VW inclusion levels linearly decreased (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility of DM and CF.

A Comparative Study on the Efficiency of Locally Made Low Cost Brooders for Brooding Chicks

  • Hassanuzzaman, M.;Ahammad, M.U.;Bulbul, S.M.;Nurul Alam, A.M.M.;Islam, M.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.17 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1586-1590
    • /
    • 2004
  • An experiment was carried out with day-old "Sonali" (♂RIR$\times$♀Fayoumi) chicks to investigate the efficacy of locally made low cost brooders for brooding chicks in rural areas. Three types of indigenous brooders viz. charcoal, haricane and sawdust brooders were used for brooding chicks throughout the experimental period of 28 days. The efficiency of the brooders was observed in respect of their ability to maintain temperature, fluctuation in temperature during operation and cost effectiveness. Following initial trial of temperature maintenance for 48 h, the chicks were put under the brooder stoves and brooded up to 28 days. The experimental birds were fed on chick starter diet. Maintenance of temperature with sawdust brooders was found satisfactory and optimum for brooding the chicks at different stages of brooding and at the same time involved least cost for brooding in comparison with charcoal and haricane brooders which did not perform well in generating heat necessary for brooding and were not economically feasible for poor farmers. On the other hand, performance of charcoal brooders was better in respect of temperature maintenance during initial stage (when the brooder was started) but the temperature fluctuated rapidly, whereas fluctuation of temperature was gradual in sawdust brooders. Body weight gain and feed conversion were best in sawdust brooders. Survivability was highest in sawdust brooders and lowest in haricane brooders. Sawdust brooders may be appropriate for brooding chicks in rural areas, where electricity is not available.

Effect of Growell on Performance, Organ Weight and Serum Trace Element Profile of Broilers

  • Kalorey, D.R.;Kurkure, N.V.;Sakhare, P.S.;Warke, Subhangi;Ali, Murtuza
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.14 no.5
    • /
    • pp.677-679
    • /
    • 2001
  • Effect of Growell a herbomineral premix was evaluated on performance, organ weight, humoral immune response, tissue and serum trace element profile of boilers. Day old 50 Babcock broiler chicks were randomly divided in two groups (C and T) and reared on deep litter system for 6 weeks of age. Chicks from group C were given basal diet while chicks from T group were fed basal diet supplemented with Growell at the rate 0.35 g/Kg. The chicks were vaccinated with Lasota strain of NCDV at $4^{th}$ and $28^{th}$ day of age. The birds receiving Growell treatment had higher body weight with better feed conversion ratio as compare to that of control chicks. Growell treatment had significantly reduced per cent weight of spleen and kidney, whereas that of bursa was increased. There was no effect of treatment on relative weight of thymus. HI antibody titer against NCDV in Growell treated chicks were higher as compare to untreated chicks indicating better humoral immune status. Growell treatment had no effect on serum Fe and Zn concentration. Dietary supplementation of Growell had significantly increased iron content of liver, kidney and muscle; zinc content of kidney and muscle; copper content of kidney and muscle and Mn content of kidney. Growell treatment improved the body weight, FCR and humoral immune status of broilers. Similarly, deposition of trace minerals in various organs was also increased in comparison to control.

Excessive Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Affects Hepatic Lipid Content and Muscular Fatty Acid Composition in Young Chicks

  • An, B.K.;Shinn, K.H.;Kobayashi, Y.;Tanaka, K.;Kang, C.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.16 no.8
    • /
    • pp.1171-1176
    • /
    • 2003
  • The effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition of various tissues were studied in young chicks. From 7 days of age, a total of 160 chicks were divided into 4 groups, placed into 4 pens per group (10 birds per pen) and fed one of four experimental diets containing 6% tallow (TO 6%), 4% tallow plus 2% CLA (TO 4%-CLA 2%), 2% tallow plus 4% CLA (TO 2%-CLA 4%) or 6% CLA (CLA 6%) for 3 weeks. There were no significant differences in growth performances and the relative weights of various organs, but relative liver weight of chicks fed dietary CLA at 4 and 6% levels was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of TO 6% group. The chemical compositions of leg muscle were not affected by CLA feeding. However, hepatic total lipid of chicks fed 6% CLA diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of TO 6% and TO 4%-CLA 2% groups. The concentrations of various lipid fractions in serum were not affected by CLA feeding. With the increase in dietary CLA levels, cis 9-trans 11 CLA, trans 10-cis 12 CLA and total CLA of leg muscle increased linearly. The relative proportions of C18:1 $\omega$ -9 and C20:4 $\omega$-6 fatty acids in the leg muscles of chicks fed the CLA containing diets were significantly lower (p<0.05) than those of TO 6% group. These results indicate that the levels of CLA isomers were increased linearly in dose-dependent manner after feeding of synthetic CLA source. But it was also observed that excessive amount of dietary CLA resulted in the possible adversely effects, such as increase of liver weight, hepatic lipid accumulation and serum GOT level.

Effects of Earthworm Meal Supplementation on the Performance of Broiler Chickens (사료 내 지렁이 분말의 첨가가 육계의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 손장호;조익환
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
    • /
    • v.11 no.2
    • /
    • pp.79-89
    • /
    • 2003
  • A study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing earthworm meal on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of feed in broiler chicks. A total of 120 broiler chicks at 7 days of age were fed the experimental diets containing 0%(Control), 0.2% and 0.4% of earthworm meal for 6 weeks. When fed on both starter and finisher diets, the body weight gain and amount of feed intake were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the chicks fed 0.4% of earthworm meal than those fed 0% and 0.2% of earthworm meal. There were no significantly differences in feed. conversion ratio and mortality among the treatments. When fed on both starter and finisher diets, digestibility of dry matter of feed was not affected by the dietary treatment, but crude fat and crude ash digestibilities of feed were tend to increased in chicks fed earthworm meal Digestibility of crude protein of feed in chicks fed 0.4% of earthworm meal was significantly(P<0.05) improved as compared with those in 0.2% or control group. These results indicated that the dietary supplementations of 0.4% earthworm meal were effective in improve digestibility of crude protein of diet resulted improved broiler performance if.. broiler chicks.

  • PDF

Effect of Antioxidants and Oxidized Fat on the Performance of Broiler Chicks (항상화제와 산패지방이 육계의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 남궁환;스티브리슨;백인기
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.36-53
    • /
    • 2000
  • Five experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of antioxidants(Santoquin and Oxiban) using fresh or oxidized fat on the performance of broiler chicks. Day-old broiler chicks (except for Experiment 5 in which 6-d-ol birds were given experimental diets for 10 d) were fed diets containing fresh or oxidized fat (animal-vegetable fat blend in Experiments 1, 4, and 5 and corn oil in Experiments 2 and 3) with or without graded concentrations of Santoquin (0,250, 500 ppm in Experiments 1 and 2 and 0, in Experiment 4 and 400 ppm with 0.1% lipase in Experiment 5) of 2wk. In all experiments, birds fed fresh fat gained more weight, had better feed/gain, together with higher AME$_{n}$ and apparent fat digestibility (Experiments 1 and 2) than birds fed oxidized fat(P<0.05). There was no interaction among fat sources and antioxidants on the performance of chicks in any experiment. In Experiment 3, Santoquin more than 200 ppm resulted in a reduction in weight gain and feed intake(P<0.05). The livers of chicks fed oxidized fat in Experiments 2 and 5 had higher malondialdehyde (MDA) values (P<0.05) Chicks fed oxidized fat with 250 ppm Santoquin in Experiment 2 had lower liver MDA values, although this situation did not occur in Experiments 1, 4, and 5. These results indicate that antioxidant supplements can alleviate most deleterious effects of feeding oxidized fat and that supplementation of Santoquin more than 200 ppm has a negative effect on the performance of broiler chicks.s.

  • PDF

THE EFFECT OF DIETARY FATS ON THE HEPATIC AND INTESTINAL 3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL COENZYME A REDUCTASE ACTIVITIES IN CHICKS

  • Youn, B.S.;Tananka, K.;Ohtani, S.;Santoso, U.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.6 no.2
    • /
    • pp.281-290
    • /
    • 1993
  • This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of degree of unsaturation (Experiment 1) and the chain length of constituent fatty acids of dietary fats (Experiment 2) on-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activities in the liver and small intestine of chicks. Chicks were fed experimental diets for 10 days and then killed for the determination of the HMG-CoA reductase activities in the intestinal epithelial cell and hepatic microsomes. The hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity showed the highest value in chicks fed the tallow-containing diet. Chicks fed diets containing safflower or coconut oil resulted in a significantly lower intestinal HMG-CoA reductase activity in comparison with those fed the olive oil-containing diet. The hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity was significantly higher when fat-free and trilaurin were fed than when any other triglycerides were fed. This activity showed the lowest value in the chicks fed the diet containing tristearin. The HMG-CoA reductase activities in the jejunum and ileum were significantly or tended to be higher when trilaurin was fed than when any other triglycerides were fed. Except when trilaurin was fed, the presence of saturated fat in the diet did not have a significant effect on the intestinal HMG-CoA reductase activity, unlike the effect shown when a highly unsaturated fat was added to the diet. There was no significant correlation between the HMG-CoA reductase activities of the liver and intestinal, and the HMG-CoA reductase activity and cholesterol content of the intestinal epithelial cells.

The Effects of Supplementing Methionine plus Cystine to a Low-protein Diet on the Growth Performance and Fat Accumulation of Growing Broiler Chicks

  • Bunchasak, C.;Satoso, U.;Tanaka, K.;Ohtani, S.;Collado, Cristino M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.10 no.2
    • /
    • pp.185-191
    • /
    • 1997
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of a low-protein diet supplemented with DL-methionine plus L-cystine (Met + Cys) on the growth performance and fat accumulation of female broiler chicks during the growing period (3-6 wks old). A low-protein diet (17% CP; 3,200 ME kcal/kg) was supplemented with Met + Cys (1.1 : 1.0) at levels 0.75, 0.94, 1.25, 1.31 or 1.50% of diet, respectively. Another diet with 21% CP and 3,200 ME kcal/kg served as the control group. All essential amino acids were adjusted to meet the National Research Council (1984) requirement for chicks. Feed and water were given ad libitum. Body weight of the chicks fed the low-CP diets supplemented with Met + Cys were heavier than those of the control birds. Feed conversion ratio and feed intakes were not significantly different between and among the treatment groups. Similary, abdominal fat content was not significantly different among the various treatments except that of the chicks fed the low CP diet with 1.25% Met + Cys which was higher than that of the control group. Fatty acid synthetase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activities and carcass protein content were not influenced by dietary treatments. Carcass fat content was lowest in chicks fed low CP diet with 0.75% Met + Cys and highest in the group that received 1.50% Met + Cys supplementation. Liver triglyceride increased as Met + Cys supplementation level increased. Various lipid fraction concentrations (cholesterol ester, free cholesterol, and phospholipid) in the serum went up as Met + Cys increased up to 1.25% after which it levelled off. Results of this experiment suggest that it is possible to reduce dietary protein level from 21% to 17% for growing broiler chicks by the supplementation of Met + Cys when other EAA were sufficient.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Astaxanthin on Histamine Induced Lesions in the Gizzard and Proventriculus of Broiler Chicks

  • Ohh, Mi-hyang;Kim, Seongjin;Pak, Sok Cheon;Chee, Kew-mahn
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.29 no.6
    • /
    • pp.872-878
    • /
    • 2016
  • Astaxanthin (ASX) is a xanthophyll pigment isolated from crustaceans and salmonids. Owing to its powerful antioxidant activity, ASX has been reported to have the potential to protect against gastric ulcers and a variety of other illnesses. Histamine (His) is a dietary factor that causes gastric erosion and ulceration in young chicks. In this study, we examined whether ASX had protective effects on dietary histamine-induced lesions in the gizzard and proventriculus of broiler chickens. Four experimental treatment groups were planned: basal diet (BD), BD+His, BD+ASX, and BD+ASX+His, with four chicks (5 days old) in each group and three replications (i.e., a total of 12 chicks per group). The BD was supplemented with either 0.4% His or 100 ppm ASX. The birds were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks, and diets contained no antimicrobial compounds. Supplementing the diet with His significantly decreased body weight gain, but increased the weights of the gizzard and proventriculus of the chicks as compared with those of chicks in the BD group (p<0.05). ASX did not affect His-dependent changes in chick body weight or weights of the gizzard and proventriculus. The loss of gastric glands in the proventriculus, which was observed in His-treated chicks, was not prevented by ASX administration. The frequency of proventricular ulceration, however, was lowered by treatment with ASX, without significant differences between the two supplementation levels. In conclusion, our data showed that ASX might be helpful for alleviating structural damage to the digestive system in poultry under certain stressful conditions.