• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chicks

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Immunosuppressive effect of Cryptosporidium baileyi infection on vaccination against Newcastle disease in chicks (닭와포자충 감염이 닭의 뉴캣슬병 예방접종에 대한 면역억제 효과)

  • 이재구;김현철
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 1998
  • Hemagglutination-inhibition titers (log2) to Newcastle disease (ND) vims were chronologically observed in chicks, which were orally inoculated with 5 × 105 oocysts of Cwptospori,drum bcileyi at 2 days of age and subsequently vaccinated with inactivated ND virus at 4 and 21 days postinoculation. In general, the titers were considerably lower in the infected chicks than those in the uninfected control throughout the experimental period (p < 0.01), and rapid negative seroronversions were observed in the infected chicks. The titers reached a peak on weeks 2 and 4 post-booster-vaccination in the control and infected chicks, respectively. Thus, C. bciLeWi infection was shown to have an immunosuppressive effect on ND vaccination when the agent was given to 2-day-old chicks. It is suggested that C. bniLeWi infection in chicks may increase the host susceptibility to ND virus.

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Effects of Florfenicol and Chromium (III) on Humoral Immune Response in Chicks

  • Cao, Jiyue;Li, Kui;Lu, Xiaocong;Zhao, Yaxin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.366-370
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    • 2004
  • One hundred and sixty day-old Hainan chicks were randomly allotted into eight pens to investigate the effect of different dietary concentrations of chromium (Cr) in the form of chromium chloride, and different dosages of florfenicol on humoral immune responses by determining antibody titers to Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines using the hemagglutination inhibition test. The results indicated that ND antibody titers were significantly higher in chicks receiving Cr at low (5 mg/kg feed) and middle (10 mg/kg feed) dose compared with the control (p<0.01). However, ND antibody titers were significantly decreased in chicks receiving Cr at a high dosage of 500 mg/kg feed (p<0.01), though the ND antibody titers of the early days (d 21 and d 28 of age) were higher than that of the control group. It is suggested that excessive Cr intake has detrimental effects on ND antibody production in chicks. No significantly lower response was measured in chicks that received florfenicol at a low dosage of 50 mg/kg feed (p>0.05), but the ND antibody titers were significantly decreased in chicks receiving 200 and 400 mg/kg feed of the drug (p<0.01). The ND antibody titers of group receiving 200 mg/kg feed of florfenicol plus 10 mg/kg Cr were slightly higher than that of the group receiving single florfenicol of 200 mg/kg although, no significant differences were observed between these two treatments. It is suggested that the humoral immune response impaired by florfenicol (200 mg/kg feed) could not be significantly reversed by Cr (10 mg/kg feed).

Ocular Lesions Induced Experimentally by Very Virulent Strain of Marek′s Disease Virus in Chickens (닭의 마렉병 바이러스 강독주 실험접종에 의한 안구병변)

  • Cho, Kyoung-Oh
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Pathology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2001
  • Ocular lesions induced in 40 specific-pathogen-free Marek's disease (MD) resistant chicks by inoculation at 1 day of age with very virulent strain of Marek's disease virus (WV) were pathologically examined. Grossly,24/40 (60%) chicks had white gel-like materials in the vitreous body, whereas thickening and discoloration of iris (gray eye) were not observed. Microscopically, characteristic ocular MD lesions were observed in choroid (27/40), ciliary (30/40) and iris (23/40) in which small focal inflammatory to diffuse neoplastic Iymphoid cells were infiltrated. Five out of 40 MDV-inoculated birds revealed necrotizing Iymphomas in choroid. These lesions consisted of necrotic and degenerating Iymphoblasts accompanied by intranuclear inclusion body. There was retinal atrophy and necrosis with inclusion body detected in necrotic ganglion, inner or outer nuclear and infiltrated Iymphoblast cells. Conjunctiva showed lymphoid cell infiltration in 29/40 chicks inoculated with MDV, Vitreous body exhibited mild to severe exudation of eosinophilic proteinaceous material in 24/40 chicks. These lesions were associated with Iymphoid cell infutration, edema and fibrosis of choroid. Pecten (7/40) and optic nerve (13/40) were infiltrated usually mildly with Iymphoid cells. From these results, very virulent strain, Md/5 of MDV caused high incidence of ocular lesions in MD resistant chicks. In addition, Md/5 induced exudation of proteinaceous material into the vitreous body and fibrosis of choroid. Necrotizing ocular Iymphoma lesions in choroid is the first report in the MD literature.

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엔비로의 첨가.급여가 계사내 유해가스와 육계의 생산성에 미치는 영향

  • 류경선;박재홍;서경석;김상호
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.66-69
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    • 2000
  • To investigate the influence of feeding Enviro on noxious gas of environmental controlled poultry house and performance of broiler chicks. Diets contained 21.5, 19.00 CP and 3,100, 3,200 kcal/kg ME, respectively for starting and finishing period. Enviro were supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3% in Expt 1and 2, respectively. CO$_2$and ammonia gas were periodically detected for finishing period in Expt 1. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion(FC) were measured for five weeks in Expt. 2. ND antibody titer were also measured after primary and booster vaccination at two and four weeks old. In Expt 1, chicks fed 0.2% Enviro showed 32.8ppm and 1719 ppm of ammonia gas, CO$_2$in poultry house and significantly decrease compared to that of control(P<0.05). Weight gain of chicks fed 0.1 and 0.2% Enviro was significantly increased for starting period(P<0.05) but was not statistically different for finishing period. Feed intake was no significantly different of all treatments. Chicks showed lower FC in 0.3% Enviro treatment for starting period(P<0.05) than others, but was not for finishing period. ND AB titet of chicks fed Enviro was prone to be higher than control, but was not significantly different. The results of these experiments indicated that 0.1% Enviro supplement would be maximize the performance of broiler chicks.

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단일 및 복합 생균제의 급여가 육계의 생산성 및 장내 미생물에 미치는 영향

  • 류경선;박홍석;류명선;여영수;김상호
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.63-65
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    • 2000
  • Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of feeding single or combined probiotics on performance and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks for five weeks. Diets based on corn and soybean meal contained 21.50, 19.0% CP and 3,100, 3,150 kcal/kg ME for starting and finishing period, respectively. Lactobacillus salvarius isolated from chicks intestine(LSC), Lactobacillus salvarius isolated from piglet(LSP) Bacillus polyfermenticus(BP) were fed with alone and mixed ones at the level of 0.21 and 0.1% in experiment 1 and 2. Three hundred eighty four chicks were randomly assigned to eight treatment with four replicates of 12 chicks each per treatment. Weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio(FCR) were weekly measured for 5 weeks. The number of intestinal microflora was examined at the end of experiment. There were no significant different weight gain of all treatment in both experiments. Feed consumption were not shown consistency. Chicks fed LSC alone showed the lowest feed conversion ratio of all treatment in experiment 1, but was not consistency in experiment 2. The number of Lactobacillus spp. tended to increase in chicks ileum fed probiotics treatments, whereas it was not consistency in cecum. The number of ileal E. coli was not decreased in BP treatment.

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Effect of Dietary Fiber Levels on The Production Parameters in Colored Broiler Chicks (식이섬유 수준에 따른 유색육용계의 능력과 도체특성)

  • 김대진;한성운
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.278-285
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    • 1996
  • This experiments was conducted to determine the effect of dietary fiber(DF) levels with diets of isocaloric (3,010 kcal/1kg diet) and isoprotein(21% of diet) on colored brolier chicks(Juk jun hatchery farm). Four groups of 6 chicks 4 replication. were fed corn-soy meal diets containing 0% (DF, 5%), 2%(DF, 6%), 4%(DF, 7%), and 6%(DF, 8%) of dehydrated alfalfa meal(AM) from 21 to 42 days of age. The addition of dietary fiber levels to the broiler chicks diets did noty affect body weight, feed efficiency, energy efficiency and protein efficiency, but affect feed intake of chicks fed 6% of fiber. The level of fiber diets did not affect gizzard weight of female(1.45g/100g BW) and male(1.25g/100g BW), but affect small intestine length of female. When comparing two the dietary fiber levels, 5% and 8%, the contents of the total serum cholesterol was slightly higher in chicks fed 5% of fier than that of 8% without significant. However, total serum cholesterol levels of female(121mg/dl) and male(119mg/dl) were not influenced by increased dietary fiber levels. The liver weight was not influenced by increasing of dietary fiber levels (female 2.03g and male 2.05g/100g BW). The yields of dressed weight(72% of shrunk body weight), skin weight)11% of dressed weight) were not influenced by increased dietary fiber.

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Changes of maternal antibodies in chicks vaccinated to breeder against infectious bronchitis, infectious Bursal disease, and Newcastle disease virus (모계의 전염성기관지염, 전염성 F낭병 및 뉴캣슬병 백신투여에 따른 모체이행 항체의 변동)

  • 고원석;김태중;이정원;서이원;송희종;오언평
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 1998
  • Serum samples collected from 30 breeders and their progeny 30 chicks. The antibodies against infectious bronchitis(IB), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and Newcastle disease(ND) viruses were detected by ELISA using commercial ELISA kit. The breeders were vaccinated against IB, IBD and ND viruses according to general vaccination program. Geometric mean titers(GMT) of ELISA were monitored from 1-day old to 17-day old chicks and compared with breeder chickens. The GMT of ELISA to IB, IBD and ND were declined half level of the breeder antibody titer at 6-, 8- and 7-day old. And, the GMT of ELISA to IB, IBD and ND were declined than that of protective titer at 6-, 1-, and 4-day old. Thereafter, the GMT of ELISA was declined and disappeared according to ages of chicks. Taken together, this study led to conclusion that time-course of maternal antibody titers of chicks from vaccinated breeders, and this is very important data for vaccination to chicks.

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EFFECTS OF DIETARY TRYPTOPHAN LEVEL AND FOOD INTAKE ON ENERGY UTILIZATION BY MALE GROWING CHICKS

  • Sugahara, K.;Kubo, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.647-651
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    • 1992
  • Two experiments involving comparative slaughter procedures were conducted to see if the decrease in total energy retention (ER) resulted from the decreased food intake in growing chicks fed on a diet containing tryptophan less than the requirement. Ad libitum-feeding a diet containing 50% of tryptophan of a control diet (1.5 g/kg) decreased body weight gain, apparent metabolizable energy intake (AMEI), ER and ER : AMEI ratio. When both the control diet and the 0.75 g/kg tryptophan diet were tube-fed at the two levels of food intake, body weight gain was significantly lower in chicks on the low tryptophan diet than in the control chicks at each level of intake. AME : gross-energy ratio decreased only when the low tryptophan diet was tube-fed at the higher level of intake. Energy retained as protein was significantly decreased by the low tryptophan level and reduction of food intake. Energy retained as fat was affected by food intake. ER and ER : AMEI ratio were unaffected by dietary tryptophan level and were proportional to AMEI. Heat increment of feeding was affected by neither tryptophan nor food intake. These results indicate that the decreased ER in chicks fed on the low tryptophan diet was due mainly to the decreased food intake and not to the decreased efficiency of ME utilization.

Influence of Ligustrum lucidum and Schisandra chinensis Fruits on Antioxidative Metabolism and Immunological Parameters of Layer Chicks

  • Ma, Deying;Liu, Yuqin;Liu, Shengwang;Li, Qundao;Shan, Anshan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.1438-1443
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    • 2007
  • The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Ligustrum lucidum (LL) and Schisandra chinensis (SC) on the growth, antioxidative metabolism and immunity of laying strain male chicks. The results showed that diets supplemented with 1% of either LL or SC had no effects on the growth performance of chicks compared with the control. Furthermore, both LL and SC significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of serum and heart of chicks (p<0.05). In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of serum of the birds was significantly elevated by supplementation with SC (p<0.05). Glutathione reductase (GR) activity of heart and serum of the birds was significantly elevated by supplementation with LL or SC (p<0.05). LL supplementation significantly elevated antibody values against Newcastle Disease virus (NDV)(p<0.05) and lymphoblastogenesis (p<0.05) of the birds. The results suggest that diets supplemented with 1% of either LL or SC may improve immune function and antioxidant status of chicks.

Effects of Dietary Supplemental Enviro on Noxious Gas of Poultry House and Performance of Broiler Chicks (엔비로의 첨가.급여가 계사내 유해가스와 육계의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 류경선;박재홍;서경석;김상호
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2001
  • Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of dietary supplemental Enviro on noxious gas of environmental controlled poultry house and performance of broiler chicks. Diets contained 21.5, 19.00 CP and 3,100, 3,200 kcal/kg ME, respectively for starting and finishing period. Enviro were supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3% in Expt. 1 and 2, respectively. $CO_{2}$ and ammonia gas were periodically detected for finsihing period in Expt. 1. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion(FC) were measured for five weeks in Expt. 2. ND antibody titer were also measured after primary and booster vaccination at two and three weeks old. Blood cholesterol and nutrients digestibility were In Expt. 1, ammonia and $CO_{2}$ gas of chicks fed 0.2% Enviro showed 32.8ppm and 1,719ppm in poultry house and significantly decrease compared to that of control(P〈0.05). $CO_{2}$ gas was 1,814ppm in 0.4% Enviro treatments and also significantly lower than control(P〈0.05), but tended to be increased compared to that of 0.2% Enviro treatments, In Expt. 2, weight gain of chicks fed 0.1 and 0.2% Enviro was significantly increased for starting period(P〈0.05), but was not statistically different for finishing period. Feed intake was no significantly different of all treatments. Chicks showed lower FC in 0.3% Enviro treatment for starting period(P〈0.05) than others, but was not for finishing period. ND AB titer of chicks fed Enviro was prone to be higher than control, but was not significantly different. Total blood cholesterol was not significantly different of all treatments, but tended to be high in 0.1 and 0.2% Enviro treatments. HDL of chicks fed those levels showed significantly higher than control(P〈0.05), whereas LDL was tended to be decreased in those treatments. The digestibilites of crude protein and fiber were improved in 0.1 and 0.2% Enviro treatments relative to those of control, but was not statistically different. However, crude ash digestibility was significantly improved in 0.1 and 0.2% Enviro treatments(P〈0.05). Chicks also showed AMEn in 0.1, 0.2% Enviro treatments, but was no significance. The results of these experiments indicated that 0.1% Enviro supplement would be maximize the performance of broiler chicks.

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