• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chicks

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Peripheral Insulin Doesn't Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks

  • Liu, Lei;Xu, Shaohua;Wang, Xiaojuan;Jiao, Hongchao;Lin, Hai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1294-1299
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    • 2016
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline). The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU) did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05). Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p<0.05). In fasted chicks, 10 and 20 IU insulin treatments significantly decreased the plasma glucose level for 4 h (p<0.05). Peripheral insulin treatment of 10 IU for 2 or 4 h did not significantly affect the hypothalamic genes expression of neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin-releasing factor and insulin receptors (p>0.05). All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks.

Effect of Feeding Probiotics on Performance and Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chicks (생균제의 급여가 육계의 생산성과 장내 미생물의 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 류경선;박홍석
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 1998
  • Two experiment were conducted to evaluate the feeding value of probiotics for the broiler chicks. Basal diets based on corn and soybean meal with no supplemental probiotics contained 21% dietary crude protein for the first 3 weeks and 19% for the rest of two weeks. In experiment 1, 0.2 % probiotics containing 2X 10 6 cfu /ml of Saccharomyces cerevisiae(S), Clostridium butyricum(C), Lactobacillus acidophilus(L), Bacillus polyfermenticus(B) were respectively supplemented to control groups. Two hundred day-olo chicks were randomly assigned to five treatments which had four replicates of 10 chicks each per treatment. Weight gain, feed consurnption, feed conversion ratio (FCR) were weekly measured for 5 weeks. The number of intestinal microflora was examined at the end of experiment. In experiment 1, Weight gain and feed intake of chicks fed probiotics exhibited a significant response compared to those of control for the first three weeks(P<0.01). Weight gain of S or C treatments was higher than that of control for the rest of two weeks, whereas it was significantly lower in L and B treatments than S or C treatments (P<0.01). Chicks fed S or C was significantly increased weight gain(P <0.05) compared to that of control at five weeks of age. FCR of C treatment seemed to improve relative to other supplemental probiotics groups, but was not significantly different. The number of intestinal anaerobes and Lactobacillus in large intestine of chicks fed probiotics supplements was significantly decreased compared to control groups(P<0.01). In experiment 2, there were six treatments: Ti, control; T2, 0.2%S; T3, 0.2%S + 0.2%C; T4, 0.2%S + 0.2%L; T5, 0.2%S + 0.2%B; T6, 0.2%S + 0.1%C + o.i%L + 0.1%B. Control diet based on corn soybean meal contained 21% CP and 3,2OOca1 /g ME with no probiotics. There were four replicates of 10 chicks each per treatment. Weight gain of chicks fed probiotics tended to increase compared to control groups, but were not significantly different between them. FCR was also improved in probiotics treatments. However, there were no significant differences between probiotics supplementation and control groups. The results of these experiments indicated that dietary supplemental probiotics improved weight gain, feed efficiency for the first three weeks of young broiler chicks, whereas supplementation of C, L, B combined probiotics to young broiler chicks was not superior to those of single or two probiotics.

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Riboflavin deficiency occurred in the broiler chicks (육용계 병아리에서 발생한 리보플라빈 결핍증)

  • Kim, Gye-Yeop
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.591-596
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    • 2001
  • The chicks from 6 field broiler farms revealed peripheral neuropathy including leg weakness, curled toes and drooped wings. Grossly distinctive enlargements of sciatic nerve, branchial nerve and lumbar nerve were observed in the chicks. Histologically nerve lesions consisted of demyelination of myelin sheaths, Schwann cell proliferation and swelling, and interstitial edema in the peripheral nerves of all birds examined. Axonal swelling and infiltration of small lymphocytes were observed, but not a primary lesion. After treatment of riboflavin, neurological disorder was markedly recovered. From these results, it is suggested that the peripheral nerve lesions in these cases were caused by dietary riboflavin deficiency.

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Effects of Heat Treatment on Soybeans With and Without the Gene Expression for the Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor: Chick Growth Assays

  • Burnham, L.L.;Kim, I.H.;Hancock, J.D.;Lewis, A.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.1750-1757
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    • 2000
  • A total of 864 broiler chicks were used at Kansas State University and the University of Nebraska to determine the effects of heat treatment of two soybean genotypes on the growth performance. The soybeans were Williams 82 variety with (+K) and without (-K) gene expression for the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Heat treatment (autoclaving at $121^{\circ}C$ and $1.1kg/cm^2$) was applied for 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 min, resulting in a $2{\times}6$ factorial arrangement of treatments. Station and station treatment effects occurred, indicating that response in nutritional value of the soybean genotypes to heat treatment varied from year to year and location to location. However, the interactions were in magnitude of response rather than direction of response, with greater reductions in trypsin inhibitor concentrations for the soybeans heat processed at the Nebraska location. Pooled data indicated that -K supported greater (p<0.001) ADG, ADFI and gain/feed than the +K genotype. As the length of heat treatment increased, the ADG, ADFI, and the gain/feed ratio increased for chicks fed both soybean genotypes (p<0.0001). However, heating the -K soybeans resulted in a greater response in ADG, ADFI, and gain/feed than heating the +K soybeans (genotype heat treatment interaction, p<0.001). Pancreatic weights (mg pancreas/g of BW) of chicks fed -K soybeans were reduced compared to those from chicks fed +K (p<0.001). Increasing heat treatment decreased pancreas weights in chicks fed both soybean genotypes (p<0.001). Chicks fed heated soybeans in the Nebraska experiment had lower pancreatic weights than chicks fed heated soybeans in the Kansas experiment (station heat treatment interaction, p<0.0001). Chick growth performance was improved and pancreatic weights decreased by feeding raw -K soybeans versus raw +K soybeans, and by increasing heat treatment of both soybean genotypes. However, the response to heat treatment was not independent of genotype. Both +K and -K soybeans heated for 24 min supported similar ADG, ADFI, gain/feed, and pancreas weights, although chicks fed raw +K soybeans had lower growth performance than chicks fed -K soybeans. In conclusion, raw -K soybeans supported greater growth performance in broiler chicks than raw +K soybeans, although this advantage was lost when both soybean genotypes were heated for 24 min. Heat treatment of +K soybeans supported similar growth performance to heated -K soybeans, even though +K soybeans supported lower rates and efficiencies of gain than -K soybeans when fed raw.

Using Dietary Propionic Acid to Limit Salmonella gallinarum Colonization in Broiler Chicks

  • Alshawabkeh, K.;Tabbaa, M.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.243-246
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    • 2002
  • This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary propionic acid on inhibitory effect of Salmonella gallinarum. Day-old 144 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four dietary treatments, three replicates per treatment. The four dietary treatments consisted of 0.0, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8% dietary propionic acid. Chicks were challenged orally on three days of age with $10^6$ cfu Salmonella gallinarum. Sample of crop and cecal contents were obtained on Days 1, 8 and 15 post-inoculation. The pH of crop contents decreased significantly (p<0.01) for groups of chicks provided 1.2 and 1.8% propionic acid in the diet as compared with those provided 0.6% propionic acid and control group. The pH of cecal contents decreased significantly (p<0.01) for groups of chicks provided with 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8% of propionic acid as compared with control group. The number of Salmonella gallinarum positive culture in the crop and ceca of chicks, decreased significantly (p<0.01) from the groups provided with 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8% of propionic acid in the diet at day 1, 8 and 15 post-inoculation. The addition of 1.8% propionic acid in the diet provided a high level of protection against colonization than did 0.6 and 1.2%. These results indicate that the addition of propionic acid in a concentration of 1.2 or more to the diet of newly hatched chicks significantly decreases crop and cecal colonization by Salmonella gallinarum.

L-Leucine increases the daily body temperature and affords thermotolerance in broiler chicks

  • Han, Guofeng;Yang, Hui;Wang, Yunhao;Haraguchi, Shogo;Miyazaki, Takuro;Bungo, Takashi;Tashiro, Kosuke;Furuse, Mitsuhiro;Chowdhury, Vishwajit S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.842-848
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    • 2019
  • Objective: Heat stress poses an increasing threat for poultry production. Some amino acids have been found to play critical roles in affording thermotolerance. Recently, it was found that in ovo administration of L-leucine (L-Leu) altered amino acid metabolism and afforded thermotolerance in heat-exposed broiler chicks. Methods: In this study, two doses (35 and $70{\mu}mol/egg$) of L-Leu were administered in ovo on embryonic day 7 to determine their effect on rectal temperature (RT), body weight (BW) and thyroid hormones at hatching. Changes in RT, BW, and thermotolerance in post-hatched chicks were also analyzed. Results: It was found that in ovo administration of L-Leu dose-dependently reduced RT and plasma thyroxine ($T_4$) level just after hatching. In post-hatched neonatal broiler chicks, however, the higher dose of L-Leu administered in ovo significantly increased RT without affecting BW gain. In chicks that had been exposed to heat stress, the RT was significantly lowered by in ovo administration of L-Leu (high dose) in comparison with the control chicks under the same high ambient temperature (HT: $35^{\circ}C{\pm}1^{\circ}C$, 120 min). Conclusion: In ovo administration of L-Leu in a high dose contributed to an increased daily body temperature and afforded thermotolerance under HT in neonatal broiler chicks.

Effects of Dietary Supplemental Powerfeel on Performance and Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chicks (파워필의 급여가 육계의 생산성 및 장내 미생물에 미치는 영향)

  • 류경선;서경석;김상호;송희종
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.55-59
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    • 2001
  • The objective of these experiments gas to investigate the feeding of Powerfeel supplementation on performance and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks. Five treatments were allocated into 0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.10% Powerfeel with four replications for five weeks. Diets contained 21.5% CP, 3,100 kcal/kg ME for the first three weeks and 19% CP, 3,100 kcal/kg ME for the rest two weeks. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion were weekly measured. E. coli and Salmonella were examined from cecum and ileum at the end of experiment. ND titer were also measured at five weeks old after first and booster vaccination at 14 and 21 days of age. In experiment 1, Weight gain of Powerfeef treatments was significantly higher for five weeks (P〈0.05). Feed intake increased on all Powerfeel treatments. Chicks fed Powerfeel improved feed conversion ratio(FCR) significantly compared to that of control (P〈0.05), but was not shown the consistency. In experiment 2, Weight gain and feed consumption of chicks fed Powerfeel were tended to increase, but were not statistically different from control. Powerfeel treatments showed significantly lower FCR than control(P〈0.05). The number of Salmonella and E. coli of chicks ileum fed Powerfeel were highly decreased, compared to those of control in both experiments. Powerfeel supplementation seemed to decrease the number of both Salmonella and E. coli in illeum, but was not consistency in cecum. Chicks fed Powerfeel showed significantly higher ND titer than control (P〈0.05). These results indicated that the optimum level of Powerfeel to maximize the performance of broiler chicks were estimated from 0.050 to 0.075% in broiler diets.

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The Effect of Choline Deficiency on Lipid Metabolism in Chicks (콜린 결핍이 병아리의 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Hyeon-Sook;Park, Jeong-Ro;B-H Simon Cho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.247-254
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    • 1992
  • In the experiment in which young chicks were fed the semisynthetic diet devoid of choline or the same diet with butanolamine supplementation, the weight gain was decreased significantly accompanied by the reduction of feed consumption in choline deficient chicks as compared to control chicks. However, the overall effects of choline deficiency on the relative liver weight, lipid contents of liver, and plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels were not observed, nor was the response to choline deficiency on the incorporation of $^{14}$ C-oleic acid into lipids in the liver microsomes. When hyperlipidemia was induced by estrogen treatment, the liver lipids, as well as relative liver weight, showed a tendency to be increased only in the chicks fed the semisynthetic diet devoid of choline with butanolamine supple-mentation. And the magnitude of elevation of VLDL lipids by estrogen treatment was the lowest in the above group. These results indicated that young chicks were not able to synthesize considerable choline for normal growth ; nevertheless, the release of VLDL by hepatocytes was performed normally. But it was also implied that there might be some problems of VLDL release under the condition of hyperlipidemia in chicks in choline deficiency accelerated by butanolamine supplementation.

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EFFECTS OF COBALT AND NICKEL ON ZINC AVAILABILITY IN CHICKS AND PIGS FED PRACTICAL-TYPE DIETS HIGH IN CALCIUM

  • Chung, A.S.;Lee, S.T.;Grummer, R.H.;Hoekstra, W.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 1988
  • Experiments were conducted with chicks and pigs to determine whether the sparing effects of cobalt (Co) or nickel (Ni) on zinc (Zn) nutrition were due to an improved Zn availability. They included a Zn balance study with New Hampshire X Leghorn cross chicks, a $^{65}Zn$ absorption study with Ancona chicks and a $^{65}Zn$ balance study with pigs. The basal diet was a corn-soybean type diet high in calcium. In the Zn balance study with New Hampshire X Leghorn cross chicks, Zn retention percentages for basal, + 54 ppm Ni or + 54 ppm Co were 39.4, 40.4 and 48.3, respectively. In the $^{65}Zn$ absorption study with chicks, adding these levels of Ni or Co to the basal diet increased $^{65}Zn$ absorption from 12.8% to 14.0% and 15.1%, respectively. Supplemental Ni and Co increased the proportion of body $^{65}Zn$ found in liver and bone. With the pig experiment, $^{65}Zn$ retention percentages for basal, +54 ppm Co and + 60 ppm Zn groups were 20.0, 26.7 and 12.2, respectively; while Zn retention values (mg) in the body were 29.5, 45.1 and 60.5, respectively. In addition, supplemental Co increased $^{65}Zn$ concentration in the blood, liver, kidney and duodenum. These studies showed that supplementation of the basal diet with Co resulted in increased absorption of dietary Zn in chicks and pigs. The effect of Ni in chicks was less than that of Co. The ability of supplemental Co and to a lesser extent of Ni to improve weight gain as well as reduce other Zn-deficient signs in both species fed a practical corn-soybean type diet high in in calcium can be explained, at least in part by an associated increase in Zn absorption. The possible mechanism involved in these effects are discussed.

Effects of Multiple Enzyme (ROVABIO® Max) Containing Carbohydrolases and Phytase on Growth Performance and Intestinal Viscosity in Broiler Chicks Fed Corn-Wheat-Soybean Meal Based Diets

  • Lee, So-Yeon;Kim, Jong-Seol;Kim, Jin-Man;An, Byoung-Ki;Kang, Chang-Won
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.1198-1204
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with multiple enzymes composed of phytase plus carbohydrolases (ROVABIO$^{(R)}$ Max, RM) on growth performance, nutritional availability and intestinal viscosity in broiler chicks. A total of one thousand, one-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into treatment groups that received one of five experimental diets for 32 days. Each group consisted of 40 birds and all experiments included five replicates. The dietary treatments included PC (a positive control diet), NC1 (65 kcal/kg, 0.15% and 0.10% less ME, available phosphorus and calcium levels, respectively, than the PC diet), NC2 (85 kcal/kg, 0.20% and 0.10% less ME, available phosphorus and calcium levels, respectively, than the PC diet), NC1+RM (NC1 plus ROVABIO$^{(R)}$ Max) and NC2+RM (NC2 plus ROVABIO$^{(R)}$ Max). The average body weights, daily body weight gains and feed conversion rates of the chicks fed a diet containing RM improved significantly or tended to improve. The treatments also had no effect on the carcass characteristics or blood parameters, but the viscosity of the intestinal contents of the chicks fed the diet containing RM was significantly lower than that of chicks in the NC without RM groups. Additionally, chicks fed the dietary RM showed increased breaking strength and ash content of the tibia when compared to chicks that received the non-RM diets. Taken together, the results of the present study indicated that the addition of multiple enzymes consisting of phytase plus NSP enzymes improved the growth performance and mineral status of the tibia in broiler chickens fed corn-wheat-soybean meal-based diets with reduced levels of nutrients. Further, these findings suggest that the improved animal performance is associated with reduced intestinal viscosity by the dietary enzyme complex.