• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chicks

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Effect of Dietary Supplemental Charcoal or Charcoal Extract on Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks (목탄과 목탄액의 첨가가 육계의 생산성 및 육질에 미치는 영향)

  • 류경선;이문준;송근섭;나종삼;김종승
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.139-143
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    • 1997
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplemental charcoal(CH) or charcoal extract(CE) on performance and meat quality of broiler chicks for 5 weeks. Basal diets based on corn and soybean meal contained 21% crude protein for the first 3 weeks and 19% for the rest two weeks. Two levels of dietary CH(O, 0.5%) and CE(0, 0.2%) were fed in a factorial design. There were four replicates of 10 chicks each per treatment. An increased growth rate was observed in chicks fed the basal diet supplemented with CE alone. Chicks fed the diet containing both CH and CE tended to depress the growth rate. Dietary supplemental CH and CE improved the feed conversion efficiency compared to the control group, but was not significantly different between them. The abdominal fat(%) of chicks fed CH alone or both CH and CE tended to de-crease without significant difference. The total lipid content of breast meat of chicks fed CE alone showed significant difference among treatments (P

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Mortality of Little Tern(Sterna albifrons) by Abandoned Fishing Nets during Parental Care Period (폐그물 방치에 의한 육추기의 쇠제비갈매기(Sterna albifrons) 사망)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hoon;Yoo, Jeong-Chil
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2007
  • Abandoned fishing nets served Little Tern(Sterna albifrons) chicks as cover on a sandy island on Ganwol Lake, Hongsung-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. Chicks were incidently caught in $2.5cm{\times}2.5cm$ mesh sized nets and died of dehydration and exhaustion. Three adults died when they were caught by abandoned fishing net during parental care period in $2.5cm{\times}2.5cm$ mesh sized nets. Whereas $0.7cm{\times}0.7cm$ mesh sized nets did not affect the chicks' or adults' survival. Overlapped nets with several layers were more dangerous for chicks than were spread nets with a single layer. Dead chicks and adults were found to have been entangled by wing and neck. In this study, wing and nape(head+bill) of dead chicks were longer than those of live chicks. To improve the survival rate of Little Tern chicks at Ganwol Lake, abandoned fishing nets must be removed before the breeding season.

Effects of Feeding Single or Multiple Probiotics on Performance and Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chicks (단일 및 혼합 생균제의 급여가 육계의 생산성 및 장내 미생물에 미치는 영향)

  • 류경선;여영수;류명선;박홍석;김상호
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2001
  • Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effents of feeding single or combined probiltics on performance and intestinal micreflora of broiler chicks for five weeks. Diets based on corn and soybean meal contained 21.50, 19% CP and 3,100, 3,150kcal/kg ME for starting and finishing period, respectively. Lactobacillus salvarius isolated from chicks intestine(LSC), Lactobacillus salvarius isolated from piglet(LSP), Bacillus polyfermenticus(BP) were fed with alone and mixed ones at the level of 0.21 and 0.1% in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. Three hundred eighty four chicks were randomly assigned to eight treatments with four replicates of 12 chicks each per treatment. Weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio(FCR) were weekly measured for 5 weeks. The number of intestinal micreflora was examined at the end of experiment. In both experiments, weight gain of chicks fed probiltics tended to be similar or higher than control, but was not in LSC+LSP treatment. Feed intake was not consistent among treatments. In experiment 1, FCR of chicks fed LSC alone was the lowest of all treatments, whereas it was significantly higher in LSC+LSP treatments than control(P〈0.05). In experiment 2, LSP supplemental groups tended to increase FCR compared to the control. The number of ileal E. coli was the lowest in LSP alone treatment of experiment 1, whereas cecal E. coli was higher concentration in probiotics supplemental groups than control. Total Lactobacillus of chicks fed probiotics was decreased in ileum, but was no consestency in cecum. In experiment 2, ileal total yeast tended to be higher in probiotics supplemental groups except LSP alone supplement than control. Total Lactobacillus of chicks fed LSC or LSP alone treatments was significantly higher than control(P〈0.05).

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SPARING EFFECTS OF COBALT OR NICKEL ON ZINC NUTRITION AND THE DIFFERENCE IN ZINC ABSORPTION BETWEEN ANCONA AND NEW HAMPSHIRE X LEGHORN CROSS CHICKS

  • Chung, A.S.;Sunde, M.L.;Grummer, R.H.;Hoekstra, W.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 1988
  • Experiments were conducted to determine whether supplemental cobalt (Co) or nickel (Ni) would prevent the signs of zinc (Zn) deficiency in chicks fed a high calcium (1.5%) corn-soybean diet and to examine the difference in $^{65}Zn$ absorption rates between inbred Ancona and crossbred New Hampshire X Single Comb White Leghorn chicks. In the initial experiment, the supplementation of 27 ppm Ni, 27 ppm Co or 54 ppm Co to a basal diet increased weight gain and reduced feather defects; 54 ppm Ni tended to increase weight gain but did not reduce feather defects. In further experiments, chicks fed the diet supplemented with 54 ppm Co usually showed increased weight gain and reduced feather defects; however, chicks fed a diet supplemented with 54 ppm Ni less frequently showed these effects. In another test, Ancona chicks fed a diet supplemented with 30 ppm Zn (except during a $^{65}Zn$ absorption study period) showed lower weight gain, more feather defects and less $^{65}Zn$ absorption than did New Hampshire X Leghorn cross chicks. Similar results were achieved with two strains of chicks fed the basal and 54 ppm Ni, 54 ppm Co or 60 ppm Zn supplemented diets. The sparing effects of Co on Zn which were commonly observed and the lesser effect of Ni or Zn were shown to be, at least in part, the result of increased availability of dietary Zn. That Ancona chicks required more Zn than New Hampshire cross chicks for the development of feathers and for growth is partly the result of decreased Zn absorption from the type of diets fed.

Effects of infectious bursal disease virus(IBDV) and newcastle disease virus(NDV) vaccines on performance of broiler chicks

  • Kwon, Jung-taek;Kim, Tae-joong;Ryu, Kyeong-seon;Song, Hee-jong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.738-742
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    • 1999
  • The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccination on performance of broiler chicks for five weeks. Two types of poultry houses and three patterns of vaccination ($NDV^-/IBDV^-$, $NDV^+/IBDV^-$ and $NDV^+/IBDV^+$) were factorially assigned to six treatments. NDV, B1 strain and IBDV, Bursin-2 vaccine were orally administered at 5, 14 and 7, 18 days, respectively. Forty eight hundred chicks were grouped into four replications with two hundnyd hybro $\times$ hybro chicks per each treatment. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality and product index were surveyed at the end of experiment. Bursa index and IBDV antibody titer of chicks were weekly measured. Weight gain of chicks vaccinated with $NDV^+/IBDV^+$ was significantly increased compared to that of other treatments at both window and windowless poultry houses (p<0.05). Chicks vaccinated with $NDV^+/IBDV^+$ also showed significantly improving the FCR and mortality compared to those of other treatments at both poultry houses (p<0.05). The bursa indecies of both poultry houses were high from one-day- to three-weeks-old, but were low for the rest of two weeks. IBDV antibody of all chicks was detected 100% by agar gel precipitation (AGP) test at one day old, but was not detected in $NDV^-/IBDV^-$ and $NDV^+/IBDV^-$ treatments at four weeks old. However, it showed 100% in $NDV^+/IBDV^+$ treatment. Antibody titer using ELISA showed similar trend to that of AGP test. The results of this experiment confirmed that IBDV and NDV combined vaccine significantly improved the performance of broiler chicks.

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The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks

  • Kim, S.K.;Kim, T.H.;Lee, S.K.;Chang, K.H.;Cho, S.J.;Lee, K.W.;An, B.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1287-1293
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    • 2016
  • The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0.001) lactic acid bacteria, but lowered Coli-form bacteria in cecal contents compared with those fed the control diet. The number of Bacillus spp. was higher (p<0.001) in all groups except for LF-SBM 1 compared with control diet-fed chicks. At 7 d, jejunal villi were significantly lengthened (p<0.001) in chicks fed the fermented SBMs vs control diet. Collectively, the results indicate that feeding of fermented SBMs during early phase are beneficial to the subsequent growth performance in broiler chicks. BF-SBM and YBF-SBM showed superior overall growth performance as compared with unfermented SBM and SPC.

Effects of Over-dosed Lead and its Interaction with Iron, Copper, Zinc or Protein Supplement in Chicks (초생추에서의 납의 독성과 철·구리·아연 및 단백질과의 상호작용)

  • Park, Jun-hong;Kim, Chun-su
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.24-30
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    • 1984
  • The protective effects of high levels of dietary iron, copper, zinc or protein on lead toxicity were studied In chicks. Growth retardation, reduction of feed intake, anemia and accumulation of lead in the bone and kidney were observed in chicks fed a diet containing 500mg lead as chloride per kg of feed for 42 days. Early changes due to ingested lead were inhibition of red blood cell ${\delta}$-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase at all doses and no effect of iron, copper, zinc or protein addition were observed. Tibia lead accumulation was reduced in chicks receiving additional dietary iron or zinc compared to the lead only group but increased in chicks given supplementary protein. Decreased body weight gain was overcome by supplementary zinc or protein in chicks fed lead but not by supplementary iron. Overall the results of this study show that lead poisoning can be partly reduced by providing supplementary iron, zinc or protein, but the interaction of these element remained to be elucidated.

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Effects of Processing and Genetics on the Nutritional Value of Sorghum in Chicks and Pigs - Review -

  • Kim, I.H.;Cao, H.;Hancock, J.D.;Park, J.S.;Li, D.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1337-1344
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    • 2000
  • Differences in the physical structure and chemical composition of sorghums result in different nutritional values. Sorghums with high in vitro nutrient digestibility tend to have greater ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilies. Soft endosperm can improve growth and nutrient digestibility in nursery pigs and broiler chicks. However, finishing pigs respond less to endosperm hardness. Chicks benefit from waxy sorghums, but responses of swine to waxy sorghum remain controversial. Reduction of particle size benefits nursery pigs more than finishing pigs, while age of chicks affects the coarseness preference. Nutritional benefits of thermal processing in sorghum remain unclear in chicks and pigs. Although experiments have demonstrated increased efficiency with processed sorghum, processing provided only an immediate solution to the problem of reduced utilization. Long-term, solutions will be genetic improvement of physical and on chemical characteristic.

Effects of Dietary Additives and Early Feeding on Performance, Gut Development and Immune Status of Broiler Chickens Challenged with Clostridium perfringens

  • Ao, Z.;Kocher, A.;Choct, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.541-551
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    • 2012
  • The effects of dietary additives and holding time on resistance and resilience of broiler chickens to Clostridium perfringens challenge were investigated by offering four dietary treatments. These were a negative control (basal), a positive control (Zn-bacitracin) and two dietary additives, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), and acidifier. Two holding times included (a) immediate access to feed and water post hatch (FED) and (b) access to both feed and water 48 h post hatch (HELD). Chicks fed Zn-bacitracin had no intestinal lesions attributed to necrotic enteritis (NE), whereas chicks fed both MOS or acidifier showed signs of NE related lesions. All dietary treatments were effective in reducing the numbers of C. perfringens in the ileum post challenge. The FED chicks had heavier body weight and numerically lower mortality. The FED chicks also showed stronger immune responses to NE challenge, showing enhanced (p<0.05) proliferation of T-cells. Early feeding of the MOS supplemented diet increased (p<0.05) IL-6 production. The relative bursa weight of the FED chicks was heavier at d 21 (p<0.05). All the additives increased the relative spleen weight of the HELD chicks at d 14 (p<0.05). The FED chicks had increased villus height and reduced crypt depth, and hence an increased villus/crypt ratio, especially in the jejunum at d 14 (p<0.05). The same was true for the HELD chicks given dietary additives (p<0.05). It may be concluded that the chicks with early access to dietary additives showed enhanced immune response and gut development, under C. perfringens challenge. The findings of this study shed light on managerial and nutritional strategies that could be used to prevent NE in the broiler industry without the use of in-feed antibiotics.

Communication of Young Black-Tailed Gulls, Larus crassirostris, in response to Parents Behavior

  • Chung, Hoon;Cheong, Seok-Wan;Park, Shi-Ryong
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.295-300
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    • 2004
  • In the breeding colony of black-tailed gull, as nests of conspecific neighbors are very closely located, chicks are permanently exposed by sound and visual stimuli produced by adult conspecifics approaching their nests. The chicks, therefore, may need to learn ways to appropriately respond to their parents approach. In this study we experimentally manipulated sensory stimulation that is potentially provided by the parents to the offspring. Chicks incubated in the laboratory were exposed to a mew call of the conspecific adult. Then they were tested in three situations differing in sensory stimulation: 1) visual stimulation only, 2) auditory stimulation only, and 3) Simultaneous visual and auditory stimulations. We observed occurrence of different response of the chicks, which were categorized into three behaviors (begging call response, chirirah call and pecking behavior). We also investigated intensity of the chicks call in response to the different stimulations and the degree of response with age. The chicks exposed to only auditory stimulation made significantly more chirirah calls. The intensities (dB) of the mew call and chicks chirirah call were directly correlated. On the other hand, when chicks just saw the stuffed adult gull, they responded significantly more with a begging call and pecking behavior. In the situation of costimulation, the chicks responded with a begging call and pecking, but less frequently than visual stimulation only. The results suggest that young black-tailed gulls use call repertories to properly respond to parents behavior. Such results suggest an evolutionary process for uncreasing their survival rate in a group breeding site.