• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chicks

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EFFECTS OF EARLY FEED RESTRICTION ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION IN BROILERS

  • Santoso, U.;Tanaka, K.;Ohtani, S.;Youn, B.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.401-410
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    • 1993
  • Day-old male and female broilers obtained from commercial strain (Hubbard) were used in this study. At 7 days of age, all chicks were weighed individually (female 0.11 kg and male 0.12 kg in average) and divided into 5 group of 45 birds each group with no replicate in each treatment group as follows: 1. fed ad libitum; 2. fed 75% ad libitum; 3. fed 65% ad libitum; 4. fed 55% ad libitum; 5. fed 45% ad libitum. Chicks were restricted for 10 days (d 7 through 17) of a 56-day trial. Chicks were fed a commercial starter diet (crude protein (CP) 23.8% and metabolizable energy (ME) 3,070 kcal/kg) for 21 days, and commercial finisher diet (CP 20% and ME 3,160 kcal/kg) from 22 to 56 days of age. When chicks were feed-restricted at an early age, compensatory growth did not immediately occur following refeeding. Body weights of restricted chicks were not equal to the ad libitum chicks before 49 days of age. At 56 dyas of age, body weights of restricted chicks were heavier (p<0.01). Abdominal fat values of female chicks fed ad libitum was not significantly different from those fed 45% to 75% ad libitum. Carcass fat values of restricted female chicks were lower than those of control chicks when female chicks were fed either 55% or 45% ad libitum. Furthermore, feed efficiencies of restricted chicks were better. The response of chicks to early feed restriction might depend on the degree of feed restriction, and sex. Factors contributing carcass fat included energy loss, fat protein ratio of carcass, fatty acid synthesis in the liver and triglyceride content of the liver. The heavier body weights in the restricted chicks might be correlated with the lower growth rate during period of feed restriction.

THE EFFECT OF CHICK SEPARATION ON PRODUCTIVITY OF THE HEN AND CHICK

  • Huque, Q.M.E.;Ebadul, M.H.;Rigor, E.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.121-123
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    • 1990
  • A CRD experiment with unequal numbers of hens were assigned at random to three treatment groups, 1) separation of chicks from hen at 21 days after hatching 2) separation of chicks from hen at 7 days and 3) hens were allowed to brood the chicks(no separation) up to 10 weeks of age, to determine the productive and reproductive performance of hens and their chicks. The mean cycle length (one hatch to another) was 72.8 days for the 7-day group as compared with 87.7 days and 83.4 days for the 21-day and the no separation groups, respectively (p<.0l). The broody period was 28.5 days for the 7-day group compared with 43.9 and 42.6 days for the 21 days and the no separation groups, respectively (p<.0l). The end of the broody period to the start of lay varied from 8.0 to 8.7 days. The number of eggs laid per clutch were 12.3 for the 21-day group, compared with 11.5 and 10.1 for the 7-day and no separation groups, respectively (p<.05). This is due to the longer (p<.05) clutch length of the 21-day group as compared with the 7-day and no separation groups, respectively. The chicks separated from the hens at 21 and 7 days were heavier (p<.01) than the chicks not separated from the hens. Mortalities were highest (p<.05) for chicks separated at 7 days as compared with chicks separated at 21 days and those not separated. We concluded that separating chicks at 7 days from the hen gave the shortest cycle length and broody period, separating the chicks at 21 days gave the longest clutch length and the maximum number of eggs, separating the chicks at 21 and 7 days resulted in heavier chicks and separating the chicks at 7 days resulted in the highest mortality.

Performance and Heat Tolerance of Broilers as Affected by Genotype and High Ambient Temperature

  • Al-Batshan, H.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.1502-1506
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    • 2002
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the broiler's genotype ($G_t$) and ambient temperature ($T_a$) on performance and core body temperature ($T_core$) of broiler chicks. A factorial arrangement of two $G_t$ (Hubbard and ISA J57 chicks) and two $T_a$ (moderate, $23{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$ and hot, $33{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$) were used in this study. Performance data (body weight gain, feed intake and feed:gain ratio) were determined weekly for six weeks. Chicks' $T_core$ was measured using a biotelemetric system between Weeks five and six. Results showed that body weight gain and feed intake were significantly high, and feed:gain ratio was significantly low for Hubbard chicks compared to those of ISA J57 chicks. High $T_a$ significantly reduced weight gain and feed intake. Furthermore, the reduction in body weight gain and feed intake under the hot $T_a$ was more pronounced for Hubbard chicks than those of the ISA J57 chicks resulting in significant $G_t$ by $T_a$ interaction. Chicks grown under moderate $T_a$ had significantly lower $T_core$ than those grown under hot $T_a$. The $T_core$ of the Hubbard chicks was significantly lower than that of the ISA J57 at the moderate $T_a$ while under the hot $T_a$, the magnitude of the change in $T_core$ was more pronounced in Hubbard chicks than that of ISA J57; this resulted in a significant $G_t$ by $T_a$ interaction. The results of this study indicate that chicks with higher potential for growth under thermo-neutral temperature are more susceptible to heat stress than chicks with lower potential for growth. This maybe due, at least in part, to their lower body $T_core$ under moderate temperature and to the lesser ability of these fast growing chicks to regulate their $T_core$ when exposed to heat stress, as was clearly shown on these birds' performance.

Influence of Lipids on Blood Cholesterol Level of Chicks and Ducks (닭과 오리의 Blood Cholesterol Level에 미치는 지방의 영향)

  • Chung, Yung-Tai;Nam, Hyun-Keun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 1978
  • It was conducted to find out that the influence of lipids on blood cholesterol level of chicks and ducks. In this experiments, a comparative study was carried out using chicks and ducks divided into four groups with various diet for the period of four weeks. The results were as follows: 1. The mean value of hematocrit was significantly lower for the chicks fed sesame oil and soybean oil than the chicks fed duck meat. The value of hematocrit was higher for the ducks fed sesame oil, soybean oil and duck meat than for the control group. 2. Blood glucose level was higher for the ducks group than the chicks group. It was lower blood glucose level for the chicks and ducks fed duck meat than any other groups. 3. Blood cholesterol level was lower for the chicks fed sesame oil, soybean oil, and duck meat than for those fed the basal diet(control group). In the ducks group, blood cholesterol level was high. But in the liver organ, it was lower blood cholesterol level for the chicks and ducks fed sesame oil, soybean oil and duck meat, respectively than for those fed the basal diet(control group). 4. Phospholipid of the chicks which were control groups was lower value than for those fed sesame oil and duck meat fed, the value of phospholipid was higher value.

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A survey of newcastle disease virus antibody titers on slaughtered broiler chicks (도축 육계에서 뉴캣슬형 바이러스에 대한 혈중항체가 조사)

  • 이정원;허철호;이종환;권정택;송희종
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.217-222
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    • 2001
  • Hemagglutination inhibition(HI) titers of Newcastle disease(ND) were measured to investigate the vaccination times on three different species of broiler chicks in Chonbuk province. Each 330 of Cobb, Ross and White-semi broiler chicks were selected from 11 broiler farms. The primary vaccine were sprayed in hatchery at one day old chicks. Secondary and tertiary vaccine were used by drinking water at 7 to 24 days old chicks. The ND antibody titer were measured by HI from each different species of broiler chicks at the marketing date. Total average HI titers of Cobbs vaccinated with primary ones, secondary and tertiary ones were recorded 1.86, 1.52 and 2.76, respectively. The antibody titers were shown to 2.22, 2.13, 3.07 in terms of vaccination of Ross broiler chicks. They were also 2.56, 2.65 and 2.78 in terms of vaccination of White-semi broiler chicks. The value HI titer were not statistically different of all treatments. The results of this experiment suggested that HI titer of sera is scored less than defensive value of ND antibody titer at more than two times of vaccination.

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Effects of Fat Sources and Energy to Protein Ratio on Growth Performance and Carcass Composition of Chicks

  • Jin, Young-Hee
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.239-243
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    • 1996
  • Three hundred and twenty-four 1 day old chicks were used to determine the effects of fat source and energy to protein ratio on growth performance , carcass composition and the efficiency on nutrient utilization. Chicks were assigned. in a completely randomized design, to 3*3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Chicks received one of three fat sources (n0 fat, tallow, corn oil) and one of three energy to protein ratios(16, 14 and 12kcal ME/g CP). All diets were formulated to be isocaloric(3.2Mcal ME/kg diets) using published ME values for the diet ingredients. Addition of tat to the diet increased ADG, average daily feed intake, and gain to feed, Chicks fed diets containing fat had increased percentage body DM and ether extract(EE), but percentage CP was not different, Chicks fed diets containing fat had increased efficiency of protein and energy deposition. Addition of fat ad either fallow or corn oil yielded similar results. Reducing the energy to protein ratio of the diet did not affect ADG or gain to feed, but tended to decrease average daily feed intake(p=0.80), as well as resulting in linear(p<0.05) reductions in body percentage DM., EE and also total EE. Increasing the energy to protein ratio did not affect percentage or total body Cp. Adding fat to poultry diets improved growth performance and the efficiency of growth chicks. Decreasing the energy to protein ratio did not affect growth performance, but reduced EE in the body of Chicks.

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Nutritional and Hormonal Induction of Fatty Liver Syndrome and Effects of Dietary Lipotropic Factors in Egg-type Male Chicks

  • Choi, Y.I.;Ahn, H.J.;Lee, B.K.;Oh, S.T.;An, B.K.;Kang, C.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.8
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    • pp.1145-1152
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    • 2012
  • This experiment was conducted with male chicks to investigate the influence of hormones and nutrients on the development of fatty liver syndrome (FLS) as well as the effects of dietary lipotropic factors on hepatic fat accumulation and lipogenic enzyme gene expression. A total of two-hundred sixteen 4-wk-old Hy-Line male chicks were divided into six groups and fed an experimental diet (T1, low-energy diet with low levels of lipotropic factors; T2, high-energy diet with low levels of lipotropic factors; T3 and T5, low-energy diet with high levels of lipotropic factors; T4 and T6, high-energy diet with high levels of lipotropic factors) for six weeks. The chicks in T5 and T6 groups were treated with intramuscular injections of estradiol benzoate for three days prior to biopsy and clinical analysis of FLS. Chicks treated with estrogen had significantly greater liver weights than untreated chicks. The abdominal fat contents were increased in chicks consuming high-energy diets as compared to those consuming low-energy diets. Treatment with estrogen significantly increased the concentrations of serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid (p<0.05). The hepatic triacylglycerol levels were tenfold higher in the estrogen treated chicks than in the untreated chicks. There were no significant differences in malondialdehyde levels between the treatment groups. Estrogen treatment dramatically increased the levels of fatty acid synthetase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ApoB mRNA. The results indicated that treatment with exogenous estrogen in growing male chicks induced hepatic fat accumulation, which might be partially due to increased lipogenic enzyme gene expression.

Lipid Metabolism and Peroxidation in Broiler Chicks under Chronic Heat Stress

  • Shim, K.S.;Hwang, K.T.;Son, M.W.;Park, Garng H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.8
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    • pp.1206-1211
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    • 2006
  • The effects of taurine supplementation on growth performance, serum and liver concentrations of lipid, fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation in the livers of broilers under chronic heat exposure conditions were investigated. The chicks with a similar body weight were equally assigned to one of three controlled-environment chambers. The brolier chicks, which were kept at $34^{\circ}C$ were fed either with a control diet or the control diet supplemented with 0.8% taurine, whereas broiler chicks kept at $22^{\circ}C$ were fed a control diet. Both of the BW and BW gains of broilers maintained at a temperature of $34^{\circ}C$ were significantly lower than those of the control group, which was maintained at a temperature of $22^{\circ}C$ (p<0.05). However, taurine addition in the diet of birds submitted to heat stress siginficantly improved BW gain (p<0.05). The feed intake of chicks declined with increases in temperature. The relative liver and gall bladder weights of chicks fed the control diet and maintained at $34^{\circ}C$ were significantly lower than those measured in the control birds (p<0.05). However, dietary taurine was found to compensate for these reductions in liver and gall bladder weights. Relative weights of abdominal fat did not differ significantly among the three groups. Serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in the chicks fed the control diet and maintained at $34^{\circ}C$ compare to those measured in the chicks fed the control diet at $22^{\circ}C$ (p<0.05). Heat stress resulted in a significant reduction in total lipid and triglyceride levels, but also increased the levels of total cholesterol in the liver (p<0.05). However, dietary taurine supplementation under the heat stress condition resulted in the recovery, to control levels, of serum triglyceride concentrations, as well as the amounts of total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol in the liver. The livers of chicks fed on taurine diets at $34^{\circ}C$ showed significantly higher proportions of C14:0, C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, and 20:3, and lower C18:0 and C20:4 proportions than those of chicks fed on control diets at the same temperature (p<0.05). The total levels of saturated fatty acids decreased, but monounsaturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acid levels increased in chicks fed the taurine diet, as compared to chicks fed the control diet at $34^{\circ}C$ (p<0.05). Peroxidizability indices were significantly lower in the heat-exposed chicks fed the taurine diet than in the non-taurine heat-exposed groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, dietary taurine results in an increase in the growth performances of chicks under heat stress conditions via improvements in lipid absorption and metabolism, as well as an induced reduction in lipid peroxidation.

Toxicity of lectin extracted from Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) in chicks and its immunoadjuvant activity on Newcastle disease virus vaccines (한국산 겨우살이(Viscum album coloratum)로부터 추출된 lectin의 닭에 대한 독성 및 뉴캐슬병 백신의 특이면역 증강 효과)

  • Yeo, Sang-Geon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.215-224
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    • 2006
  • In order to search the availability of the lectin extracted from Korean mistletoe(Viscum album coloratum) as an adjuvant for the avian vaccines, attempts were made to determine toxicity of the lectin in chicks and its immunostimulating activity on the inactivated vaccines against Newcastle disease virus(NDV). For the determination of toxicity, the lectin was injected into the thigh muscle of SPF chicks(Charles River) of 1-week-old and observed hematologically and pathologically. For the determination of immunostimulating effects, lectin-adjuvanted, inactivated NDV vaccines were injected into the thigh muscle of SPF chicks in the same age group. Sera of the chicks were examined for the hemagglutination-inhibition(HI) antibodies induced, their HI titers and reaction to the NDV antigens. The data were further compared with those from aluminum hydroxide [$Al(OH)_3$]-adjuvanted vaccines and vaccines without adjuvant, and the results are as follows. There were no significant changes observed in the values of RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, AST, ALT, BUN, creatinine and total proteins in the chicks administered with lectin of 1.1, 2.2 and $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ body weight, which means the lectin has no effects on blood values and functions of liver and kidney. In histopathologic observation, no lesions were observed in the brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, thymus and bursa of Fabricius of the chicks administered with lectin of 1.1, 2.2 and $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ body weight. There were inflammatory lesions, such as congestion, hemorrhage, edema, infiltration of macrophages and coagulation necrosis observed in the thigh muscle of chicks administered with lectin of $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ body weight, whereas no changes were observed in 1.1 and $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ lectin administered chicks. In chicks immunized with lectin($4.4{\mu}g/kg$ of body weight)-adjuvanted B1, LaSota and Ulster 2C vaccines, HI titers in reciprocal values for $log_2$ were 1.8-2.2 at 1 week after vaccination, which was similar with those of 1.5-2.9 by $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines. The HI titers by the lectin-adjuvanted vaccines reached to 3.9-5.3 at 4 weeks, whereas those by the $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines were more high as 7.3-9.3. Meanwhile, the immunostimulating effects of the lectin were recognized while compared to the HI titers with 2.4-3.7 in chicks immunized with vaccines without adjuvants at 4 weeks after vaccination. The chicks immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccines were enough to resist challenges by Kyojeongwon strain, a very virulent NDV at 4 weeks after vaccination as well as chicks immunized with $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines. The HI titers by the lectin-adjuvanted vaccines reached to high level as 8.7-10.3 as those with 8.2-9.6 by the $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines at 6 weeks after vaccination, which may be the booster effects by the challenge virus. Antibodies specific to the HN and F antigens of NDV were observed in the sera of both chicks immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccines and $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines.

Effects of Dietarv Supplementation of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver Leaves on Performance and Meat Quality in Broiler Chicks (두충잎의 첨가가 육계의 성장 및 육질에 미치는 영향)

  • 박성진;김만배
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 1996
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaves(EUOL) on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chicks. The dietary treatments consisted of the control diet(corn-soybean meal basal), and EUOL 2, 4, and 6% diets. The latter three diets were prepared by adding 2, 4, and 6% EUOL to the control diet. Ninety-six Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 16 pens; four pens per treatment and 6 birds per pen. The growth performance and carcass weight of broiler chicks fed EUOL diets were not significantly different(P>O.05) from the control birds. Also, the muscle color degrees(L*a*b *)in brolier chicks were similar to each other. The blood concentrations of protein, sugar and glutamic-pyruvic transarninase(GPT) were not different(P>O.05) between control and treatment groups. The blood total cholestrol content was significantly(P<0.05) decreased by the addition of EUOL. However, the addition of EUOL did not change the muscle components significantly. The bone hardness of broiler chicks fed EUOL was significantly(P<0.05) higher than that of control chicks.

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