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Studies on the Estimation of Growth Pattern Cut-up Parts in Four Broiler Strain in Growing Body Weight (육용계에 있어서 계통간 산육능력 및 체중증가에 따른 각 부위별 증가양상 추정에 관한 연구)

  • 양봉국;조병욱
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.141-156
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    • 1990
  • The experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of improving the effectiveness of the existing method to estimate the edible meat weight in the live broiler chicken. A total of 360 birds, five male and female chicks from each line were sacrificed at Trial 1 (body weight 900-1, 000g), Trial 2 (body weight 1.200-1, 400g), Trial 3(body weight 1, 600-1, 700), and Trial 4(body weight 2, 000g) in order to measure the body weight, edible meat weight of breast, thigh and drumsticks, and various components of body weight. Each line was reared at the Poultry Breeding Farm, Seoul National University from the second of july, 1987 to the thirteenth of September, 1987. The results obtained from this study were summarized as follows : 1. The average body weights of each line( H. T, M, A) were $2150.5\pm$34.9, $2133.0\pm$26.2, $1960.0\pm$23.1, and $2319.3\pm$27.9, respectively. at 7 weeks of age. The feed to body weight eain ratio for each line chicks was 2.55, 2.13, 2.08, and 2.03, respectively, for 0 to 7 weeks of age. The viability of each line was 99.7. 99.7, 100.0, and 100.0%, respectively, for 0 to 7 weeks of age.01 was noticed that A Line chicks grow significantly heavier than did T, H, M line chic ks from 0 to 7 weeks of age. The regression coefficients of growth curves from each line chicks were bA=1.015, bH=0.265, bM=0.950 and bT=0.242, respectively. 2. Among the body weight components, the feather. abdominal fat, breast, and thigh and drumsticks increased in their weight percentage as the birds grew older, while neck. head, giblets and inedible viscera decreased. No difference wat apparent in shank, wings and hack. 3. The weight percentages of breast in edible part for each line thicks were 19.2, 19.0, 19.9 and 19.0% at Trial 4, respectively. The weight percentages of thigh and drumsticks in edible part for each line chicks were 23.1, 23.3, 22.8, and 23.0% at Trial 4. respective1y. 4. The values for the percentage meat yield from breast were 77.2. 78.9 73.5 and 74.8% at Trial 4 in H, T, M and A Line chicks. respectively. For thigh and drumstick, the values of 80.3, 78.4. 79.7 and 80.2% were obtained. These data indicate that the percentage meat yield increase as the birds grow older. 5. The correlation coefficients between body weight and blood. head, shanks. breast. thigh-drumstick were high. The degree if correlation between abdominal fat(%) and percentage of edible meat were extremely low at all times, but those between abdominal fat (%) and inedible viscera were significantly high.

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Effect of Microbial Products Made of Bacillus stearothermophilus DL-3 on Growth of Chickens and Pigs (Bacillus stearothermophilus DL-3을 사용하여 제조한 미생물 제재가 닭과 돼지의 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim Soon-Hee;Jo Kang-Ik;Lee You-Jung;Oh Ju-Sung;Jung Soon-Jae;Moon Byung-Ju;Kang Kyung-Hee;Lee Jin-Woo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.22-29
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    • 2006
  • Effect of microbial products made of Bacillus stearothermophilus DL-3 on growth of chickens and pigs was investigated. Two types of microbial product were made in this study. One is the microbial product made of culture broth of B. stearothemophilus DL-3 and rice bran which named as the microbial product A. The other is the microbial product made of culture broth of B. stearothermophilus DL-3, apple pomace, soybean pomace and rice bran which named as the microbial product B. Chickens were divided into three groups and each group was fed with $100\%$ general feed, $90\%$ general feed supplemented with $10\%$ microbial product A or $90\%$ general feed supplemented with $10\%$ microbial product B. The average chicken weight of each group was $41.1{\pm}2.5g,\;41.6{\pm}3.2g\;and\;42.3{\pm}2.9g$ and those after 28 days was $547.7{\pm}91.7g,\;560.1{\pm}17.2g\;and\;562.2{\pm}32.5g$, respectively. The average weight gain for each group was 506.6 g, 518.6 g and 519.9 g, respectively, and weight increases of groups fed with $90\%$ general feeder and $10\%$ microbial product A and B were $2.4\%\;and\;2.6\%$ higher than the group fed with $100\%$ general feed. Pigs were also divided into three groups and each group was fed like chickens. The average weight of each group was $9.3{\pm}1.0kg,\;9.4{\pm}1.1kg\;and\;9.6{\pm}1.0kg$ and those after 37 days was $19.3{\pm}4.1kg,\;20.2{\pm}3.9kg\;and\;20.8{\pm}4.2kg$, respectively. The average Weight gain for each group was 10.65 kg, 10.82 kg and 11.20 kg, respectively, and weight increases of groups fed with $90\%$ general feeder and $10\%$ microbial product A and B were $1.6\%$ and $5.2\%$ higher than the group fed with $100\%$ general feed.

Studies on the Post-hatching Development of the Testis in Korean Native Chickens (한국 재래 닭 부화 후 고환 발달에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, B.G.;Tae, H.J.;Choi, C.H.;Park, Y.J.;Park, B.Y.;Park, S.Y.;Kang, H.S.;Kim, N.S.;Lee, Y.H.;Yang, H.H.;Ahn, D.C.;Kim, I.S.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.171-179
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    • 2006
  • Changes in the chicken testis from hatching to adulthood were studied in Korean native chickens of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 21, 24, 28, 32, 44, 52 and 64 weeks (n=13 chickens per group) of age. The present study was to investigate in more detail the post-hatching development of testis in Korean native chickens. Testes of chickens were fixed by whole body perfusion using a fixative containing 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer, processed and embedded in Epon-araldite. Using $1{\mu}m$ sections stained with methylene blue-azure II, qualitative and quantitative(stereological) morphological studies were performed. Sperm production was measured by routine technique. The average volume of a testis of 1 week old Korean native chickens was determined as 0.015 g and the parameter increased linearly from 1 week to 21 weeks days (28.9 g), and did not change from 21 weeks to 64 weeks. The volume density of the seminiferous tubules increased with age from 32.6% at week 1 to 92.89% at week 64. The volume density of the interstitium represents 67.4% of the testicular parenchyma at week 1. This proportion progressively diminished during development to reach a value of 7.11% at week 64. Total sperm production per testis increased significantly from 18 weeks to 28 weeks and remained unchanged. Sperm production per 1 g testis increased significantly from 18 weeks to 28 weeks, did not change significantly from 28 weeks to 52 weeks, and declined significantly at 64 weeks of age. The average diameter of the seminiferous tubules gradually increased with age from 1 week $(42.4{\mu}m)$ to 21 weeks $(412.8{\mu}m)$. The length of the seminiferous tubules was 0.34 m at 1 week, increased significantly in subsequent age groups and reached 72.2 m by weeks 64. The stage of germ cell development in seminiferous tubules was classified as 1) spermatogonia $(1\sim8\;weeks)$, 2) spermatogonia and spermatocytes $(10\sim12\;weeks)$, 3) spermatogonia, spermatocytes and round spermatids $(14\sim16\;weeks)$, and 4) speramatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa $(18\sim64\;weeks)$. These results clarified the pattern of changes in the testicular development in Korean native chickens from hatching to adulthood as 1) neonatal-prepubertal $(1\sim12\;weeks)$, 2) puberty$(14\sim18\;weeks)$, and adult$(21\sim64\;weeks)$.

Distribution of Indicator Organisms and Influence of Storage Temperature and Period in Commercial Animal Foods (시판 동물성 식품의 오염지표세균 분포 및 저장온도, 기간별 오염지표세균의 변화)

  • 이용욱;박석기
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.430-440
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    • 1998
  • The average number of total viable counts for the commercial pork tested was 19/g, coliform 1.8/g, psychrophilic bacteria 15/g, heterotrophic bacteria 12/g, fecal streptococcus 6.2/100 g, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 13/100 g and none of heat-resistant bacteria and Staphylococcus was detected. That for the commercial beef tested was 130/g, coliform 5.2/g, psychrophile 140/g, heterotroph 28/g, Staphylococcus 1.2/g, fecal streptococcus 9.5/100 g, Pseud. aeruginosa 1.9/100 g and heat-resistant bacteria was not detected. That for the commercial chicken tested was 8800/g, coliform 53/g, psychrophile 4600/g, heterotroph 4700/g, fecal streptococcus 9.9/100 g, Pseudo aeruginosa 2.5/100 g. That for milk was 4700/ml, psychrophile 120/ml, heterotroph 420/ml and the others were not detected. That for the commercial cheese was 3.2/g, psychrophile 2.3/g, heterotroph 1.6/g, Staphylococcus l/g, fecal streptococcus 9.1/g. That for fermented milk was $10^{7}/ml$, heatresistant bacteria $10^{6}/ml$, fecal streptococcus 2400/100 ml, lactobacillus $3.2{\times}10^{15}/ml$, in accordance with lactic acid bacteria and the others were not detected. There was not detected any indicator organisms from ham, sausage, butter, eggs and quails in the commercial fooods tested. SPC, coliform, psychrophile and heterotroph in commercial meats stored at $10^{\circ}C$ were increased rapidly as time goes on but heat-resistant bacteria, staphylococcus, fecal streptococcus and Pseudo aeruginosa were constant. At $20^{\circ}C$, SPC, coliform, psychrophile, heterotroph and fecal streptococcus were the highest at 7 days and heat-resistant bacteria, staphylococcus and Pseudo aeruginosa were increased a little. At $30^{\circ}C$, all indicators were increased rapidly for 3 and 7 days and then decreased rapidly. All indicator organisms were increased at the level of 10/g for 14 days in meat products stored at $10^{\circ}C$, but SPC, psychrophile and heterotroph in meat products stored at $20^{\circ}C$ were increased at the level of $lO^5/g$. It showed that the indicators in meat products stored at $30^{\circ}C$ had a tendency to increase at the level of $10^{2}/g$ relative to those stored at $20^{\circ}C$. SPC, psychrophile and heterotroph in milk stored at $10^{\circ}C$ increased up to the level of $10^4/ml$, but coliform, staphylococcus, fecal streptococcus and Pseudo aeruginosa were not detected. As stored at $20^{\circ}C$ and $30^{\circ}C$, they were increased rapidly for 1 or 3 days and then constant for a long time.

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Comparative Evaluation of Dietary Intakes of Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, and Zinc in Rural, Coastal, and Urban District (농촌, 어촌, 도시 지역별 칼슘, 인, 철, 아연의 섭취상태 비교평가)

  • Choi, Mi-Kyeong;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Lee, Won-Young;Lee, Hyomin;Ze, Keum-Ryon;Park, Jung-Duck
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.659-666
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the intake status of calcium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc of Korean adults residing in different regions. Subjects were recruited and divided into three groups according to the districts where they lived, which included rural (n=137), coastal (n=100), and urban district (n=117). Subjects were interviewed using a general questionnaire and 24-hour recall method for dietary intake. The average age of the subjects were 58.1 years for rural district, 57.7 years for coastal district, and 48.6 years for urban district. There was no significance in total food intake by regions. The food intakes from cereals, mushrooms, vegetables of rural district, that from fishes of coastal district, and those from sugars, milks, oils of urban area were the highest among three districts. The calcium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc intakes were $60.1\%,\;123.9\%,\;95.2\%,\;and\;73.1\%$ of RDAs, respectively. The calcium intakes as percentage of RDA in rural and coastal district were significantly (p<0.01) lower than that in urban district. A larger number of subjects from coastal or urban district ate under $75\%$ of zinc RDA compared to those from rural village. Major sources of dietary calcium in total subjects were anchovy, kimchi, milk, soybean curd, rice, ice cream, sea mustard, yogurt, loach, and welsh onion. Rice supplied $15.5\%$ for phosphorus, $22.1\%$ for iron, and $35.9\%$ for zinc of total intake. Except for rice, major sources of dietary zinc were pork, beef, small red bean, dog meat, chicken, jacopever, soybean curd, glutinous millet, and kimchi. In conclusion, the food and mineral intakes of adults differed according to the regions in which they resided. The food and nutrient intakes of coastal district were not satisfactory, and calcium and zinc intakes of three regions did not meet RDAs. Therefore, it is required unique and discriminatory nutritional education with each region for increasing intakes of calcium and zinc.

A survey of foodservice satisfaction and menu preference of high school boarding students in Jeju (제주지역 고등학생의 기숙사급식 만족도 및 급식메뉴 기호도 조사)

  • Kim, Kyung-Ja;Chae, In-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.77-88
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study analyzed the foodservice satisfaction and menu preference of 506 high school boarding students in Jeju surveyed from July 2-30, 2012 with the aim of providing basic data for improving the quality of boarding food-service management. Methods: The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, t-test, and Pearson's correlation coefficients, using the SPSS Win program (version 12.0). Results: Regarding satisfaction with dormitory foodservice, the satisfaction scores for service and hygiene were 3.46 (out of 5 scales), whereas the score for menu quality was 3.26 points. In terms of satisfaction by meal, dinner showed the highest score, at 3.70 (out of 5 scales). The satisfaction scores for breakfast were significantly higher in girls (3.36) than boys (2.93). Regarding intake of meals provided, dinner showed the highest score, at 3.96 (out of 5 scales), whereas breakfast showed the lowest score, at 3.63 points. Intake of lunch and dinner was significantly higher in boys (4.12, 4.17, respectively) than girls (3.72, 3.76, respectively). Regarding the requirements of subjects for dormitory foodservice, 43.4% of subjects selected improvement of food taste and 36.6% of girls chose menu diversity. In terms of menu preferences for main dishes, the students preferred noodles (4.06) and one-dish cooked rice (3.92) to cooked rice (3.66). The subjects preferred beef rib soup (4.10) and Kimchi stew (3.99) in soups and stews. With regard to the menu preferences for side dishes, steamed foods showed the highest score, at 3.95 (out of 5 scales), whereas seasoned foods showed the lowest score, at 2.89 points. The students preferred beef, pork, and chicken to fish and vegetables. The students preferred dessert the most with fruit juices (4.52). Bread and rice cake were more favored by girls, showing significant differences between boys and girls (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Development of a systematic nutrition education program that can encourage practice of proper eating habits is needed. In addition improvement of the quality of boarding school meals through the service of various menus is needed.

Application for Identification of Food Raw Materials by PCR using Universal Primer (일반 프라이머를 이용한 PCR의 식품원료 진위 판별에 적용)

  • Park, Yong-Chjun;Jin, Sang-Ook;Lim, Ji-Young;Kim, Kyu-Heon;Lee, Jae-Hwang;Cho, Tae-Yong;Lee, Hwa-Jung;Han, Sang-Bae;Lee, Sang-Jae;Lee, Kwang-Ho;Yoon, Hae-Seong
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.317-324
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    • 2012
  • In order to determine an authenticity of food ingredient, we used DNA barcode method by universal primers. For identification of animal food ingredients, LCO1490/HCO2198 and VF2/FISH R2 designed for amplifying cytochrome c oxidase subunit1 (CO1) region and L14724/H15915 for cytochrome b (cyt b) region on mitochondrial DNA were used. Livestock (cow, pig, goat, sheep, a horse and deer) was amplified by LCO1490/HCO 2198, VF2/FISH R2 and L14724/H15915 primers. Poultry (chicken, duck, turkey and ostrich) was amplified by LCO1490/HCO 2198 and VF2/FISH R2 primers. But, Fishes (walleye pollack, herring, codfish, blue codfish, trout, tuna and rockfish) were only amplified by VF2/FISH R2 primers. For plant food ingredients, 3 types of primers (trnH/psbA, rpoB 1F/4R and rbcL 1F/724R) have been used an intergenic spacer, a RNA polymerase beta subunit and a ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase region on plastid, respectively. Garlic, onion, radish, green tea and spinach were amplified by trnH/psbA, rpoB 1F/4R and rbcL 1F/724R. The PCR product sizes were same by rpoB 1F/4R and rbcL 1F/724R but, the PCR product size using trnH/psbA primer was different with others for plants each. We established PCR condition and universal primer selection for 17 item's raw materials for foods and determine base sequences aim to PCR products in this study. This study can apply to determine an authenticity of foods through making an comparison between databases and base sequences in gene bank. Therefore, DNA barcode method using universal primers can be a useful for species identification techniques not only raw materials but also processed foods that are difficult to analyze by chemical analysis.

The Three Types of Clinical Manifestation of Cow's Milk Allergy with Predominantly Intestinal Symptoms (위장관 증세 위주로 발현하는 영유아기 우유 알레르기 질환의 3가지 임상 유형에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, Jeong-Jin;Lee, Eun-Joo;Kim, Hyun-Hee;Choi, Eun-Jin;Hwang, Jin-Bok;Han, Chang-Ho;Chung, Hai-Lee;Kwon, Young-Dae;Kim, Yong-Jin
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.30-40
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    • 2000
  • Purpose: During the first year of life, cow's milk protein is the major offender causing food allergy. Cow's milk allergy (CMA) affects 2~7% of infants, of which approximately one-half show predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms. We studied the clinical types of cow's milk allergy with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms (CMA-GI) of childhood. Methods: The retrospective study was performed on 30 (male 22, female 8) patients who had diagnosed as CMA-GI during 2 years and 3 months from March 1995 to June 1997. Results: 1) Children with CMA-GI presented in the three types of clinical manifestation on the basis of time to reaction to milk ingestion: Quick (Q) onset (5 cases), Slow (S) onset (20 cases), Quick & Slow (Q&S) (5 cases). 2) Age on admission of the three groups was significantly different (p<0.05): (Q onset: $81.4{\pm}67.1$ days, S onset: $31.9{\pm}12.7$ days, Q&S: $366.0{\pm}65.0$ days). Although the body weight at birth was 10~95 percentile in all patients, body weight on admission was different: (Q onset: 10~50 percentile, S onset: below 10 percentile, Q&S: 10~25 percentile). S onset group was significantly different compared with other groups (p<0.05) and 90% of this one was failure to thrive below 3 percentile. 3) Peripheral leukocyte counts were as followings: (Q onset: $5,700{\sim}12,300/mm^3$, S onset: $10,000{\sim}33,400/mm^3$, Q&S: $5,200{\sim}14,900/mm^3$). Slow onset group was significantly different compared with other groups (p<0.05). Serum albumin levels on admission were as followings: (Q onset: $4.2{\pm}0.4\;g/dl$, S onset: $3.0{\pm}0.3\;g/dl$, Q&S: $4.0{\pm}0.3\;g/dl$). S onset group was significantly different compared with other groups (p<0.05) and 85% of this one was below 3.5 g/dl. 4) Although morphometrical analysis on small intestinal mucosa did not show enteropathy in Q onset and Q&S groups, all cases of S onset revealed enteropathy: 45% of this one showed subtotal villous atrophy, 55 % showed partial villous atrophy. 5) Allergic reaction test to other foods was not performed in S onset group because of ethical problem and high risk in general condition. In Q onset group, allergic reaction to one or two other foods: soy formula, weaning formula and eggs. Q&S goup revealed allergic reactions to several foods or to most of all foods except protein hydrolysate formula: eggs, potatos, some kinds of sea food, apples, carrots, beef and chicken. 6) Serum IgE level, peripheral eosinophil counts, milk RAST, soy RAST, skin test were not significantly different among groups. Conclusion: CMA-GI may present in three clinical ways on the basis of time to reaction to milk ingestion, typical clinical findings and morphologic changes in the small bowel mucosal biopsy specimens. This clinical subdivision might be helpful in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in CMA-GI. Early suspicion is mandatory especially in S onset type because of high risks with malnutrition and enteropathy.

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