• Title/Summary/Keyword: Chicken

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A Study of Different Sources and Wavelengths of Light on Laying Egg Characteristics in Laying Hens (산란계에 대한 점등 광원 및 파장 차이에 따른 산란 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Min-Ji;Choi, Hee-Chul;Suh, Ok-Suk;Chae, Hyun-Suk;Na, Jae-Cheon;Bang, Han-Tae;Kim, Dong-Wook;Kang, Hwan-Ku;Park, Sung-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.383-388
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    • 2010
  • The chicken eye can discriminate light color, and different light wavelengths may affect reproduction ability. This study was carried out to identify effect of monochromatic light using light emitting diode (LED) in laying hens. Chickens were exposed to white light (WL), blue light (BL), yellow light (YL), green light (GL) and red light (RL) made by using LED as well as incandescent light (IL) (control). All light sources were equalized to a light intensity of 20 lux. The results indicated that the age of first egg laying and 50 % egg laying in laying hens treated under RL is significantly younger than under other lights (P<0.05). And the ovary weight of laying hens reared under RL is significantly heavier than under other at from 16 to 20 wks (P<0.05). The largest number of eggs production was produced in a group with treated with RL by 59 wks of age compared with any other group. The egg weight of YL was greater than other treatment groups from 26 to 45 wks (P<0.05). The egg shell from hens treated with RL was the strongest and thickest at 20 wk (P<0.05). These results suggest that the egg quality of laying hens reared in different spectrum of LED can be different and RL may enhance the laying performance.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Domestic Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) Extracts on Performance, Immune Response and Intestinal Microflora in Broiler Chicken (국내 자생 황금 추출물의 첨가 급여가 육계의 생산성, 면역 기능 및 장내 균총 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, H.S.;Kim, J.Y.;Kim, J.S.;Lee, B.K.;Lee, S.Y.;Lee, W.S.;Ahn, B.K.;Kim, E.J.;Kang, C.W.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.351-359
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to investigate dietary effects of extracts of Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) (SCE) grown in Korea on growth performance, immune and physiological responses in broiler chickens. Total of seven-hundred fifty 1-d-old Ross male broiler chicks were divided into five groups and fed control diets (antibiotics medicated or non-medicated commercial diets) or each experimental diet (non-medicated diets containing 0.1, 0.3 or 0.5% SCE) for 5 weeks. The body weight gain and feed conversion rate in the groups fed diets containing 0.1% or 0.3% SCE were significantly improved as compared with those of non-medicated control group (P<0.05). The levels of total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol of blood were not influenced by feeding the SCE. The average antibody titers against NDV and IBV in the groups fed diets containing SCE were significantly increased compare to those of the control groups (P<0.05). The number of coli form bacteria was significantly reduced by feeding 0.3% or 0.5% SCE as compared to that of non-medication control (P<0.05). The results demonstrated that the SCE used in this study modulated humoral immunity and the profiles of cecal microflora and thus can be used as a potential alternative substance to replace antibiotics for feeding broiler chicks.

Effect of Dietary Organic or Inorganic Minerals (Selenium and Copper) on Layer's Production and Their Transfer into the Egg (사료 내 유기태 및 무기태 미네랄(셀레늄, 구리)의 수준별 첨가가 산란계의 생산성과 계란 내 이행에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, T.S.;Kim, J.Y.;You, S.J.;Lee, B.K.;Kim, J.M.;Kim, E.J.;Ahn, B.K.;Kang, C.W.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.103-110
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    • 2009
  • This experiment was conducted using 350 Lohmann Brown layers (67 weeks of age) to evaluate the dietary effect of organic or inorganic Se and Cu on their contents in chicken eggs. The layers were divided into seven groups and fed a commercial diet or one of the six experimental diets containing different levels of Se and Cu (T1, 0.3ppm organic Se; T2, 1.0ppm organic Se; T3, 1.0ppm inorganic Se; T4, 125ppm organic Cu; T5, 250ppm organic Cu; and T6, 250ppm inorganic Cu) for 5 weeks. No significant differences were observed in egg production and its qualities among groups. The contents of blood cholesterol in the birds fed various levels of Se and Cu were not significantly different as compared to control. Se contents in eggs were linearly increased as dietary Se levels increased for both sources, but Se contents from the groups fed organic Se were slightly higher than those fed inorganic Se. Sensory characteristics of eggs were not influenced by dietary treatments. In conclusion, Se contents in eggs were linearly increased as dietary levels of organic or inorganic Se increased, but eggs in layers fed the diet containing organic Se did not show higher Se contents than those in birds fed dietary inorganic Se.

Association of SNPs in the HNF4α Gene with Growth Performance of Korean Native Chickens (한국 재래계의 HNF4α 유전자 내 SNP와 성장과의 연관성 분석)

  • Yang, Song-Yi;Choi, So-Young;Hong, Min-Wook;Kim, Hun;Kwak, Kyeongrok;Lee, Hyojeong;Jeong, Dong Kee;Sohn, Sea Hwan;Hong, Yeong Ho;Lee, Sung-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.253-260
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    • 2018
  • The hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha ($HNF4{\alpha}$) gene is related to lipid transport, including abdominal fat and growth, in chickens. Interestingly, the A543G SNP within the $HNF4{\alpha}$ gene has previously been reported to be associated with body weight in both broilers and Korean native chickens (KNCs). However, its exact position within the HNF4 is not yet reported. This study aimed to identify the position of the A543G SNP and to identify additional SNPs that can be used as genetic markers in KNCs. A total of 128 KNCs were used for the sequencing and analysis of these genetic associations. As a result, A543G SNP was located in intron 4 of the $HNF4{\alpha}$ gene; it is reported as rs731246957 in the NCBI database. Fourteen SNPs were detected in the sequenced portion of the $HNF4{\alpha}$ gene; three of these, rs731246957, rs736159604 and new SNP, intron 6 (249), were significantly related with growth in the chickens. In this study, the TT genotype of rs731246957, previously reported as A543G SNP, the GG genotype of rs736159604 and GT of new SNP have are highly associated with body weight from birth to 40 weeks of age in KNCs (P<0.01). These results suggest that rs736159604, rs731246957 and intron 6 (249) SNPs within the $HNF4{\alpha}$ gene could function as growth-related markers in the selective breeding of KNCs.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Copper-soy Proteinate on the Performance of Laying Hens (Copper-soy Proteinate의 첨가가 채란계의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Mun-Ku;Kim, Chan-Ho;Shin, Dong-Hun;Jung, Byoung-Yun;Paik, In-Kee
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.165-171
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of copper-soy proteinate (Cu-SP) on the performance of laying hens. A total of 1,000 Hy-Line Brown laying hens of 32 wks old were assigned to one of the following 5 dietary treatments: Control, Cu-SP 50, 100, 150, 200 (50, 100, 150, 200 ppm Cu supplementation as Cu-soy proteinate). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with fifty birds per replication, housed in 2 birds cages. Fifty birds units were arranged according to randomized block design. Feeding trial lasted 5 wks under 16L : 8D lighting regimen. There were no significant differences among treatments in hen-day and hen-house egg production, egg weight, broken & soft egg production. Feed intake and feed conversion rate (FCR) were significantly (P<0.01) lower in Cu-SP treated groups than Control. Eggshell thickness was significantly (P<0.01) higher in Control than Cu-SP 100, 150 and 200. Egg yolk color index was significantly (P<0.01) higher in Cu-SP 200 than other treatments. Egg shell color index was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Cu-SP 150 and Cu-SP 200 than Cu-SP 100. Concentration of copper, iron and zinc of the egg yolk were not significantly influenced by treatment. There were no significant differences in the level of leukocytes and erythrocytes in the chicken blood. The result of this experiment showed that dietary supplementation of Cu-SP at the level of 50ppm of Cu can reduce feed intake and FCR.

Future Development of Genetics and the Broiler (BROILER 육종기술의 전망)

  • 오봉국
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 1981
  • In trying to predict the effect of genetics on the broiler in the year 2000, this is a relatively short period of time as far as broiler genetics in concerned. Modern broiler genetics started around 1945 and tremendous gains when made in past 35 years. Futher improvements on broiler will depend on the evolution and revolution: 1. Evolution: (1) Growth rate has been made 4-5% per year. (2) Feed conversion has improved approximately 1% per year. (3) Abdominal fat is becoming a major complaint in broiler. (4) Because of the changing life-style, broiler meat sales in the future will be more and more in cut-up form. (5) Breeding for stress resistance and selection for docile temperament can be important in order to funker improve fled efficiency. (6) In female parent stock, reproduction characteristics are in many can negatively correlated with the desired broiler traits. (7) Egg production and hatchability in moot commercial parent nod m at a fairly high level. (8) In male parent stock, the heavier and mon super-meat-type male lines are desired to Product better broilers. 2. Revolution: Trying to forecast revolutionary change in broiler genetics is highly speculative, as sudden change are aften unpredictable. (1) Species hybridization, such as a turkey-chicken cross (2) Biochemical tools, such as blood typing. (3) Mutation breeding by radiation or chemical mutagentia. (4) Broiler breeding would be to change the phenotypic appearance by single gene, such as naked, wingless. (5) Changes in production techniques. such as growing in cage or growing in filtered air positive pressure houses.

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Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Antibody to Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus (효소면역법에 의한 닭 전염성 기관지염 바이러스 항체검사)

  • 송현제;최정옥
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.183-196
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    • 1991
  • In order to establish ELISA method to detect antibody against IBV various factors involved were examined. Antigen was prepared from Massachusetts type IBV which is known to be one of serotypes distributed most widely. The virus was grown in embryonated SPF chicken eggs. Allantoic fluid harvested was processed to ultracentrifugation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation to produce a purified antigen The antisera selected from the field samples based on hemagglutination inhibition test were used as the standard positive and negative sera for this study and the results obtained were summarized as follows. 1 , It was found that ELISA test was satisfactory when the purified antigen was coated on the plate in the amount of about 40ng protein per well. In case of the phospholipase treated hemagglutinating antigen it gave satisfactory results when the each well wns coated with 1.2 to 2.5 hemagglutinating unit which was equivalent to 40 to 90ng of protein. 2. There was no significant difference in the ratio of optical density of positive to that of negative serum whether the coated antigen was held for 1 hour at 37$^{\circ}C$ or it was held overnight at 4$^{\circ}C$. The coated antigen could be kept in dried state without change of antigenecity for at least one month of experimental period at 4$^{\circ}C$. 3. There was a big variation in the optical density and P/N values depending on the maker of the plates and on the plate of the same maker. 4. It was found that background optical density was negligible when serum was diluted more than 1:50 and serum dilution of 1:100 appeared to be appropriate as a routine test dilution to screen the antibody. 5. Optical density was fairly constant 15 minutes afterward from the time substrate was treated and during the 4 hours after stopper was treated. 6. There was a low correlation(r=0.42) between ELISA and HI test. However, when 74serum samples were tested for the IBV antibody, 98.7% were found to be positive by both tests in which titers of 2$^{6}$ or more by HI test and P/N values of 1.4 or more by ELISA were considered to be positive, 7 Day-old IBV vaccinated chickens shows a similar antibody decay and rising pattern until 8 weeks of age by the two tests, ELISA and HI.

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Analysis of Na and Cl Contents in Children’s Favorite Foods (어린이 선호 간식의 Na와 Cl 함량 분석)

  • Lee, Ok-Hee;Chung, Yong-Sam;Moon, Jong-Wha
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.524-532
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    • 2010
  • The Na, component of salt, can increase the risk of high blood pressure and hypertension. Especially, children are exposed to an increased risk of high sodium intake, because they often consume Na-rich processed foods and commercially prepared foods in the street. However, the database for the sodium and chloride content for these children's favorite foods is insufficient. In this study, the Na and Cl contents in 89 children's favorite foods were analyzed by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method. The analyzed food items were presented after being classified into 33 kinds of food groups. The Na contents in 100 g children's favorite foods ranged from 0.3 mg to 35.1mg in fruits, 28.9mg to 82.5mg in milks, 127.2 mg to 602.2 mg in breads, cakes, sandwiches, and rice cakes, 2.5 mg to 1169.9 mg in candies, cookies and ice creams, 226.9 mg to 693.7 mg in commercially prepared street foods, and 103.4 mg to 875.8 mg in fast foods of westernized restaurant. Among children's favorite food groups, 100 g fried chicken, hotdog, burgers, and donuts contained an average Na of 536 mg, 553 mg, 794 mg, and 562.2 mg, respectively, so they are classified as 'high Na foods'. In contrast, 100 g fruits and dairy products contained Na an average 4.9 mg and 43.4 mg, respectively, being classified as 'low Na foods'. One serving of ramen, mandu noodle, and burger pizza can supply over 667mg Na, which is one third of the KDRI targeted intake. Likewise, the Cl contents in children's favorite foods were diverse according to food groups. The Cl contents in the analyzed foods differed from the 1.5 times of Na content, which is assumed in general. This study showed that the Na and Cl contents in children's favorite foods are very diverse. Conclusively, a strategy to reduce Na contents in the fast foods such as noodles and westernized restaurant foods is necessary for children health.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Enzyme complex on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat storability in Broiler Chickens (사료 내 복합효소제의 첨가가 육계 생산성 및 도체특성 및 저장성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Ki-Hyun;Jeong, Jin-Young;Song, Il-Hwan;Lee, Sung-Dae;Ji, Sang-Yun;Lee, Yoo-Kyong;Nam, Ki-Taeg
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.740-748
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of enzyme complex (metalloprotease and xylanase) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat storability of broiler chickens. The experiment utilized a 2 (basal and low spec diets) ${\times}$ 3 (0, 0.5 or 1 g/kg of enzyme supplementation) factorial arrangement. A total of 360 male Ross broilers were randomly assigned into the following six groups: BD-T0 (basal diet + enzyme complex 0 g/kg), BD-T1 (basal diet + enzyme complex 0.5 g/kg), BD-T2 (basal diet + enzyme complex 1 g/kg), LD-T0 (low spec diet + enzyme complex 0 g/kg), LD-T1 (low spec diet + enzyme complex 0.5 g/kg), LD-T2 (low spec diet + enzyme complex 1 g/kg). Feed and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days, during which time feed intake and body weight were measured at one-week intervals. After the feeding trial, chickens were slaughtered by exsanguination and samples were collected. Feed intake was lower in the enzyme supplemented groups than the non-supplemented groups (p<0.05), as were body weight and gain (p<0.05). Thus, the feed conversion ratio improved in the enzyme supplemented groups relative to the non-supplemented groups (p<0.05). The carcass rate and production index were also significantly improved by supplementation with enzyme complex (p<0.05). Finally, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were lower in the enzyme supplementation groups after 6 storage days (p<0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with enzyme complex including metalloprotease and xylanase improved growth performance, carcass characteristics, and storability of broiler chicken meat.

Studies on the Immunization Against Newcastle Disease II. Investigation on the Immune Effect by Different Vaccination Route with $B_1$ Strain (뉴캣슬병 면역에 대한 검토 II. 접종경로를 달리하여 $B_1$ Strain을 응용한 면역효과 검토)

  • 이학철;정유열
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 1981
  • The experiment was carried out to observe whether the route of administration of allantoic aminiotic fluid obtained from the chicken embryo infected with $B_1$ virus would affect the protectivity of brids against the challenge exposure of a virulent strain of ND virus. Four groups of birds of 30 days of age were immunized intranassally (0.1 $m\ell$), intramuscularly (1.0 $m\ell$), by spray administration (0.00015 $m\ell$/1㎤) or via drinking water(10.0 $m\ell$), with 1 in 100 dilution of th. fluid containing $B_1$ virus titre of 10$\^$8.5/ELD$\_$50/ per $m\ell$ and all the immunized birds, after 15 days of vaccination, were challenged intramuscularly with 1.0$m\ell$ of 10,000 MLD per $m\ell$ of a virulent ND virus. The results obtained are summerized as follows: 1. Good immunity was induced when 1 in 100 dilution of allantoaminiotic fluid with $B_1$ virus titre of 10$\^$8.5/ELD$\_$50/$m\ell$was applied to 30 day old chicks intramuscularly, intranasally and by spray application, but it was not the case when the allantomiotic fluid was diluted to 1 in 1,000. The ID$\_$50/ of birds immunized with 1 in 100 dilution of allantoaminiotic fluid by various routes of administration such as intramuscular Injection, spray application and intranasal instillation were 10$\^$2.8/>10$\^$4.l and/>10$\^$4.2/ 2. The high protectivity against the challenge exposure with a virulent Newcastle disease virus with 10,000 MLD/$m\ell$ were observed when the birds were immunized with a live vaccine of 10$\^$8.5/ ELD$\_$50/$m\ell$ by intramuscular injection, intranasal instillation or spray application, and the rates by different routes of application were 92.62%, 95.33% and 93.75%, respectively. On the contrary, no good immunity was induced in the groups of birds immunized via drinking water with the live vaccine, the rate of protection against the challenge exposure being 47.18%.

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