• Title/Summary/Keyword: Chicken

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A Feeding Value of Stevia by-product in Chickens (가금에서 스테비아 부산물의 사료적 가치)

  • Park, Jae-Hong;Ryu, Myeong-Seon;Gwon, Jeong-Taek;Kim, Sang-Ho;Sang, Byeong-Don
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.219-228
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    • 2003
  • Two experiments were conducted to investigate the feeding value of stevia by-product (SB) on performance in broiler chicks and laying hens. In experiment 1, a total 256 one day old male broiler chicks were replaced in 0, 2, 4, 7% of SB with four replicates for 5 weeks. All diets were consisted of isocaloric and isonitrogen containing CP 21.5, 19% and ME 3,100 kcal/kg for starting and finishing period, respectively. Weight gain of SB treatments decreased compared with control for the first three weeks, but no difference for the finishing period. Feed intake and feed conversion were no statistical difference between control and feeding stevia groups for overall period. There were no different total number of intestinal microflora. However, the number of Salmonella and E. coli of cecum seemed to decrease in SB feeding groups. Total Lactobacillus and yeast tended to be higher in those groups than control. The PUFa increased in SB treatments, but was no significance. In experiment 2. stevia by-product(SB) were mixed with iso-caloric and isonitrogeneous method to investigate the feeding value in induced molting hens of 78 weeks old. A total 360 birds were replaced in the four treatments(0, 2, 4, 8% SB) with five replicates. Egg production, quality and fatty acid composition in egg were periodically measured for 20 weeks. No difference were found in egg production, feed intake, feed conversion between control and SB treatments for overall period. Egg shell breaking strength, thickness, albumen height and Haugh unit were not statistically different. However, yolk color was significantly high in SB treatments compared to control(P<0.05). Yolk MUFA increased significantly in SB treatments compared to that of control(p<0.05), but PUFA tended to decrease in SB treatments. No significant difference was detected in total sugar in egg yolk between SB treatments and control. Tocopherol of egg yolk 2 and 4% SB were significantly higher than those feed the control (p<0.05).

Egg Antibody Farming and IgY Technology for Food and Biomedical Applications (식품과 생의학을 위한 계란 항체생산과 IgY 기술의 활용)

  • Sim, Jeong S.;Sunwoo, Hoon H.
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.37-54
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    • 2003
  • It has been recognized that the hen. like its mammalian counterparts. provides young chicks with antibodies as protection against hostile invaders. This system facilitates the transfer of specific antibodies from serum to egg yolk. and provides a supply of antibodies called immunoglobulin Y(IgY) to the developing embryo and the hatched chick. The protection against pathogens that the relatively immuno-incompetent newly hatched chick has. is through transmission of antibodies from the mother via the egg. Egg yolk. therefore. can be loaded with a large amount of IgY against pathogens which can immobilize the existing or invading pathogens during the embryo development or in day-old chicks. Thus. the immunization of laying hens to various pathogens results in production of different antigen-specific IgY in eggs. Egg yolk contains 8~20 mg of immunoglobulins (IgY) per $m\ell$ or 136~340 mg per yolk suggesting that more than 30 g of IgY can be obtained from one immunized hen in a year. By immunizing laying hens with antigens and collecting IgY from egg yolk. low cost antibodies at less than $10 per g compared to more than $20.000 per g of mammalian IgG can be obtained. This IgY technology opens new potential market applications in medicine. public health veterinary medicine and food safety. A broader use of IgY technology could be applied as biological or diagnostic tool. nut-raceutical or functional food development. oral-supplementation for prophylaxis. and as pathogen-specific antimicrobial agents for infectious disease control. This paper has emphasized that when IgY-loaded chicken eggs are produced and consumed. the specific antibody binds. immobilizes and consequently reduces or inhibits the growth or colony forming abilities of microbial pathogens. This concept could serve as an alternative agent to replace the use of antibiotics. since today. more and more antibiotics are less effective in the treatment of infections. due to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria.

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Effects of Organic Iron Supplementation on Growth Performance and Body Composition in Broiler Chicks (유기철의 첨가가 육계의 성장과 체조성에 미치는 영향)

  • 양철주;우간바야르;나상준;고석영;위화영;정대균;김해영
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of organic iron supplemented to feed for broilers. One hundred forty four Ross broiler chicks were assigned to 6 treatments: control containing 80mg Fe from iron sulfate per kg diet(FE-80), FE-160 (control multiplied two times), YM-80 containing 80mg Fe from yeast mutant, YM-160 (YM-80 multiplied two times), YF-80 containing 80mg Fe from ferritin containing yeast, YF-160 (YF-80 multiplied two times) in the experiment. Each treatment had four replications of 6 birds each. The weight gain of the YM-160 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control (FE-80). The YM and YF in the serum cholesterol level were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the control. In the cholesterol level of carcass, although the control (FE-80) was highest and the YM and YF were very low; however, there were no significant differences among treatments. In the iron level of carcass, the control (FE-80) showed the lowest level among treatments; the YM and YF were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the control. In conclusion, the supplementation with organic iron to broiler chicks improve productivity. We also expect the possibility on chicken meat with reinforcing iron.

Fatty Acid, Amino Acid and Nucleotide-related Compounds of Crossbred Korean Native Chickens (KNC) (교배 조합 토종닭의 지방산, 아미노산 및 핵산 관련 물질 함량)

  • Park, Mi-Na;Hong, Eui-Chul;Kang, Bo-Seok;Kim, Hak-Kyu;Heo, Kang-Nyeong;Han, Jae-Yong;Jo, Cheo-Run;Lee, Jun-Heon;Choo, Hyo-Jun;Suh, Ok-Suk;HwangBo, Jong
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.137-144
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    • 2011
  • The current work was carried out to investigate the effect of crossbred Korean native chickens (KNC) on fatty acid, amino acid and nucleotide-related compounds contents of chicken meat. A total of 360 male chicks (1d of age) was used in this work and were divided 4 groups as A) (KNC egg-meat type C strains ${\times}$ KNC meat type S strains) ${\times}$ Ross broiler, B) (KNC egg-meat type C strains ${\times}$ KNC meat type H strains) ${\times}$ KNC meat type S strains, C) (KNC native R strains ${\times}$ KNC meat type S strains) ${\times}$ KNC meat type H strains and D(White Semibroiler Chickens) strains for 5 weeks at the flat house. Palmitic acid and vaccenic acid were highest in C strain meat, and myristic acid and linolenic acid were lowest in A strain meat (p<0.05). Saturated fatty acid was lowest in C strain meats (p<0.05). Valine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine of essential acid were low in A strain meat. Cystine, aspartic acid, glycine, alanine and proline were also low in A strain meat. Hypoxanthin (Hx) was high compared other strains at 5 weeks and low at 10 weeks. IMP was high compared other strains at 5 and 10 weeks. AMP has not significant difference among strains at 5 weeks but B strain was high other strains at 10 weeks. These results showed that C stain was excellent on the fact of nutrients compared to other strains. Consequently, the result of this work gave the basic data that needed to develope the new strains.

Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Two Different Broiler Strains by Different Levels of Metabolizable Energy (사료 내 대사 에너지 수준 차이가 계통이 다른 육계의 성장과 도체 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Seol;Kwon, Jung-Taek;Kim, Je-Hun;Oh, Sung-Taek;Lee, Bo-Keun;Zheng, Lan;Jung, Moon-Sung;An, Byoung-Ki;Kang, Chang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.195-205
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of dietary ME on growth performance and carcass characteristics in two different strains of broiler chicken. A total of one thousand, 1-day-old A strain and R strain male chicks were randomly assigned into 8 treatments in a $2{\times}4$ factorial arrangement. They were fed iso-nitrogenic (CP 21%) crumbled diets formulated to contain metabolizable energy (ME) 2,950 to 3,250 kcal/kg in increment of 100 kcal/kg in the starter phase (1 to 21d) and iso-nitrogenic (CP 19%) pelleted diets containing same ME levels as in the finishing phase (22 to 38d). The body weight (BW) gain of chicks fed the lower ME diets (2,950 or 3,050 kcal/kg) were higher than those of the higher ME groups. The dietary energy level showed significant effects on feed intake and feed conversion rate (FCR) from 1 to 38 days of age (p<0.05). With the increment of dietary energy, feed intake tended to be reduced, whereas FCR was improved in the two strains of broiler chickens. The lowest FCR was observed at 3,250 kcal/kg diet groups in both of the two strains from 1 to 38 days of age. Feed intake and BW gain during 38 days were significantly affected by the strain factor. Increasing dietary energy up to 3,250 kcal/kg had no effect on the relative weights of breast meat and abdominal fat. The dietary energy and strains showed significant effects on the dressing percentage. There were no significant differences in various blood profiles except for GPT activity.

Performance of Growing Period of Two-way Crossbreed Parent Stock for Producing of Laying-Type Korean Native Commercial Chickens (산란전용 토종 실용계를 생산하기 위한 2원교배 종계의 육성 능력 검정)

  • Hong, Eui-Chul;Choo, Hyo-Jun;Kim, Hak-Kyu;Kim, Chong-Dae;Heo, Kang-Nyeong;Lee, Myeong-Ji;Son, Bo-Ram;Suh, Ok-Suk;Choi, Hee-Cheol;Kang, Bo-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.177-182
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    • 2012
  • This work was carried out to investigate the performance of growing period of two-way crossed of Korean native chickens parental stocks. A total of four hundred eighty female 2-crossbred chicks were used in this study and they were from National Institute of Animal Science. Groups were four crossbreds (4 replications/crossbred, 30 birds/replication) as A) C strain ${\times}$ Y strain, B) C strain ${\times}$ L strain, C) C strain ${\times}$ G strain and D) C strain ${\times}$ W strain. Body weight of A crossbred was the highest at the age of 8 week (P<0.05) and that of D strain was the lowest for growing period (P<0.05). Body weights of A and B crossbreds were higher than those of C and D crossbreds at the 12 and 16 weeks (P<0.05). Weekly body weights of A and B crossbreds were higher than C and D crossbreds (P<0.05), and weekly body weight of B crossbred was higher compared to other crossbreds at 0~20 weeks old. Weekly feed intake of D crossbred was the lowest among all crossbreds at 0~12, 0~16 and 0~20 weeks old (P<0.05). Weekly feed conversion ratio of C crossbred was the highest among crossbreds (P<0.05). These results can give the basic information for growth related data in 2-way crossbreed Korean Native Chickens, which can be used for the parental stocks for the laying-type of Korean native commercial chickens.

Expression, Purification and Antiserum Production of the Avian Influenza H9N2 Virus HA and NA Proteins (Avian Influenza H9N2 Virus의 HA와 NA 단백질 발현, 정제 및 항혈청 생산)

  • Lee, Hyun-Ji;Song, Byung-Hak;Kim, Jeong-Min;Yun, Sang-Im;Kim, Jin-Kyoung;Kang, Young-Sik;Koo, Yong-Bum;Jeon, Ik-Soo;Byun, Sung-June;Lee, Youn-Jeong;Kwon, Jun-Hun;Park, Jong-Hyeon;Joo, Yi-Seok;Lee, Young-Min
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.178-185
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    • 2008
  • Avian influenza virus (AIV) is recognized as key to the emergence of pandemic influenza for humans; there are growing concerns that AIV H9N2 may become more efficient to transmit to humans in the near future, since the infection of poultry with AIV H9N2 has been common in recent years. In this study, we aimed to produce antisera recognizing the HA and NA proteins of AIV H9N2. Initially, coding sequences corresponding to the N-terminal regions of the HA and NA proteins of the Korean AIV H9N2 (A/Ck/Kr/MS96/96) isolated from a domestic chicken were amplified from the genomic RNA. Following cloning of the amplified cDNA fragments into pGEX4T-1 vector, two GST-fusion proteins (GST-HAln and GST-NAn) were expressed in E. coli BL21 and purified with glutathione sepharose columns; the recombinant GST-HAln and GST-NAn proteins were both used as immunogens in rabbits. The antigenicity of the rabbit antisera was analyzed by immunoblotting of the cell lysates prepared from AIV H9N2-infected MDCK cells. Overall, the recombinant HAln and NAn proteins fused to the C-terminus of GST and the rabbit antisera raised against the corresponding recombinant proteins would provide a valuable reagent for AIV diagnosis and basic research.

Prospective for Successful IT in Agriculture (일본 농업분야 정보기술활용 성공사례와 전망)

  • Seishi Ninomiya;Byong-Lyol Lee
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.107-117
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    • 2004
  • If doubtlessly contributes much to agriculture and rural development. The roles can be summarized as; 1. to activate rural areas and to provide more comfortable and safe rural life with equivalent services to those in urban areas, facilitating distance education, tole-medicine, remote public services, remote entertainment etc. 2. To initiate new agricultural and rural business such as e-commerce, real estate business for satellite officies, rural tourism and virtual corporation of small-scale farms. 3. To support policy-making and evaluation on optimal farm production, disaster management, effective agro-environmental resource management etc., providing tools such as GIS. 4. To improve farm management and farming technologies by efficient farm management, risk management, effective information or knowledge transfer etc., realizing competitive and sustainable farming with safe products. 5. To provide systems and tools to secure food traceability and reliability that has been an emerging issue concerning farm products since serious contamination such as BSE and chicken flu was detected. 6. To take an important and key role for industrialization of farming or lam business enterprise, combining the above roles.

Construction of Retrovirus Vector System for the Regulation of Recombinant hTPO Gene Expression (재조합 hTPO 유전자의 발현 조절을 위한 Retrovirus Vector System의 구축)

  • Kwon, Mo-Sun;Koo, Bon-Chul;Kim, Do-Hyang;Kim, Te-Oan
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.161-167
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    • 2007
  • In this study, we constructed and tested retrovirus vectors designed to express the human thrombopoietin gene under the control of the tetracycline-inducible promoters. To increase the hTPO gene expression at him-on state, WPRE sequence was also introduced into retrovirus vector at downstream region of either the hTPO gene or the sequence encoding reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator (rtTA). Primary culture cells (PFF, porcine fetal fibroblast; CEF, chicken embryonic fibroblast) infected with the recombinant retrovirus were cultured in the medium supplemented with or without doxycycline for 48hr, and induction efficiency was measured by comparing the hTPO gene expression level using RT-PCR, western blot and ELISA. Higher hPTO expression and tighter expression control were observed from the vector in which the WPRE sequence was placed at downstream of the hTPO (in CEF) or rtTA(in PFF) gene. This resulting tetracycline inducible vector system may be helpful in solving serious physiological disturbance problems which have been a major obstacle in successful production of transgenic animals.

Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Effects of Ulva pertusa kjellman on Broiler Chickens (육계에서 구멍갈파래의 항산화 및 면역조절 효과)

  • Hong, Joon-Ki;Bong, Mi-Hee;Park, Jun-Cheol;Moon, Hong-Kil;Kim, Dong-Wook;Lee, Sang-Cheul;Lee, Jun-Heon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.419-428
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to test the efficacy of Ulva pertusa kjellman as immunomodulators under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in broilers by investigating their effects on serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) like ability, immunoglobulin concentration, and splenic cytokine mRNA expression. A total of ninety six1-d-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were divided into 4 treatment groups with 8 replicates of 3 birds in each group. NC (negative control, no immune substances), PC (positive control, ${\beta}$-glucan 25 ppm), Ulva P (Ulva pertusa kjellman Powder 3%), and Ulva E (Extract form Ulva pertusa kjellman 0.3%) were added in feed with respective substance. Heparinized venous blood and spleens were collected from five birds per dietary treatment at 5 wk of age. The SOD like activities in Ulva P and Ulva E were significantly increased in comparison with other groups (P<0.05). The immunoglobulin M content was lower in the Ulva E than other groups (P<0.05). Expression patterns of splenic cytokine mRNA in the IL-$1{\beeta}$, IL-2 and IL-6 were similar. Expression rate of IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-2 and IL-6 in Ulva pertusa kjellman (Ulva P, Ulva E) were decreased (P<0.05) in comparison to other groups. Expression rate of IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-2 and IL-6 were significantly lower in groups treated with Ulva E than Ulva P. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Ulva pertusa kjellman improved SOD like activity and affect immune system by inhibiting inflammatory response in broiler chicks. In addition, it is more effective to use Ulva pertusa kjellman extract than powder for immunomodulatory function. These results suggest the possibility that Ulva pertusa kjellman could be used as the immunomodulator for inflammatory response in broiler chicks.