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Literary Investigation of Food-Therapy(食治方) Using Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) - Korean Medicine Literature in 1300's-1600's - (조(속미(粟米)·출미(秫米))를 이용한 식치방(食治方)의 문헌(文獻) 조사 -1300년대에서 1600년대 한국 의서(醫書)를 중심으로-)

  • Park, Soon-Ae;Choi, Mi-Ae;Kim, Mi-Lim
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.791-805
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    • 2015
  • Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) is a native Korean herbal medical food and a native millet, and Koreans have eaten it as a substitute for rice since ancient times. Foods using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) have been recorded not only in cookbooks but also in Korean traditional medical books several times. Therefore, the purposes of this study was to investigate Food-Therapy (食治) using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) recorded in the literature from 1300 to 1600 from early to mid-Joseon (朝鮮) and provide data required to develop menus for Yaksun (藥膳, herbal food). This study examined Food-Therapy using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) in 10 types of literatures from the 1300s to the 1600s. and is described in the literature a total of 63 times. According to classification by cooking method, porridge (粥) was most frequently mentioned in the literature at 27 times. The cooking method of Soup (湯) is described 11 times. Cooking methods such as porridge juice and soup are frequently used since those methods are digestive and absorptive. Other food ingredients described using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) are white leek (Allii Fistulosi Bulbus) ginger (Zingiber officinale), chicken egg, Allium chinense, sparrow (Passer montanus), rooster liver, Du-si, crucian carp (Carassius auratus L), and white broiler. Other medicinal herbs described with Setaria italica are Panax ginseng (人蔘), Poria cocos (茯笭), Angelica acutiloba (當歸), Ziziphus jujuba (大棗), Liriopeplatyphylla (麥門冬), and cinnamon (肉桂). Food-Therapy using Setaria italica L. Beauv was described as a prescription for stomach and spleen (脾胃), stomach reflux (反胃), defecation and urinary disorder (大小便難), cholera, deficiency syndrome (虛症), and tonification (補益). This focus on promoting health and preventing diseases by strengthening the stomach and spleen and improving defecation and urination using Food-Therapy when herbal medicine was rare.

Study on Folklore Consciousness of Twelve Chinese Zodiac Animals Shown in Folk Painting (민화에 나타난 십이지동물의 민속의식에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jong kawn
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.347-359
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    • 2016
  • People are destined to live according to the time and fate after they are born. Man is connected with the idea that is called the Chinese zodiac sign related to one out of 12 animals, regardless of one's thought. This paper was written with the expectation that it will be a new turning point understanding the mutual influence and its changing process by catching the ethnic belief and emotion as well as its cultural background in the Asian Zone by investigating the meaning of the 12 Chinese zodiac shown in the folk painting from the viewpoint of folk lore including "Chinese zodiac sign" culture rooted in our daily lives. The animal 'Rat' has been lived well human beings accompanied by the fable or the nature, while the animal 'Ox' has been living together with human history. The 'Tiger' has been considered the 'Power retreating disease or a devil' to humans, which is the most frightening but near at hand. The 'Rabbit' in the fable is inculcating hope and ideals to humans. The imaginary 'Dragon' is rooted in the deep national belief, which is seated as 'Guardian god' of farming culture and mankind, while the 'Snake' is playing a role in protecting humans as the 'Sea God' in Tsushima and Jeju Island, and has been believed and followed in the deep mind of humans. The 'Horse' in the nomad culture has been adorned as the basic creature of nomadic society in the character of a psychic medium between the human and god or their 'Guardian god'. The ancient Japanese regarded 'Monkey' as holy, being connected with treasure. It infers a human's desire to borrow wisdom from 'Monkey'. 'Chicken' includes the meaning of a lucky sign connecting the sky and the human world by arranging together with humans. The 'Dog' is believed and followed as performing the function of a messenger connecting this world with the afterlife in the next world tale of shamanism. The 'Pig' also lives well with humans, being interpreted as fecundity. Although the meaning of the 12 Chinese Zodiac animals has ethnic differences, all of them have been shared with humans, rooted in the human mind, being believed, and followed in human lives.

Night Eating and Nutrient Intake Status according to Residence Type in University Students (일부 대학생의 거주형태에 따른 야식 및 영양소 섭취 상태)

  • Jun, Ye-Sook;Choi, Mi-Kyeong;Bae, Yun-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.216-225
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate night time eating habits, dietary habits, and nutrient intake in university students according to residence type. A survey was conducted by administering questionnaires to 664 students. Questionnaire interview and 24-h dietary recall were conducted. Subjects were divided into three groups according to residence type: dormitory boarding (DB group, N=313), self-boarding (SB group, N=246), and living with parents (LWP group, N=105). Average ages in the DB, SB, and LWP groups were 21.3, 22.2, and 22.1 years, respectively. There were no significant differences in body mass index between the three groups. In total, 77.3% of students regularly ate night time snacks. The proportion of students who reported night time eating was 84.0% in the DB group, 73.6% in the SB group, and 65.7% in the LWP group (P<0.001). In terms of food types consumed during night time eating, the DB group showed a significantly higher rate of consumption of fried chicken and flour-based foods than the SB and LWP groups, whereas the SB group showed a significantly higher rate of consumption of alcohol beverages than the DB and LWP groups. Energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, and mineral intakes were significantly higher in the DB group than in the SB and LWP groups. In addition, intake of cholesterol per 1,000 kcal was significantly higher in the DB group than in the SB and LWP groups. Thus, SB and DB students seemed to have more night time eating problems than LWP students. Accordingly, nutritional education is needed to support the development of healthier eating habits, in particular, night time eating habits, among students living in dormitories and in self-boarding situations.

Effects of Sea Tangle-added Patty on Postprandial Serum Lipid Profiles and Glucose in Borderline Hypercholesterolemic Adults (다시마 첨가 패티가 경계역 고콜레스테롤혈증 성인의 식후 혈청 지질 및 혈당 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hwa Hyun;Lim, Hyeon-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.522-529
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    • 2014
  • Sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) is well known as having anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects in animals as well as in humans. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sea tangle-added patty on postprandial blood glucose and lipid profiles in borderline-hypercholesterolemic (cholesterol ${\geq}200$ mg/dL) adults. Eleven subjects voluntarily participated in the experiment, and each subject provided written consent. Experimental patty (E) was made by adding 2.25 g of sea tangle powder as a substitution to 1.125 g each of pork and chicken. In the first week, 200 g of Control patty (C) was provided to each subject, who had fasted more than 12 hours. In the second week, the same amount of E patty was supplied under the same conditions. Serum glucose levels increased significantly less at 30, 60, and 120 min after consumption of E patty compared to the levels at all time points after eating C patty. Thus, the change in the area under curve (${\Delta}AUC$) of serum glucose levels through 120 minutes was lower when consuming E patty compared to C patty. Although serum C-peptide concentrations were not significantly different at all time points between the two patties, the ${\Delta}AUC$ of serum C-peptide concentrations through 120 minutes was lower when consuming E patty compared to C patty. However, there were no differences in serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C at 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min between the two patties. Further, each ${\Delta}AUC$ of these lipid levels through 240 minutes was not significantly different between the two patties. The results indicate that sea tangle-added patty may decrease postprandial plasma glucose concentrations and reduce insulin secretion, although it might not ameliorate serum lipid profiles in adults with borderline-hypercholesterolemia.

Total Folate Contents of 15 Edible Plants Consumed in Korea Using Trienzyme Extraction Method (국내 소비되는 봄나물의 Trienzyme 추출법을 적용한 엽산 함량 분석)

  • Kim, Bo Min;Kim, So-Min;Oh, Ji Yeon;Cho, Young-Sook;Kim, Se-Na;Choi, Youngmin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.11
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    • pp.1796-1800
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    • 2014
  • Trienzyme digestion (AOAC Official Method 2004.05) procedure using protease, ${\alpha}$-amylase, and chicken pancreas conjugase was evaluated to determine its usefulness in the microbiological quantitation of total folate in foods. Folate values obtained by alkali hydrolysis (Korean Food Standards Codex) were compared to those obtained by the trienzyme method for four certified reference materials (CRM) representing diverse matrixes. Trienzyme treatment increased measurable folate from most CRM compared to levels found after alkali hydrolysis. The largest increases were observed with CRM 487 (pig liver, 5.8-fold) and CRM 121 (whole meal flour, 3.1-fold) after trienzyme digestion. Using trienzyme digestion method, total folate contents of raw and blanched edible plants were determined. Eleutherococcus senticosus ($146.9{\mu}g/100g$) showed the highest total folate content, followed by Aster glehni F. Schmidt ($142.8{\mu}g/100g$) and Ledebouriella seseloides H. Wolff ($140.4{\mu}g/100g$) on a wet weight basis. Blanching of samples resulted in an insignificant decrease in folate content for five samples and 11~63% reduction for nine samples. Our finding suggests that trienzyme digestion method is accurate for the determination of food folate in leafy vegetables.

Attracting effect of baits used the by-product for swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus pots (부산물을 이용한 꽃게 통발용 미끼의 유인 효과)

  • Chang, Ho-Young;Koo, Jae-Geun;Lee, Keun-Woo;Cho, Bong-Kon;Jeong, Byung-Gon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.282-293
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    • 2008
  • In order to develop the substitutive materials for natural baits of swimming crab pots, the attracting effects of swimming crab such as the preference of baits which were made of the by-products of marine and stock raising through the water tank experiments and fishing experiments. On the investigation of mean entrapped catch number to the pot by the baits after putting the 4 kinds of baits, mackerel(M), mackerel with grinded mackerel s internals($MM_I$), mackerel with tuna s internals$MM_I$) and makerel with grinded krill(MK) each in one pot by turns, $MM_I$ and MK were entrapped mean 3.9(13.0%) and they were a little more comparing to M, and $MT_I$ is least with mean 2.1(7.0%)(F=12.913, P < 0.05). Otherwise, on the preference investigation of swimming crabs by the baits after putting the 4 kinds of baits in the 4 pots each, M was entrapped mean 3.0(10%), but $MM_I$, $MT_I$ and MK were mean 1.2(4.0%), 1.0(3.3%) and 1.5(5.0%) each and they were only 30-50% of M(F=13.398, P < 0.05). On the preference investigation of swimming crabs by the 5 kinds of baits, mackerel(M), and krill(K), manila clam($M_C$), pig s fat($P_F$) and chicken s head($C_H$) which were used in substitutive baits, M was entrapped mean 3.2(10.7%), but K was about 50% of catch of M with mean 1.6(5.3%), and $M_C$, $P_F$ and $C_H$ were very few with mean 0.1-0.2(0.3-0.7%)(F=89.186, P < 0.05). On the preference investigation of swimming crabs by the pots which were put each the 3 kinds of baits, original krill(K), grinded krill with gluten and soybean oil cake($K_GGS$) and grinded krill with gluten, soybean oil cake and glycine($K_GGSG_L$) in the blue fluorescent hexahedral plastic bait cages(BF), and which were put the mackerel(M) in the non-fluorescent hexahedral red plastic bait cage($RF_N$), it was entrapped mean 3.0(10.0%) in the pot which was put the mackerel in the $RF_N$, and the same level in the pots which were put the K and $K_GGSG_L$ in the BF, but it was mean 2.0(6.7%) in the pots which was put the $K_GGS$ in BF and it was decreased by 30% of catch comparing to $RF_N$(F=3.750, P < 0.05). On the preference investigation of swimming crab by the pots which was put grinded tuna with gluten, soybean oil cake and glycine($T_IGSG_L$) in the blue fluorescent hexahedral plastic bait cage(BF), and which was put mackerel(M) in the nonfluorescent hexahedral red plastic bait cage($RF_N$), it was entrapped mean 3.3(11.0%) in the pot which was put mackerel in $RF_N$, and mean 2.7(9.0%) in the pot which was put $T_IGSG_L$ in BF and it was about 15% less comparing to use bait M(t=1.387, P < 0.05). As a results of fishing experiments, a plan for enhancing catching efficiency of $T_IGSG_L$ will be required because catching efficiency of $T_IGSG_L$, alternative bait, was half of fish catching efficiency of natural bait using mackerel. Fishing experiments were conducted 3 times using reinforced substitutive artificial bait that is reinforced attractive effect of $T_IGSG_L$ and composed of tuna intestine, grinded mackerel, gluten, soybean cake, glycine and alanine($T_IM_GGSG_LA$). Catching efficiency of $T_IM_GGSG_LA$ was about 80% of that of natural bait made of mackerel.

Effects of Dietary Xanthophylls and See Weed By-Products on Growth Performance, Color and Antioxidant Properties in Broiler Chicks (Xanthophylls과 해조 부산물 첨가 급여가 육계의 사양성적, 육색 및 항산화 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김창혁;이성기;이규호
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.128-134
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    • 2004
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary pigment sources on the performance, color and antioxidant properties in broiler chick. Experimental diet was formulated to have isocalories and isonitrogen during the experiment period. Total xanthophylls content in the experimental diet was formulated to have 30ppm. Experimental trials were done for five weeks with six treatment groups; T1 (Control), T2 (Olo Glo, natural yellow pigment), T3 (Kern Glo, natural red pigment), T4 (canthaxanthin, synthetic red pigment), T5 (asthaxanthine, natural red pigment), and T6 (seaweed by-products). Body weight gain and feed intake were significantly lower (p<0.05) in T6 group than in other treatments. Mortality was lower in T2, T3 and T4 than in control, but higher (p<0.05) in T5 and T6. The sources of pigments did not have any effects on the dressed carcass and abdominal fat pad (p>0.05). The gizzard weight was significantly lower in T6 (p<0.05) than in others. Pigmentation of leg skin was significantly lower (p<0.05) in control and T6. Effects of dietary pigments was greater with red pigments than with yellow pigments, and those were also greater with natural pigments than with synthetic ones. The peroxide value (POV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and pH values of chicken meat were increased (p<0.05) in all treatments at 12 day storage, and was higher (p<0.05) in pigments supplementation group. No differences of CIE L$\^$*/(lightness) and b$\^$*/(yellowness) were not found by storage days and xanthophylls sources. The a$\^$*/(redness) after 12 day storage was significantly (p<0.05) decreased in all treatments, but those of T4 and T5 were higher than those of others. These results showed that feeding of xanthophylls sources to chick could improve color intensity and inhibit lipid oxidation of leg meat.

Studies on Meat Productivity and Functional Properties of Spent Hens (노폐계육의 생산성 및 가공특성에 관한 연구)

  • 송계원
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 1985
  • To learn more about the productivity of edible meat and its functional properties of spent hen, 60 White Leghorn fowls at 20 month of age were randomly divided into 6 groups, 10 hen for each group, and processed. As the productivity of edible meat, the yield of dressed carcass, giblets, cut-up meat, and breast and leg (thigh and drustick) muscles were determined. The approximate chemical composition, the content of salt-soluble protein, the emulsifying capacity and W.H.C. of breast and leg muscle were measured as the functional properties. The results were summarized as follows. 1. The average live weight of spent hen was 1,576.7g from which the yield of dressed carcass and giblets were 998.9g(63.4%) and 75.3g(4.8%) respectively. It means the yield of ready-to-cook form was 1,074.2g(68.2%) and the inedible byproducts was 502.5g (31.8%). 2. The average, weight of each part of cut-up chicken were: neck 41.0g(4.1%), wings 135.9g (13.6%), breast 276.7g (27.7%), legs 323.6g (42.4%). back 176.1g(17.6%) and the cutting-loss was 45.6g(4.6%). 3. The average weight of total edible muscle from breast and leg was 51.5g(85.86% of breast and leg cut weight) and the percentages based on the carcass and live weights were 51.6% and 32.7%, respectively. 4. The contents of H$_2$O, protein, fat and water-protein ratio of breast muscle were 72.95%, 20.54%, 1.59% and 3.55, respectively and those of leg muscle were 71.9%, 19.12%, 3.96% and 3.76%, respectively. 5. The salt-soluble protein contents of breast and leg muscle were 7.97% and 6.26% and their concentrations based on the total protein content were 38.8% and 32.74%, respectively. 6. The emulsifying capacity of breast and leg muscle was 43.23$m\ell$and 43.23$m\ell$, respectively. 7. The W. H. C- of breast and leg muscle was 54.23% and 52.61%, respectively.

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The Effects of amino acid balance on heat production and nitrogen utilization in broiler chickens : measurement and modeling

  • Kim, Jj-Hyuk;MacLeod, Murdo G.
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.80-90
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    • 2004
  • Three experiments were performed to test the assumption that imbalanced dietary amino acid mixtures must lead to increased heat production (HP). The first experiment was based on diets formulated to have a wide range of crude protein (CP) concentrations but a fixed concentration of lysine, formulated to be the first-limiting amino acid. In the second (converse) experiment, lysine concentration was varied over a wide range while CP content was kept constant. To prevent the masking of dietary effects by thermoregulatory demands, the third experiment was performed at 30 $^{\circ}C$ with the diets similar to the diets used in the second experiment. The detailed relationships among amino acid balance, nitrogen (N) metabolism and energy (E) metabolism were investigated in a computer-controlled chamber calorimetry system. The results of experiments were compared with the predictions of a computerised simulation model of E metabolism. In experiment 1. with constant lysine and varying CP, there was a 75 % increase in N intake as CP concentration increased. This led to a 150 % increase in N excretion. with no significant change in HP. Simulated HP agreed with the empirically determined results in not showing a trend with dietary CP. In experiment 2, with varying lysine but constant CP, there was a 3-fold difference in daily weight gain between the lowest and highest lysine diets. HP per bird increased significantly with dietary lysine concentration. There was still an effect when HP was adjusted for body weight differences, but it failed to maintain statistical significance. Simulated HP results agreed in showing little effect of varying lysine concentration and growth rate on HP. Based on the results of these two experiments, the third experiment was designed to test the response of birds to dietary lysine in high ambient temperature. In experiment 3 which performed at high ambient temperature (30 $^{\circ}C$), HP per bird increased significantly with dietary lysine content, whether or not adjusted for body-weight. The trend was greater than in the previous experiment (20 $^{\circ}C$).

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Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Fermented By-products of Garlic and Onion on Production Performance, Blood Components and Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chicks (발효 마늘 및 양파 부산물의 급여가 육계 생산성, 혈액성상 및 장내 미생물에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Hwan-Ku;Seo, Ok-Suk;Choi, Hee-Chul;Chae, Hyun-Suk;Na, Jae-Cheon;Bang, Han-Tae;Kim, Dong-Wook;Park, Sung-Bok;Kim, Min-Ji
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.433-438
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    • 2010
  • This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of the fermented by products garlic and onion on growth performance, blood composition and cecal microflora in broiler chickens. A total four hundred eighty, day old broiler chickens (Ross) were randomly divided into four groups with four replicates of thirty birds each. The treatment groups were negative group (NC, antibiotic-free diet), positive group (PC, basal diet with 0.05% and 0.03% anticoccidials), fermented of onion by product 1.0% group (T1) and fermented of onion by product 1.0% group (T2). The body weight of broilers fed the diets containing fermented by products garlic was higher than the other treatments during overall period. No significant difference were observed on serum chemical composition and blood corpuscle. In the cecal microflira of broiler, the population of the Lactic acid bacteria was showed the higher in chicken fed diets supplemented with fermented of garlic group than other groups (P<0.05). These results suggest the possibility that fermented of garlic and onion by product could be used as the alternative of antibiotics growth promotor of broiler chickens.