• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chiang-Mai

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The using of megavoltage computed tomography in image-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer: a case report

  • Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit;Janla-or, Suwapim;Wanwilairat, Somsak;Chakrabandhu, Somvilai;Klunklin, Pitchayaponne;Onchan, Wimrak;Supawongwattana, Bongkot;Galalae, Razvan M.;Chitapanarux, Imjai
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.155-159
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    • 2015
  • We present a case of cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiation. In radiation therapy part, the combination of the whole pelvic helical tomotherapy plus image-guided brachytherapy with megavoltage computed tomography of helical tomotherapy was performed. We propose this therapeutic approach could be considered in a curative setting in some problematic situation as our institution.

Molecular Phylogenetics of Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) Originated from Freshwater Fish from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

  • Wongsawad, Chalobol;Wongsawad, Pheravut;Sukontason, Kom;Maneepitaksanti, Worawit;Nantarat, Nattawadee
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.55 no.1
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2017
  • This study aimed to investigate the morphology and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Centrocestus formosanus originating from 5 species of freshwater fish, i.e., Esomus metallicus, Puntius brevis, Anabas testudineus, Parambassis siamensis, and Carassius auratus, in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and phylogeny based on internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) were performed. The results showed similar morphologies of adult C. formosanus from day 5 after infection in chicks. C. formosanus originated from 4 species of freshwater fish had the same number of circumoral spines on the oral sucker, except for those from C. auratus which revealed 34 circumoral spines. The phylogenetic tree obtained from SRAP profile and the combination of ITS2 and CO1 sequence showed similar results that were correlated with the number of circumoral spines in adult worms. Genetic variability of C. formosanus also occurred in different species of freshwater fish hosts. However, more details of adult worm morphologies and more sensitive genetic markers are needed to confirm the species validity of C. formosanus with 34 circumoral spines originating from C. auratus in the future.

Forensically Important Blow Flies Chrysomya pinguis, C. villeneuvi, and Lucilia porphyrina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Case of Human Remains in Thailand

  • Monum, Tawatchai;Sukontason, Kabkaew L.;Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk;Sukontason, Kom;Samerjai, Chutharat;Limsopatham, Kwankamol;Suwannayod, Suttida;Klong-klaew, Tunwadee;Wannasan, Anchalee
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.55 no.1
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 2017
  • This is the first study to report Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) and Lucilia porphyrina (Walker) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as forensically important blow fly species from human cadavers in Thailand, in addition to Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) already known in Thailand. In 2016, a fully decomposed body of an unknown adult male was discovered in a high mountainous forest during winter in Chiang Mai province. The remains were infested heavily with thousands of blow fly larvae feeding simultaneously on them. Morphological identification of adults reared from the larvae, and molecular analysis based on sequencing of 1,247 bp partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) of the larvae and puparia, confirmed the above mentioned 3 species. The approving forensic fly evidence by molecular approach was described for the first time in Thailand. Moreover, neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis of the CO1 was performed to compare the relatedness of the species, thereby affirming the accuracy of identification. As species of entomofauna varies among cases in different geographic and climatic circumstances, C. pinguis and L. porphyrina were added to the list of Thai forensic entomology caseworks, including colonizers of human remains in open, high mountainous areas during winter. Further research should focus on these 3 species, for which no developmental data are currently available.

The association of rectal equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) to late rectal toxicity in locally advanced cervical cancer patients who were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University

  • Tharavichtikul, Ekkasit;Meungwong, Pooriwat;Chitapanarux, Taned;Chakrabandhu, Somvilai;Klunklin, Pitchayaponne;Onchan, Wimrak;Wanwilairat, Somsak;Traisathit, Patrinee;Galalae, Razvan;Chitapanarux, Imjai
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To evaluate association between equivalent dose in 2 Gy (EQD2) to rectal point dose and gastrointestinal toxicity from whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) and intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) in cervical cancer patients who were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study was designed for the patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, treated by radical radiotherapy from 2004 to 2009 and were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy. The cumulative doses of WPRT and ICBT to the maximally rectal point were calculated to the EQD2 and evaluated the association of toxicities. Results: Thirty-nine patients were evaluated for late rectal toxicity. The mean cumulative dose in term of EQD2 to rectum was 64.2 Gy. Grade 1 toxicities were the most common findings. According to endoscopic exam, the most common toxicities were congested mucosa (36 patients) and telangiectasia (32 patients). In evaluation between rectal dose in EQD2 and toxicities, no association of cumulative rectal dose to rectal toxicity, except the association of cumulative rectal dose in EQD2 >65 Gy to late effects of normal tissue (LENT-SOMA) scale ${\geq}$ grade 2 (p = 0.022; odds ratio, 5.312; 95% confidence interval, 1.269-22.244). Conclusion: The cumulative rectal dose in EQD2 >65 Gy have association with ${\geq}$ grade 2 LENT-SOMA scale.

Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward antimicrobial usage: a cross-sectional study of layer and pig farm owners/managers in Chiang Mai, Lamphun, and Chonburi provinces, Thailand, May 2014 to February 2016

  • Nuangmek, Aniroot;Rojanasthien, Suvichai;Patchanee, Prapas;Yano, Terdsak;Yamsakul, Panuwat;Chotinun, Suwit;Tadee, Pakpoom
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.58 no.1
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    • pp.17-25
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    • 2018
  • This study aimed at determining the current knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of layer and pig farmers to antimicrobial usage and its consequences. Description of such KAP could provide insights useful for promoting the rational use of antimicrobials in livestock. From May 2014 to February 2016, a survey involving 251 respondents in Chiang Mai, Lamphun, and Chonburi provinces, Thailand, was conducted by using a validated questionnaire. More than half (51.0%) of the respondents incorrectly believed that antimicrobial drug efficacy could not be reduced by using sub-recommended dosages, 61.2% had misconceptions about non-therapeutic antimicrobial use, and 66.9% inaccurately felt that antimicrobials were also effective for virus and fungi. Over half (50.6-55.2%) did not see the need to follow instructions or advice of veterinarians. Moreover, only 10.4% regularly relied on responses to drugs sensitivity tests when evaluating the effectiveness of antimicrobials. Overall, assessment of KAP regarding antimicrobial usage indicated that the majority of respondents had low levels of knowledge of antimicrobials, neutral rather than positive attitudes, and employed poor practices in the use of antimicrobials. The results indicate improvements in KAP could be helpful in developing more effective interventions by farmers, reduce antibiotic usage, and slow the growth of antimicrobial resistance.

Prevalence of Centrocestus formosanus Metacercariae in Ornamental Fish from Chiang Mai, Thailand, with Molecular Approach Using ITS2

  • Wanlop, Atcharaphan;Wongsawad, Chalobol;Prattapong, Pongphol;Wongsawad, Pheravut;Chontananarth, Thapana;Chai, Jong-Yil
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.445-449
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    • 2017
  • The prevalence of Centrocestus formosanus metacercariae was investigated in ornamental fish purchased from a pet shop in Chiang Mai, Thailand, including Carassius auratus (goldfish), Cyprinus carpio (Koi), Poecilia latipinna (Sailfin Molly), Danio rerio (Zebrafish), and Puntigrus tetrazona (Tiger barb). The parasite species was identified by the morphology of worms as well as by a molecular approach using ITS2. The results showed that 50 (33.3%) of 150 fish examined were infected with the metacercariae. The highest prevalence was found in C. auratus (83.3%), and the highest intensity was noted in C. carpio (70.8 metacercariae/fish). The most important morphological character was the presence of 32-34 circumoral spines on the oral sucker. The phylogenetic studies using the rRNA ITS2 region revealed that all the specimens of C. formosanus in this study were grouped together with C. formosanus in GenBank database. This is the first report on ornamental fish, C. carpio, P. latipinna, D. rerio, and P. tetrazona, taking the role of second intermediate hosts of C. formosanus in Thailand. Prevention and control of metacercarial infection in ornamental fish is urgently needed.

Prevalence of Haplorchis taichui and Haplorchoides sp. Metacercariae in Freshwater Fish from Water Reservoirs, Chiang Mai, Thailand

  • Nithikathkul, Choosak;Wongsawad, Chalobol
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.109-112
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    • 2008
  • A parasitological investigation on trematode metacercariae was made on 62 freshwater fishes of 13 species in northern Thailand; Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Puntioplites proctozysron, Labiobarbus siamensis, Barbodes gonionotus, Barbodes altus, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Osteochilus hasselti, Notopterus notopterus, Mystacoleucus marginatus, Anabas testudineus, Systomus orphoides, Morulius chrysophykadian, and Hampala macrolepidota. The fish were caught over the summer period (February-May 2007) from 2 Chiang Mai water reservoirs, i.e., the Mae Ngad (UTM 47Q E 503200, 47Q N 2119300) and the Mae Kuang Udomtara (UTM 47Q E 513000, 47Q N 2092600) Reservoirs in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The prevalence of heterophyid (Haplorchis taichui and Haplorchoides sp.) metacercariae in these fish was 83.9% and 74.2% in the Mae Ngad and Mae Kuang Udomtara Reservoirs, respectively. The highest intensity of heterophyid metacercariae in H. siamensis in the Mae Ngad was 120.4 and that in P. proctozysron in the Mae Kuang Udomtara was 180.0. The fish, A. testudineus, C. apogon, and M. chrysophykadian, were not found to be infected with H. taichui metacercariae. The results show that the freshwater fish in Chiang Mai water reservoirs are heavily infected with H. taichui and Haplorchoides sp. metacercariae.

Subsequent Oophorectomy and Ovarian Cancer after Hysterectomy for Benign Gynecologic Conditions at Chiang Mai University Hospital

  • Jitkunnatumkul, Aurapin;Tantipalakorn, Charuwan;Charoenkwan, Kittipat;Srisomboon, Jatupol
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.3845-3848
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    • 2016
  • This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of subsequent oophorectomy due to ovarian pathology or ovarian cancer in women with prior hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions at Chiang Mai University Hospital. Medical records of women who underwent hysterectomy for benign gynecologic diseases and precancerous lesions between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2013 at Chiang Mai University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence and indications of oophorectomy following hysterectomy were analyzed. During the study period, 1,035 women had hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions. Of these, 590 women underwent hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and 445 hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian preservation or unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The median age was 47 years (range, 11-75 years). Ten women (2.45 %) had subsequent oophorectomy for benign ovarian cysts. No case of ovarian cancer was found. The mean time interval between hysterectomy and subsequent oophorectomy was 43.1 months (range, 2-97 months) and the mean follow-up time for this patient cohort was 51 months (range, 1.3-124.9 months). According to our hospital-based data, the incidence of subsequent oophorectomy in women with prior hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions is low and all represent benign conditions.

Diagnosis and Monitoring of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Chiang Mai University Experience

  • Tantiworawit, Adisak;Kongjarern, Supanat;Rattarittamrong, Ekarat;Lekawanvijit, Suree;Bumroongkit, Kanokkan;Boonma, Nonglak;Rattanathammethee, Thanawat;Hantrakool, Sasinee;Chai-Adisaksopha, Chatree;Norasetthada, Lalita
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2159-2164
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    • 2016
  • Background: A diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is made on discovery of the presence of a Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. The success of the treatment of this form of leukemia with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is monitored by reduction of the Ph chromosome. Objective: To compare the role of conventional cytogenetic (CC) methods with a real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for diagnosis and treatment monitoring of CML patients. The secondary outcome was to analyze the treatment responses to TKI in CML patients. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of CML patients who attended the Hematology clinic at Chiang Mai University Hospital from 2005-2010. Medical records were reviewed for demographic data, risk score, treatment response and the results of CC methods, FISH and RQ-PCR. Results: One hundred and twenty three cases were included in the study, 57.7% of whom were male with a mean age of 46.9 years. Most of the patients registered as intermediate to high risk on the Sokal score. At diagnosis, 121 patients were tested using the CC method and 118 (95.9%) were identified as positive. Five patients failed to be diagnosed by CC methods but were positive for BCR-ABL1 using the FISH method. Imatinib was the first-line treatment used in 120 patients (97.6%). In most patients (108 out of 122, 88.5%), a complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) was achieved after TKI therapy and in 86 patients (70.5%) CCyR was achieved long term by the CC method. Five out of the 35 analyzed patients in which CCyR was achieved by the CC method had a positive FISH result. Out of the 76 patients in which CCyR was achieved, RQ-PCR classified patients to only CCyR in 17 patients (22.4%) with a deeper major molecular response (MMR) in 4 patients (5.3%) and complete molecular response (CMR) in 55 patients (72.4%). In the case of initial therapy, CCyR was achieved in 95 patients (79.1%) who received imatinib and in both patients who received dasatinib (100%). For the second line treatment, nilotinib were used in 30 patients and in 19 of them (63.3%) CCyR was achieved. In half of the 6 patients (50%) who received dasatinib as second line or third line treatment CCyR was also achieved. Conclusions: CML patients had a good response to TKI treatment. FISH could be useful for diagnosis in cases where CC analysis failed to detect the Ph chromosome. RQ-PCR was helpful in detecting any residual disease and determining the depth of the treatment response at levels greater than the CC methods.