• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cheonggukjang

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Effects of Cheonggukjang Diet and Aerobic Exercise on Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidant Enzyme in Rats (청국장 식이와 유산소 운동이 흰쥐의 지질대사 및 항산화효소에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sang-Woo;Jeong, Seon-Tea;Baek, Yeong-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.657-663
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a cheonggukjang diet and aerobic exercise on lipid metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activity in rats. Thirty-two Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into a cheonggukjang diet with aerobic exercise (A), aerobic exercise (B), cheonggukjang diet (C), and control group (D). The cheonggukjang diet group consumed 20 g of 20% cheonggukjang a day with their normal diet. Exercise training consisted of treadmill running (25~40 min, 5 day/wk) and the exercise intensity was gradually increased. The results are as follows: T-C was significantly lower (p<0.05) in A compared to B and C. TG was significantly lower (p<0.001) in A compared to D. B and C were significantly lower than D. HDL-C was significantly higher (p<0.05) in C compared to D. LDL-C was not statistically different across the groups. Additionally, TBARS were not statistically different in the control or experimental groups. SOD was significantly lower (p<0.05) in A compared to D. C was significantly lower (p<0.05) that of D. CAT and GPx failed to reach the statistical difference between experimental and control groups. The major findings of this study were that aerobic exercise with a chenggukjang diet intervention improved lipid profiles and antioxidant capacity in this animal model. Therefore, a cheonggukjang diet and aerobic exercise will help to improve antioxidant capacity and prevent lifestyle related diseases.

Bioactive compounds of Cheonggukjang prepared by different soybean cultivars with Bacillus subtilis HJ18-9 (Bacillus subtilis HJ18-9 이용하여 제조한 품종별 청국장의 품질특성과 isoflavone 함량의 변화)

  • Song, Jin;Lee, Kyung-Ha;Choi, Hye-Sun;Hwang, Kyung-A
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.535-544
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to investigate the changes of isoflavone composition (glycoside and bio-active aglycone) in Cheonggukjang and to evaluate its quality characteristics depending on different soybean cultivars (Daewon, Daepoong, Wooram, Hwangkeumol and Saedanback). The bioactivity of Cheonggukjang was enhanced during fermentation at $37^{\circ}C$ for 48 h. Activities of ${\alpha}$-amylase, protease, and cellulase increased significantly after 48 h fermentation (p<0.05). In addition, amino-type nitrogen and reducing sugar contents in Cheonggukjang fermented with B. subtilis increased significantly after 48 h fermentation (p<0.05). Among the isoflavones, the content of $\beta$-glucosides and acetyl-glucosides decreased, while aglycone content increased during fermentation. Especially, Cheonggukjang fermented with Daepoong cultivars showed the greatest increase in daidzein, genistein and glycitein contents. After 48 h fermentation, the contents of daidzein, genistein and glycitein in the Cheonggukjang fermented with Daepoong cultivars increased significantly up to $503.65{\pm}2.76$, $111.40{\pm}0.42$, and $633.95{\pm}6.01{\mu}g/g$ (p<0.05), respectively. Total aerobic and anaerobic cell counts increased with increase in fermentation time. Therefore, it would be beneficial for the food industry if components of Cheonggukjang could be separated and used to develop functional products.

Physicochemical and functional characteristics of fermented products by using Sigumjang, Cheonggukjang and oak mushroom (시금장, 청국장 및 표고버섯을 혼합 발효한 제품의 이화학 및 기능적 특성)

  • Hong, Gi-Hyeong;Kim, Soo-Jung;Kim, Eun-Joo;Kim, Hyeong-Soo;Hwang, Eun-Gyeong
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.276-285
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a new fermented product (named as Cheonggeumjang) using Sigumjang, Cheonggukjang and Oak mushroom. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Sigumjang, Cheonggukjang, and Cheonggeumjang, which were mixed in a different ratio as A (Sigumjang: Cheonggukjang = 1:2), B (Sigumjang: Cheonggukjang = 1:1) and C (Sigumjang: Cheonggukjang = 2 : 1). Then, the functions and physicochemical properties of products were investigated. We found that the crude protein content in Cheonggeumjang was higher than in Sigumjang whereas fat and calories content was less than that of Cheonggukjang. Free sugar content in Cheonggeumjang C 5.8681 g/100g was the highest. Moroever, Cheonggeumjang C and Sigumjang has an antioxidant activities. The electron donating capacity, SOD like activity and the inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase of these two were significantly high than other group. Fat rancidity is promoted in the presence of metal ion, Cheonggeumjang group has higher inhibitory effect on $Fe^{2+}$ion than on $Cu^{2+}$ ion. The rancidity of fat is also increased by reactive oxygens species, Cheonggeumjang group inhibited $H_2O_2$ in higher extent than $KO_2$. Also, ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity of Cheonggeumjang C in all of the concentrations (300 ppm, 500 ppm and 700 ppm) is higher than other groups. In sensory evaluation, Cheonggeumjang C groups is ranked significantly higher than the other groups while considering color, flavor, taste and the overall acceptability. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that Cheonggeumjang is best ingredient for increasing the consumer acceptability and functionality.

Effect of black garlic on antioxidant activity and amino acids composition in Cheonggukjang (흑마늘 첨가에 따른 청국장의 항산화 및 아미노산의 변화)

  • Jeong, Tae-Seong;Kim, Jin-Hak;An, Shin-Ae;Won, Yong-Duk;Lee, Shin-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.643-649
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    • 2013
  • The antioxidant activity and amino acid composition of various Cheonggukjang extracts, such as the water extract from Cheonggukjang (CWE), the alcohol extract from Cheonggukjang (CEE), the water extract from Cheonggukjang with black garlic (BWE) and the alcohol extract from Cheonggukjang with black garlic (BEE), were examined to investigate the effect of black garlic on the sensory quality and functional properties of Cheonggukjang. The total polyphenol contents of various extracts were 7.03 mg/100 g (BWE), 3.64 mg/100 g (CWE), 2.88 mg/100 g (BEE) and 0.81 mg/100 g (CEE). The radical scavenging activity of the DPPH radical was highest in BWE (91.83%), followed by BEE (37.35%), CWE (25.54%) and CEE (14.80%), in that order. The SOD-like activity was highest in BWE (20.20%), followed by BEE (9.22%), CWE (7.91%) and CEE (6.45%). The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were highest in BWE (35.18%), followed by BEE (28.33%), CWE (17.40%) and CEE ((14.93%). The total amino acid content of Cheonggukjang (CC) was higher than that of Cheonggukjang with black garlic (CCWB), but the essential amino acid content of CCWB (43.18%) was higher than that of CC (42.27%). The 27 kinds of free amino acid were found in CC, but only 23 kinds were found in CCWB. The L-lysine content was highest (9.23%) in CC, and the L-phenylalanine content was highest (23.14%) in CCWB. The free amino acids (L-threonine, L-serine, L-sarcosine, L-proline, L-alanine, L-valine and D,L-${\beta}$-aminoisobutyric acid) were found in CC but not in CCWB. The ${\gamma}$-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA) was found in CCWB but not in CC. These results suggest that the addition of black garlic has beneficial effects on the functionality of Cheonggukjang without decreasing its sensory characteristics.

Effect of the Mixed Culture of Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum on the Quality of Cheonggukjang (Bacillus subtilis와 Lactobacillus plantarum의 혼합배양이 청국장의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Ju, Kyung-Eun;Oh, Nam-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.399-404
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    • 2009
  • The goal of this study was to improve the quality of cheonggukjang by the optimization of the inoculation methods of the Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) strains. In order to optimize the mixed cultivation of B. subtilis and L. plantarum, the B. subtilis strain was inoculated into steamed soybeans after cultivation of L. plantarum. Inoculation size of B. subtilis was changed to the simultaneous inoculation method in order to stimulate the growth of the L. plantarum in cheonggukjang. The viable cell count of L. plantarum increased from $2{\times}10^7$ CFU/g to $2-6{\times}10^8$ CFU/g and B. subtilis grew to $9{\times}10^8$ CFU/g. These results showed that 2 strains were successfully able to grow in the steamed soybean for good quality of cheonggukjang by optimization of the inoculation methods. The sensory evaluation indicated that a favorable aroma and overall acceptance of cheonggukjang by the optimized mixed cultivation of B. subtilis and L. plantarum, which was relatively higher than those of cheonggukjang by single strain inoculation of B. subtilis.

Changes in Isoflavone Profiles during Cheongyukjang Preparation, A Traditional Banga Food (반가 식품인 청육장 제조 중 아이소플라본 분포 변화)

  • Lee, Seung-Wook;Park, Yong-Woo;Han, Yang-Sun;Chang, Pahn-Shick;Lee, Jong-Mee;Kim, Young-Suk;Lee, Jae-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.141-145
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    • 2009
  • Cheongyukjang, a Banga food, is a heavy soy-soup prepared by boiling cheonggukjang, sea foods, and meats. Soybeans roasted at 140$^{\circ}C$ for 21.0 min and 220$^{\circ}C$ for 6.0 min, respectively, were used for cheonggukjang preparation. Distributions of isoflavones in raw soybeans, roasted soybeans, cheonggukjang, and cheongyukjang were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The total isoflavones in roasted soybeans, cheonggukjang and cheongyukjang were about 79-80, 56-65, and 47-50% of those in raw soybeans, respectively. Roasting caused significant increases in acetyl derivatives and ${\beta}$-glucoside isoflavones, and significant decreases in malonyl derivatives (p < 0.05). The major isoflavones in cheonggukjang and cheongyukjang were ${\beta}$-glucosides. Succinyl-${\beta}$-daidzin and succinyl-${\beta}$-genistin, which are recognized as new metabolites of isoflavones, were not detected in raw and roasted soybeans. Peak areas of succinyl-${\beta}$-genistin were higher than thse of succinyl-${\beta}$-daidzin, in both cheongyukjang and cheonggukjang.

Characteristic Changes in Red Ginseng Fusion Cheonggukjang Based on Hydrolysis Conditions (홍삼 융합청국장의 가수분해 조건에 따른 특성변화)

  • Lee, Myung-Hee;Gu, Young-Ah;Choi, Myung-Sook;Kwon, Joong-Ho;Kim, In-Sun;Jeong, Yong-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.8
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    • pp.1031-1037
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    • 2007
  • Changes in red ginseng fusion cheonggukjang properties under various hydrolytic conditions were investigated for its possible application to different types of food products. Among the four types of protease that were analyzed, protease (KMF -G) produced the highest hydrolysis rate, calcium binding capacity, and total phenolic compound content. In addition, the highest fibrinolytic activity and ACE inhibitory activity were also exhibited at 87.10 units and 67.17%, respectively. Among a number of different protease concentrations, a 0.02% concentration of protease (KMF-G) was found to be appropriate for the purposes of the study. The best results for red ginseng cheonggukjang hydrolysis were observed at the 60 and 90 min intervals. However, there was not a significant difference between the results at the two time points. The unpleasant odor and bitter taste associated with red ginseng fusion cheonggukjang improved with hydrolytic activity exceeding 60 min. Thus, the optimal hydrolysis time was determined to be 60 min. The total ginsenoside content of red ginseng cheonggukjang was 9.197 mg/g and the hydrolysate content was 11.707 mg/g. Based on the results, it was determined that the addition of 0.02% protease (KMF -G) and treatment for 60 min are the optimal hydrolytic conditions for red ginseng cheonggukjang to improve its biochemical characteristics, including fibronolytic activity and ACE inhibitory activity.

Physicochemical Properties of Cheonggukjang Containing Korean Red Ginseng and Rubus coreanum (홍삼 및 복분자를 첨가한 청국장의 이화학적 특성)

  • Hong, Ju-Yeon;Kim, Eun-Jung;Shin, Seung-Ryeul;Kim, Tae-Wan;Lee, In-Jung;Yoon, Kyung-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.872-877
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to provide basic information related to improvement of flavor and consumption of cheonggukjang. Red ginseng cheonggukjang (RGC) and Rubus coreanum cheonggukjang (RCC) extracts were prepared, and their physicochemical characteristics were compared with either general cheonggukjang (GC) or non-fermented boiled soybean (BS). The moisture and crude fat contents were not significantly different among samples. RGC had the highest reducing sugar content and BS had the lowest. The free sugar content of RGC was higher than that of either GC or RCC, and the major free sugars present were glucose, fructose and sucrose. Seventeen free amino acids were detected in BS and cheonggukjang, and the content of free amino acids ranged from 1,233.8 to 2,599.6 mg/100 g. The greatest content of free amino acids was found in RGC. Color L, a and b values were highest in BS and lowest in RCC. The hardness and strength of RGC and RCC were lower than for GC.

Isolation of Bacillus spp. from Cheonggukjang and Its Antagonistic Effect against Bacillus cereus (청국장으로부터 Bacillus cereus에 대한 길항 균주 분리 및 길항 효과)

  • Lee, Nam-Keun;Park, Joung-Whan;Cho, Il-Jae;Kim, Byung-Yong;Kwon, Ki-Ok;Hahm, Young-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.669-673
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    • 2008
  • For the development of a biological control method against B. cereus in cheonggukjang, 20 Bacillus spp. were isolated from the naturally fermented baektae and heuktae cheonggukjang, identified by using 16S rDNA sequences. Among the isolated strains, Bacillus sp. SC-8 was selected using the B. cereus lawn cell assay as an antagonistic microorganism against B. cereus. The culture medium of Bacillus sp. SC-8 after 24 hr of incubation at $37^{\circ}C$ also evidenced a high level of antagonistic activity. In cheonggukjang fermented with the mixed culture of Bacillus sp. SC-8 and B. cereus, antagonistic effect against B. cereus was maintained during the fermentation of cheonggukjang, while its effect was reduced during storage at $4^{\circ}C$ due to the decrement of cell population of Bacillus sp. SC-8. In Bacillus sp. SC-15, which was utilized a control, antagonistic activity against B. cereus was not demonstrated on the lawn cell plate assay and culture medium, but its effects were detected in cheonggukjang. Therefore, the production of antagonistic substances of Bacillus spp. depends on the fermentative environment.

Comparison of Functional Properties of Cheonggukjang by Using Red Ginseng (홍삼을 이용한 청국장의 기능적 특성 비교)

  • Park, Nan-Young;Seong, Jong-Hwon;Choi, Myung-Sook;Moon, Kwang-Deog;Kwon, Joong-Ho;Jeong, Yong-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.261-268
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    • 2008
  • To utilize Cheonggukjang as a raw material of diverse foods, the quality characteristics of Cheonggukjang and its processed food were compared. Cheonggukjang (CGJ), red ginseng Cheonggukjang (RCJ), and red ginseng Cheonggukjang hydrolysate (RCH) were powdered, and their quality and functional characteristics were examined. The result showed that in regard to general components, carbohydrate content of RCJ was higher than other samples while crude protein content was lower. Free amino acid content of RCH was 2,157.16 mg%, which was approximately 2 times higher than CGJ, and the content of essential amino acid was 812.18 mg%, which was the highest. The result of SDS-electrophoresis pattern showed that CGJ and RCJ showed a molecular weight smaller than 33 kDa, and RCH showed a smaller than 17 kDa low molecular weight, confirming the hydrolysis to small molecular weight. Among the samples, free radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, and ACE inhibitory activity did not show a significant difference; nonetheless, RCH showed the highest activity while CGJ showed the highest fibrinolytic activity of 111.38 unit. In addition, in sensory evaluation, the peculiar bitter taste of red ginseng could be detected while the overall acceptability was improved. Based on the above results, in comparison with CGJ, as for RCJ and RCH, their function was strengthened and unpleasant odor was reduced, and thus it is anticipated that they could be used as a raw material of diverse foods.