• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cheonggukjang

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Diet of Red Ginseng-Cheonggukjang Improves Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes Symptoms and Oxidative Stress

  • Shin, Kyung-Ok;Lee, Sang-Il;Kim, Soon-Dong
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.287-294
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    • 2008
  • Protective effects of cheonggukjang fermented with 20% red ginseng (RC) were observed in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by measuring levels of blood glucose, serum lipid profiles, and hepatic reactive oxygen species generating and scavenging enzymc activities. RC diet was prepared by mixing with AIN-76 diet at the final concentration 2%, and it was fed to STZ-induced diabetic rats for 3 weeks. The RC dict was significantly improved body weight, feed efficiency ratio, levels of serum glucose, and serum and hepatic lipids in diabetes. The significantly elevated O type activity of xanthine oxidase in diabetes was also greatly decreased by the RC diet. The treatment of RC showed the improved hepatic glutathione s-transferase activities in the diabetic animals. The present study indicates that cheonggukjang fermented with red ginseng could ameliorate STZ-induccd diabetic symptoms such as aggravated blood glucose levels, serum lipid profiles, and even the conditions of oxidative stress.

Selection of Microorganisms and Optimization of Manufacture Process for Cheonggukjang (고품질의 청국장 생산 발효균주 선별 및 최적화)

  • Hwang, Hyun-Ae;Lee, Nam-Kuen;Cho, Il-Jae;Hahm, Young-Tae;Kwon, Ki-Ok;Kim, Byung-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.406-411
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to examine the quality enhancement of fermented soybean pastes (cheonggukjang) using microorganisms with high enzyme activities and proper experimental design. The microorganisms for soybean paste fermentation were selected from a specific area of Gyeonggi and were idenlified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To prepare the cheonggukjang, an optimum mixing ratio of selected microorganisms was determined using contour plots and numerical optimization methods. A total of 39 microorganisms were isolated from the soybean paste, consisting primarily of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis, and no mold was found. Three microorganisms showing high enzyme activities were selected and used to formulate an optimum mixing ratio for cheonggukjang preparation. Based on levels of amino-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, antioxidant activity values, and sensory preference results, the optimum mixing ratio of 50% of Bacillus sp. SC-1 and 50% SC-3 was suggested for the manufacture of high quality of cheonggukjang.

Characteristics and Antioxidant Effect of Garlic in the Fermentation of Cheonggukjang by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MJ1-4

  • Kim, Jeong Hwan;Hwang, Chung Eun;Lee, Chang Kwon;Lee, Jin Hwan;Kim, Gyoung Min;Jeong, Seong Hoon;Shin, Jeong Hee;Kim, Jong Sang;Cho, Kye Man
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.959-968
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    • 2014
  • The changes in the ${\beta}$-glucosidase activity, total phenolic contents, isoflavone contents, and antioxidant activities during the fermentation of cheonggukjang by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MJ1-4 with and without garlic were investigated. The levels of total phenolic and isoflavone-malonylglycoside, -acetylglycoside, and -aglycone contents increased, whereas the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay results increased, but isoflavone-glycoside levels decreased during cheonggukjang fermentation. The levels of total phenolic and total isoflavone contents and the antioxidant activities were higher in cheonggukjang fermented without garlic (CFWOG) than in cheonggukjang fermented with garlic (CFWG) after 24 h of fermentation, but they were lower in CFWOG than in CFWG after 72 h of fermentation. In particular, the highest levels of total phenolic, daidzein, glycitein, and genistein were present at concentrations of 15.18 mg/g, $264.4{\mu}g/g$, $16.4{\mu}g/g$, and $31.1{\mu}g/g$ after 72 h of fermentation in CFWG, showing 82.89% in DPPH radical scavenging activity, 106.32% in ABTS radical scavenging activity, and 1.47 ($OD_{593nm}$) in FRAP assay, respectively. From these results, we suggest that the high antioxidant activity of CFWG might be related to the markedly higher levels of total phenolic contents, isoflavone-malonylglycosides, -acetylglycosides, and -aglycones achieved during fermentation.

The Fermentative Characteristics of Cheonggukjang Prepared by Starter Culture of Bacillus spp. with Fibrinolytic Activity (혈전용해활성이 우수한 Bacillus spp. 스타터를 이용한 청국장의 발효특성)

  • Hwang, Jong-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.12
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    • pp.1832-1838
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to improve the flavor of Cheonggukjang prepared by the culture optimization of starter with the fibrinolytic activity. After 25 strains isolated from the commercial Cheonggukjang and Doenjang in different regions were compared, 7 Bacillus strains with proteolytic and slime-producing activities were selected. When the fibrin plate method for fibrinolytic activity was applied, CJJN-4 and 5 showed the higher activity in tripticase soy broth (TSB). All Cheonggukjang prepared with CJJN-4 and 5 also had the fibrinolytic activity, regardless of culture temperature or time. Especially, Cheonggukjang prepared at $40^{\circ}C$ showed higher activity than $45^{\circ}C$, and Cheonggukjang prepared with CJJN-4 for 48 hr at $40^{\circ}C$ showed the highest fibrinolytic activity. Although there was no significant difference in pH of Cheonggukjang prepared with CJJN-4 or 5 during 72 hr at $40^{\circ}C$, Cheonggukjang prepared with CJJN-4 at $45^{\circ}C$ had lower pH until 60 hr than $40^{\circ}C$ or CJJN-5. The total amino type nitrogen contents of Cheonggukjang were 1,139.6 (CJJN-4) and 1,027.6 mg% (CJJN-5) for 72 hr at $40^{\circ}C$, and their producing rates were also higher at $40^{\circ}C$ fermentation than $45^{\circ}C$. Meanwhile, the contents of ammonia type nitrogen induced unpleasant flavor were lower in Cheonggukjang with CJJN-4 and 5 at $40^{\circ}C$ than CJJN-5 at $45^{\circ}C$. Therefore, Cheonggukjang fermented with CJJN-4 starter at $40^{\circ}C$ had the improved flavor, such as change of amino or ammonia type nitrogen production, and higher fibrinolytic activity.

Quality Characteristics of Red Ginseng Cheonggukjang According to Addition Methods of Red Ginseng (홍삼첨가 방법에 따른 홍삼청국장의 품질특성)

  • Jeong, Yong-Jin;Woo, Seung-Mi;Kwon, Joong-Ho;Choi, Myung-Sook;Seong, Jong-Hwan;Lee, Jong-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.7
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    • pp.889-895
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    • 2007
  • This study investigated the quality characteristics of red ginseng cheonggukjang development by a various of concentration of red ginseng extract and powder to enhance its acceptability and functional properties. In the cheonggukjang added with red ginseng extract, viscous substances, reducing sugars, and fibrinolytic activity showed higher values by the addition of red ginseng extract. The standard crude saponin content of products containing red ginseng was evaluated, and found to be suitable in cheonggukjang added with 4% red ginseng extract. In the cheonggukjang added with red ginseng powder, viscous substances, reducing sugars, and fibrinolytic activity showed a similar tendency to the cheonggukjang added with red ginseng extract. Amino type nitrogen and ammonia type nitrogen decreased by increasing the addition of red ginseng powder, and the crude saponin content of cheonggukjang with the addition of 14% red ginseng powder was suitable, in terms of manufacturing standards for products containing red ginseng. Dependent on the addition time of red ginseng in cheonggukjang, viscous substances, reducing sugars, fibrinolytic activity, amino type nitrogen, and ammonia type nitrogen showed no differences based on the addition time; however, for crude saponin content, the cheonggukjang with red ginseng added before fermentation showed a higher saponin content than the cheonggukjang with red ginseng added after fermentation. The ginsenosides $Rg_{1}$, Re, Rf, $Rh_{1}$, $Rg_{2}$, $Rb_{1}$, Rc, $Rb_{2}$, Rd and $Rg_{3}$ were detected, but ginsenoside content did not show significant difference according to addition time. In conclusion, the addition amount of red ginseng in cheonggukjang for optimum fermentation was concentration of 4% (w/w), which showed the best results in quality characteristics.

Inhibition of Bacillus cereus in Cheonggukjang Fermented with Bacillus Starters with Antimicrobial Activities (항균력을 지닌 Bacillus 균주들을 종균으로 사용한 청국장에서 Bacillus cereus 억제)

  • Lee, Jae Yong;Shim, Jae Min;Liu, Xiaoming;Yao, Zhuang;Lee, Kang Wook;Cho, Kye Man;Kim, Gyoung Min;Shin, Jung-Hye;Kim, Jong-Sang;Kim, Jeong Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.736-745
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    • 2016
  • Cheonggukjang, a traditional Korean fermented soy food, was prepared by inoculation of Bacillus subtilis EMD4 or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens EMD17 with anti-bacterial or anti-fungal activities into soybeans. Cheonggukjang was also prepared by co-inoculation of EMD4 and EMD17 (1:1, v/v). Control cheonggukjang was prepared by using B. subtilis KACC16450 (Natto strain). Growth of B. cereus cells spiked with starter organisms was completely inhibited by B. amyloliquefaciens EMD17 after 12 h of fermentation at $37^{\circ}C$. Growth of B. cereus was also inhibited by B. subtilis EMD4, but the degree of inhibition was weaker. After 48 h of fermentation, cheonggukjang samples were stored for 10 days at $4^{\circ}C$. B. cereus cells were not detected from cheonggukjang inoculated with EMD4, whereas significant numbers still present in control. The pH values of cheonggukjang samples were not significantly different. During fermentation, cheonggukjang fermented with EMD17 showed the highest fibrinolytic activity and during storage, cheonggukjang fermented with a Natto strain was the highest. Cheonggukjang fermented with a Natto strain also showed the highest amount of total phenolic compounds. The results show that control of B. cereus in cheonggukjang is possible by using starters such as B. amyloliquefaciens EMD17.

Color, Volatiles and Organoleptic Acceptability of Mixed Powders of Red Ginseng and Cheonggukjang (홍삼과 청국장 혼합 분말의 색도, 휘발성 성분 및 관능적 기호도)

  • Kwon Joong-Ho;Shin Jin-Ki;Moon Kwang-Deog;Chung Hun-Sik;Jeong Yong-Jin;Lee Eun-Joo;Ahn Dong-U.
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.483-489
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    • 2006
  • Considering the development of fusion ingredients rom red ginseng and Cheonggukjang (soybean-fermented food), their commercial powders were evaluated in their Hunter's colors, volatile compounds, and sensory properties depending on manufacturing companies and mixing ratio of both powdered products. Hunters L, a and b values of red ginseng powders were $75.56\sim85.50,\;1.90\sim6.30,\;and\;23.29\sim35.08$, respectively, while those of Cheonggukjang powders were $64.96\sim71.69,\;4.64\sim8.30,\;and\;30.45\sim36.50$, respectively. Volatile compounds were mainly composed of hexanal, $\beta-pinene$, methyl benzene, 3,5-methyl propyl nonane, 2-propanone, decane, and 2,8-dimethyl undecane in red ginseng samples, and of 2,3-butanedione, decane, 2,2,7,7-tetramethyl octane, and 3-methyl butanal in Cheonggukjang samples. Total volatiles of the mixed samples decreased as ginseng decreased and Cheonggukjang increased. The mixed sample of both red ginseng and cheonggukjang in same amounts was the highest in its sensory acceptability, which was composed in the order of 2-propanone, 2-butanone, pentane, hexanal and 3-methyl butanal. The above results indicate that red ginseng and Cheonggukjang showed a potential as fusion ingredient for preparing new functional produce through further processing.

Isoflavonoid Contents, Antibacterial Activities, and Physiological Activities of Cheonggukjang Made from Sword Bean (작두콩 첨가 청국장의 Isoflavonoids 함량과 항균력 및 생리활성)

  • Kim, Un-Sung;Kim, Jae-Young;Kim, Seong-Jo;Moon, Kwang-Hyun;Baek, Seung-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.174-181
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    • 2012
  • This research aimed to examine the isoflavonoid contents, antibacterial activities, and physiological activities of Cheonggukjang made from sword bean (CS). The effects of adding sword bean were compared with those of raw materials (RM), steamed materials (SM), and traditional Cheonggukjang (TC). In the case of the antibacterial activity on Gram-positive bacteria, the result of CS in ethanol extract was the highest in Bacillus cereus, and the result of water extract was the highest in Staphylococcus aureus. However, in the case of Gram-negative bacteria, Salmonella Typhimurium was the highest in all the extraction. Antioxidant activity and total flavonoid contents were present in the order of TC

Fermentation Characteristics of Cheonggukjang made of Germinated Soybean under Light Condition (명조건에서 발아시킨 콩을 이용한 청국장의 발효 특성)

  • Kim, Mi-Hyang;Lee, Nan-Hee;Choi, Ung-Kyu
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.1420-1425
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate the fermentation characteristics of cheonggukjang prepared with soybean germinated under light condition. The moisture content and pH of cheonggukjang made with soybean germinated under light condition (CGL) were higher than that of cheonggukjang made with non-germinated soybean (CNG). The color of CGL was darker than that of CNG and cheonggukjang made with soybean germinated under dark condition (CGD). The number of live bacteria in the CGL ($10.7{\pm}0.3\;\log\;CFU/g$) and CGD ($10.7{\pm}0.4\;\log\;CFU/g$) was higher than that of CNG ($9.7{\pm}0.4\;\log\;CFU/g$). The levels of isoflavone in CGL, CGD and CNG were 2,038.0, 1,993.6 and 1,747.0 ug/g, respectively. There were no significant differences in the appearance, aroma, taste and overall acceptability of the cheonggukjang made with different germination conditions. Therefore, it was expected that the cheonggukjang prepared with soybean germinated under light condition could be practically used as a new fermented food.

Fermentation and Quality Characteristics of Cheonggukjang Fermented with Bacillus subtilis BC-P1 (Bacillus subtilis BC-P1 균주를 이용하여 제조한 청국장의 발효 및 품질 특성분석)

  • Park, Sung-Yong;Bang, Mi-Ae;Oh, Boung-Jun;Park, Jeong-Hoon;Song, Won-Seob;Choi, Kyung-Min;Choung, Eui-Su;Boo, Hee-Ock;Cho, Seung-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.262-269
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    • 2013
  • The object of this study was to improve the quality of Cheonggukjang with new starter, Bacillus subtilis BC-P1. Twenty strains were isolated from the commercial cheonggukjang and 1 Bacillus strain (BC-P1) with protease activity was selected. The 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the BC-P1 was closely related to B. subtilis with 99% homology. The quality characteristics of chunggukjang fermented with B. subtilis BC-P1, Bacillus nato (PC) and commercial chunggukjang (NC) were investigated. The characteristics of fermentation were determined by protease, lipase, xylanase, chitinase, and fibrinolytic activities, reducing sugar, nutrient composition and amino acid contents of cheonggukjang sample. Cheonggukjang fermented with B. subtilis BC-P1 showed the strongest fibrinolytic, xylanase, and chitinase activities. Reducung sugar contents of Cheonggukjang samples were $30.16{\pm}2.11$ mg/g (NC), $28.56{\pm}1.52$ mg/g (PC), $32.39{\pm}1.87$ mg/g (BC-P1). And their total amino acid contents were 338.99 mg% (NC), 445.19 mg% (PC), 741.35 mg% (BC-P1). These results suggested that B. subtilis BC-P1 was suitable to be used as a starter to enhance the quality and effects of cheonggukjang.