• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cheonggukjang

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Changes in Taste Component of Cheonggukjang prepared with Germinated Soybeans by the Addition of Smoking Process (훈연공정을 첨가하여 제조한 발아콩 청국장의 맛 성분 변화)

  • Park, Hwa-Young;Choi, Won-Seok;Choi, Ung-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.499-506
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the taste components of cheonggukjang made with germinated soybeans, which is produced by the addition of a smoking process. The total organic acid content of smoked cheonggukjang made with germinated soybeans (SCGS) was four times higher than that of non-smoked cheonggukjang made with non-germinated soybeans (NCNS). The total organic acid content of SCGS was lower than that of non-smoked cheonggukjang made with germinated soybeans (NCGS). The total free sugar content of NCGS and SCGS was approximately three times higher than that of NCNS. The total free amino acid content of NCGS was significantly decreased compared with that of NCNS, whereas the total free amino acid content of SCGS was 1.2 times higher than that of NCGS. The essential amino acid content of SCGS was significantly increased compared with that of NCGS. The ratio of glutamic acid to the total free amino acid in NCNS and SCGS was 19.6%. Similarly, the ratio of glutamic acid to the total free amino acid in NCGS was 19.1%. There were no significant differences in the total fatty acid content of NCNS, NCGS, and SCGS. The sensory evaluation of appearance, aroma, taste, and overall quality of SCGS was significantly increased compared with that of NCNS and NCGS. These results suggest that smoked cheonggukjang made with germinated soybeans could be utilized for the development of a novel fermented food.

Effect of Millimeter Waves on Quality Characteristics of Cheonggukjang (밀리미터파 처리가 청국장의 이화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Dong-Ho;Kim, Mi-Seon;Kum, Jun-Seok
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.126-131
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    • 2017
  • Millimeter waves are electromagnetic waves with frequencies of 30-300 GHz (wavelength 1-10 mm), and millimeter wave stimulation affects microorganism growth. The present study stimulated Bacillus subtilis with 60 and 70 GHz millimeter waves during cheonggukjang fermentation and characterized the effects on cheonggukjang quality. Cheonggukjang treated with millimeter wave irradiation showed no significant difference in total bacterial count but generated only 5.52-5.92% viscous substance. Irradiation with 60 GHz millimeter waves yielded bright and intense color values relative to 70 GHz millimeter waves. Examination of the amylase activity and reducing sugar content of finished cheonggukjang revealed that irradiation at 70 GHz inhibited amylase activity in cheonggukjang. Furthermore, irradiation at 70 GHz increased protease activity, whereas irradiation at 60 GHz inhibited the activity. Moreover, the amino acid content changed with millimeter wave irradiation.

Properties of Cheonggukjang Tablet Prepared with Medicinal Herb Extracts (생약초(표고버섯, 더덕, 어성초) 추출물을 첨가한 청국장환의 특성)

  • Park, Jung-Suk;Na, Hwan-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 2011
  • Cheonggukjang tablet was prepared by addition of medicinal herb extracts (from Lentinus edodes, Codonopsis lanceolata, or Houttuynia cordata Thunb.) to improve its quality and functional properties. Lightness and yellowness (measured using Hunter's color values) were generally increased with increasing amount of medicinal herb extracts, whereas pH decreased. In proximate composition, the levels of crude protein, lipid and fiber levels of Cheonggukjang tablet decreased with increasing amount of added medicinal herb extracts, whereas moisture and crude ash were increased. The major amino acid of Cheonggukjang tablet were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine and the principal fatty acids of Cheonggukjang tablet were linolenic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid, respectively. Hardness levels of Cheonggukjang tablet decreased with increasing amounts of added medicinal herb extracts. The Cheonggukjang tablet added with medicinal herb extracts increased both crude saponin and quercetin contents. Sensory score of Cheonggukjang tablet containing 20% (w/v) medicinal herb extracts were optimal in terms of both quality characteristics and sensory evaluation.

Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Culture-based Analysis of the Bacterial Community in Cheonggukjang, a Korean Traditional Fermented Soybean Food from Gangwon Province (DGGE 방법과 배양법을 이용한 강원지역 전통 발효 청국장에서 미생물의 다양성 분석)

  • Hong, Sung Wook;Lim, In Kyu;Kim, Yong Woo;Shin, Seung-Mee;Chung, Kun Sub
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.515-520
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    • 2013
  • Bacterial communities derived from cheonggukjang and raw rice straw collected from a Mireuksan farm and a Heungup cheonggukjang in Gangwon province were investigated using both culture-based method and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Pure cultures, which were isolated from raw rice straw and cheonggukjang and cultured on tryptic soy agar plates (53-76 colonies per plate), were identified by analysis of 16S rRNA sequences. The traditional culture-based method and analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA by DGGE revealed that for samples collected from the Mireuksan farm, Pantoea agglomerans and Bacillus subtilis were the predominant species in the raw rice-straw and cheonggukjang, respectively. For samples collected from the Heungup cheonggukjang, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was the predominant species in both raw rice straw and cheonggukjang. Other microorganisms, including members of Pantoea, Bacillus, Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Acinetobacter, were also present in the raw rice-straw and cheonggukjang, as were bacteria that could not be cultured.

Quality characteristics of Cheonggukjang added with peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) powder (땅콩 분말을 첨가한 청국장의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Mi-Hwa;Kim, Sun-Hee;Cho, Hee-Sook;Park, Bock-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.488-494
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    • 2016
  • Cheonggukjang was prepared by addition of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) powder in order to improve its quality and functional properties. The physicochemical and sensory properties of Cheonggukjang added peanut powder were investigated, after adding the peanut powder with the amount of 5, 15 and 25% (w/w). The proximate composition of peanut powder was as follows: moisture, 1.80%; crude protein, 24.9%; crude lipid, 48.3%; crude ash, 2.90%; and carbohydrates, 22.1%. Crude protein and lipid content of Cheonggukjang increased with increaes in the amounts of peanut powder, while the moisture content decreased. Calcium and amino acid contents showed disparity depending on the increasing addition of peanut powder. Cheonggukjang containing 15% (w/v) peanut powder was found to be highest calcium contents. The major amino acids of Cheonggukjang were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lysine, leucine, arginine and proline. Depending on increasing amounts of peanut powder, the L and b values (measured using Hunter's color values) were decreased, while the a value was increased. In addition, pH was decreased as the amount of peanut powder was increased. Sensory scores of Cheonggukjang containing 15% (w/v) peanut powder were best when considering both quality characteristics and sensory evaluation. This study suggested that peanut powder could enhance the quality and functionality of Cheonggukjang further.

Changes in Chemical Components of Cheonggukjang Prepared with Germinated Soybeans during Fermentation (발아대두 청국장의 발효 중 화학성분의 변화)

  • Eom, Sang-Mi;Jung, Bo-Young;Oh, Hoon-Il
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.133-141
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out in order to investigate the changes in chemical components of four kinds of Cheonggukjang during fermentation. Three different kinds of Cheonggukjang were prepared with germinated soybeans using rice straw, Bacillus natto, Bacillus natto plus Aspergillus oryzae, and non-germinated soybeans using rice straw. The nitrogen contents increased significantly during fermentation in all kinds of Cheonggukjang. Especially germinated soybean Cheonggukjang prepared with A. oryzae plus B. natto showed approximately 1.3 to 3.0 fold higher values than the other Cheonggukjangs. Total free amino acid contents of all Cheonggukjangs increased with an increase in fermentation time until 60 h. Lysine content was highest in Cheonggukjang prepared with ungerminated soybean at 72 h of fermentation. Among free amino acids of germinated soybean Cheonggukjang prepared with rice straw, glutamic acid was highest (3.64 mg/g) after 72 h of fermentation. In Cheonggukjang prepared with mixed culture, glutamic acid content was 4.37 mg/g. Total carbohydrate contents of Cheonggukjang decreased rapidly with an increase in fermentation time except the ungerminated soybean Cheonggukjang, and the total carbohydrate contents varied from 9.81 to 14.04% after 72 h of fermentation. On the other hand, total carbohydrate contents of ungerminated soybean Cheonggukjang prepared with rice straw gradually decreased during fermentation. In conclusion, it is expected to increase the contents of functional constituents and to improve quality characteristics of Cheonggukjang when it is prepared with germinated soybeans using B. natto plus A. oryaze.

Body-Weight-Loss and Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Cheonggukjang (a Fermented Soybean Paste) Given to Rats Fed a High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet (청국장이 고지방-고콜레스테롤식이를 급여한 흰쥐에서 체중감소 및 콜레스테롤 저하효과)

  • Kim, Ah-Ra;Lee, Jae-Joon;Lee, Hwan;Chang, Hae-Choon;Lee, Myung-Yul
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.688-697
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    • 2010
  • We investigated the cholesterol-lowering and body-weight loss effects of Cheonggukjang fermented using Bacillus subtilis DJI in rats fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet for 4 weeks. Weight-matched male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four groups: a normal diet group (N), a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet group (HFC), a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet with DJI Cheonggukjang group (HFC-SCK), and a high-fat/high-cholesterol with commercial Cheonggukjang group (HFC-CCK). All of body weight and liver and adipose tissue weights increased in animals fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, but decreased significantly in rats fed Cheonggukjang powder, compared with the HFC group. Food intake was lower in the HFC group than in the N group, and that of the HFC-CCK group was the lowest among the four groups. Serum total cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the Cheonggukjang-powder fed groups than the other groups. Serum phospholipid and HDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly decreased in HFC animals and were markedly increased upon feeding of a Cheonggukjang-containing-diet. Levels of serum LDL-cholesterol, the atherogenic index, and cardiac risk factor assessment indications tended to be decreased in Cheonggukjang powder-fed groups, compared with the HFC group. The total cholesterol level in liver tissue was increased by feeding of a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, and was significantly reduced when Cheonggukjang powder was present in the diet. The levels of total lipids and triglycerides in adipose tissues were lower in the HFC-SCK group than in the HFC group, whereas no significant differences were evidence when the HFC and the HFC-CCK groups were compared. Fecal weight, moisture level, and total lipid content increased in animals fed Cheonggukjang powder. The activities of HR-LPL and TE-LPL in adipose tissues were increased in the HFC group compared with the Cheonggukjang powder-fed groups. These results indicate that dietary Cheonggukjang may improve lipid metabolism and prevent obesity and hyperlipidemia.

Changes in the Taste Compounds of Cheonggukjang Prepared with Hazelnut (헤이즐넛 첨가에 따른 청국장의 맛성분 변화)

  • Lee, Nan-Hee;Jang, Hyeock-soon;Kim, Jong-Duk;Kim, Dae-Hyun;Choi, Ung-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.342-348
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    • 2019
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in flavor components of cheonggugjang prepared with hazelnut. Amino nitrogen content in cheonggukjang was significantly lower in the 30~40% hazelnut group compared to the control group. The volatile basic nitrogen of hazelnut added cheongkukjang showed a similar pattern to that of amino nitrogen. The number of B. subtilis was slightly increased in relation to the amount of hazelnut added, but there was no significant difference. The content of glucose increased proportionally with increasing hazelnut. Total amino acid content decreased with increasing hazelnut. The ratio of glutamic acid to total free amino acids increased with increasing hazelnut. Oleic acid content increased proportionally with increasing hazelnut, while linoleic acid content decreased. In conclusion, the addition of hazelnut may contribute to the quality diversification of cheonggukjang by changing the taste and flavor while maintaining the amino nitrogen content of cheonggukjang.

Isoflavone Distribution and ${\beta}$-Glucosidase Activity in Cheonggukjang, a Traditional Korean Whole Soybean-Fermented Food

  • Yang, Seung-Ok;Chang, Pahn-Shick;Lee, Jae-Hwan
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.96-101
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    • 2006
  • Isoflavone distribution and ${\beta}$-glucosidase activity in cheonggukjang, a traditional Korean whole soybean-fermented food prepared with or without addition of Bacillus subtilis, were analyzed every 6 hr for 36 hr. Thermal cooking of raw-soaked soybeans significantly increased ${\beta}$-glucoside isoflavone level by 57.1 % and decreased malonyl-${\beta}$-glucosides by 57.6% (p<0.05). Consistent changes of isoflavone profiles in cheonggukjang without B. subtilis addition (COB) and samples with addition of B. subtilis (CWB) were not observed during 36 hr fermentation. ${\beta}$-Glucosides of isoflavones are major forms in both COB and CWB. ${\beta}$-Glucosidase activity in cheonggukjang decreased significantly compared to that of soaked soybeans due to thermal denaturation, while recovery of enzyme activity in COB was observed. Two new unidentified peaks were detected, and their relative peak areas in CWB were significantly larger than those in COB with increasing fermentation period (p<0.05), which indicates both peaks could be associated with fermentation metabolites.

Taste Composition and Biological Activities of Cheonggukjang Containing Rubus coreanum

  • Kim, Eun-Jung;Hong, Ju-Yeon;Shin, Seung-Ryeul;Heo, Ho-Jin;Moon, Yong-Sun;Park, Sun-Hee;Kim, Kwang-Soo;Yoon, Kyung-Young
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.687-691
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to investigate the taste composition and biological activities of cheonggukjang containing Rubus coreanum to improve cheonggukjangs' flavor and consumption. In R. corenum cheonggukjang (RCC), the total content of soluble sugars, including glucose, fructose, maltose, and sucrose, was 1,052.1 mg/100 g. Glutamic acid, phenlylalanine, leucine, cystine, and tyrosine were the major amino acids, and the ratio of sweet to bitter components was higher in RCC than in general cheonggukjang (GC). The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts, in decreasing order, were found to be: ethanol extract> water extract> chloroform extract, at all concentrations. The water extract had the highest SOD-like activity (10.2%) at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL, whereas the chloroform extract showed the highest SOD-like activity (19.1%) at a concentration of 2 mg/mL. The nitrite scavenging ability was higher at pH 1.2 than at pH 3.0 or 6.0, and had a positive correlation with the extract concentration. The chloroform extract had the highest nitrite scavenging ability (84.6%) at a concentration of 2 mg/mL and pH 2.0.