• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cheonggukjang

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Changes in Microflora and Enzyme Activities of Cheonggukjang Prepared with Germinated Soybeans during Fermentation (발아대두 청국장의 발효 중 미생물과 효소활성도의 변화)

  • Oh, Hoon-Il;Eom, Sang-Mi
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.56-62
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to investigate the changes in microflora, enzyme activity and sensory quality of four kinds of cheonggukjang during fermentation. Three different kinds of cheonggukjang were prepared with germinated soybeans using rice straw, Bacillus natto, B. natto plus Aspergillus oryzae, and the last one was prepared with non-germinated soybeans using rice straw. The pH values of cheonggukjang prepared with germinated or non-germinated soybeans increased up to 36 hr of fermentation and then decreased. The number of bacteria and molds increased significantly up to 24 hr of fermentation and then leveled off during fermentation. Acidic and neutral protease activities of all cheonggukjang continuously increased significantly during fermentation. ${\alpha}$- and ${\beta}$-Amylase activities of cheonggukjang decreased slightly during fermentation except cheonggukjang prepared with germinated soybeans using the mixed culture. The number of microflora, protease and ${\alpha}$-amylase activities were highest in cheonggukjang prepared with germinated soybeans using B. natto plus A. oryzae. The results of the sensory evaluation revealed that for overall acceptability, the cheonggukjang prepared with germinated soybeans using B. natto plus A. oryzae was similar to the cheonggukjang prepared with non-germinated soybeans using rice straw.

The Effects of Chungkukjang Powder Supplements on the Regulation of Blood Glucose and Inflammation in Diabetic Rats (청국장 분말 첨가식이가 당뇨 쥐의 혈당과 염증조절에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Kyung-Mi
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.118-127
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the effect of Cheonggukjang powder were investigated on the regulation of blood glucose and inflammatory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The experimental diet used this study were three kinds of Cheonggukjang, which were soybean Cheonggukjang, Yakkong Cheonggukjang and black foods such as black rice, black sesame seeds, and sea tangle added Yakkong Cheonggukjang powder. The experimental animals were divided into 5 groups and fed experimental diets for 7 weeks; non-diabetes with normal diet group (C), diabetes with normal diet (DC), diabetes with soybean Cheonggukjang (DS), diabetes with Yakkong Cheonggukjang (DY), and diabetes with Yakkong black foods added Cheonggukjang (DYB). Blood glucose and insulin resistance of STZ-induced diabetic groups were were significantly higher than C group. But insulin levels and insulin secertory of STZ-induced diabetic groups were significantly lower than C group. However, supplementation of Yakkong or black foods added Yakkong Cheonggukjang were proven to regulation them. In diabetic group, free fatty acid level was significantly increased than C group, but this contents was significantly decreased supplementation of soybean Cheonggukjang. Leptin and adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in STZ-induced diabetic groups.

Powder Processing of Soybean Paste(Cheonggukjang) and Application to Soup Recipes (청국장의 분말가공과 청국장 스프 레시피 개발)

  • Kong, Suk-Kil;Kim, Sung-Ok;Hwang, Sung-Yeon;Park, So-Hee;Kang, Kun-Og
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2007
  • The process of Cheonggukjang powderization and application to the western food recipes were established. Cheonggukjang was made and processed into the powder. The optimum condition of Cheonggukjang solution for the powdering process was 50%(w/w). And it was completely grinded by a mixer. Drying condition of a spray dryer was to be injected 1 mL/sec. in $105^{\circ}C$ with 3,000 rpm. The components of Cheonggukjang were 49.7 g/100 g of moisture, 2.6 g/100 g of crude ash, 16.2 g/100 g of crude carbohydrate, 23.4 g/100 g of crude protein, 8.1 g/100 g of crude fat, and 9.3 g/100 g of cellulose. The major amino acid was glutamic acid and its quantity was 4,345.5 mg/100 g. And the next were aspartic acid (2,539.2 mg/100 g) and leucin (1,963.2 mg/100 g). In application, 4 kinds of soup recipes using Cheonggukjang powder were developed. The sensory test showed the acceptability between the soup with the powder and the soup without the powder was significant at odor(p<0.05) in vegetable cream soup and broccoli soup, and at taste(p<0.01) in vegetable cream soup. And the soup with non powder showed more acceptability.

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Production of Cheonggukjang by Using a Recombinant Bacillus licheniformis Strain

  • Jeong, Woo-Ju;Kwon, Gun-Hee;Lee, Ae-Ran;Park, Jae-Yong;Lee, Mee-Ryung;Chun, Ji-Yeon;Cha, Jae-Ho;Song, Young-Sun;Kim, Jeong-Hwan
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.90-93
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    • 2009
  • Cheonggukjang was prepared from soybean inoculated with B. licheniformis ATCC 10716 cells transformed with pHY3-5 carrying a fibrinolytic enzyme gene. During the 54 hr of fermentation at $37^{\circ}C$, fibrinolytic activities of cheonggukjang were significantly higher than cheonggukjang fermented with B. licheniformis 10716 control cells. The plasmid, pHY3-5 was stably maintained during the 54 hr without antibiotic selection and more than 52% of cells retained the plasmid.

Preparation and Quality Characteristics of Tablet using Cheonggukjang Powder (청국장 타블렛의 제조와 품질 특성)

  • Youn Kwang-Sup
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.495-500
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to develop a new product using Cheonggukjang (fermented soybean product) and sub-ingredients(lactic acid bacillus powder, chlorella, lactose, green tea). Fresh Cheonggukjang was dried by a infrared drying(50℃, 36hr) and powdered by a roll mill. The powder was mixed with sub-ingredients and then moulded as tablet type by a press moulder. The pH of tablet was low with the addition of lactobacillus and total sugar content was high with the addition of lactose. Disintegration, absorption capacity and textural properties of tablet were not affected by the addition of any sub-ingredient. Color of non-added tablet was yellow to red, but changed to green when chlorella was added. Sensory properties(color, taste, flavor, chewiness, hardness, acceptability) were not affected by the addition of sub-ingredients. The results indicate that functional healthy tablet could be made from Cheonggukjang powder and various sub-ingredients.

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Development of Odor-Reduced Korean Traditional Cheonggukjang Added with Job's Tears (냄새저감형 율무청국장 제조에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Ju-Hun;Han, Chan-Kyu;Choi, Sook-Hyun;Lee, Bog-Hieu;Lee, Hye-Jeong;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.259-266
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to develop an odor-reduced Korean traditional Cheonggukjang (fermented soybean paste) by adding Job's tears to Cheonggukjang made with soybean (control) only. The study included the determination of best addition percentage of Job's tears versus soybean, sensory evaluation, and aroma patterns and its components as well as proximate composition analyses of Cheonggukjang. Job's tears Cheonggukjang (CAJT) was prepared by inoculating Bacillus subtilis and fermented at $40^{\circ}C$ for 48 hours. Ratios of soybean : Job's tears for Job's tears Cheonggukjang were 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1, respectively. In comparison of proximal composition, Job's tears Cheonggukjang was high in moisture and carbohydrates, but low in calorie, fat, protein, ash and amino nitrogen. The pH of CAJT was lower than those of control and conventional Cheonggukjang (CC) sold in the market, and the acidity was the lowest in CC. The color of Job's tears Cheonggukjang appeared the whiter and more yellowish, but less reddish in proportion to contents of Job's tears. The contents of viscous substances were higher in CAJT compared with those of control and CC. The contents of glutamic acid, the major components of viscous substances were lower in CAJT than in control and CC, and the contents of fructose higher in CAJT. The scores of sensory evaluation were the highest in Job's tears Cheonggukjang mixed with soybean : Job's tears=4:1. The aroma pattern of CC analyzed was conspicuously dissimilar to the control and CAJT and also discriminated by electronic nose examination. The pyrazines, volatile compounds peculiar to Cheonggukjang, were found to be lower in CAJT by SPME-GC/MS assay. Additionally, the acetic acid, butanoic acid, and naphthalene causing off-flavor were identified in CC, but not in Job's tears Cheonggukjang. The strength of odor through sensory evaluation was by far the lowest in CAJT among the groups. From the findings, it had shown that Job's tears Cheonggukjang would be produced successfully when the ratio of 4:1 (soybean : Job's tears) is employed. Also, it was proved that appropriate ratio of Job's tears addition makes Cheonggukjang odor-reduced and well accepted by people.

Changes in the Functionality of Cheonggukjang During Fermentation Supplemented with Angelica gigas, Rehmanniae Radix, and Red ginseng (당귀.지황.홍삼 첨가에 따른 발효 청국장의 기능성 변화 연구)

  • Choi, Eun-Ji;Lee, Jung-Sook;Chang, Hung-Bae;Lee, Mee-Sook;Jang, Hae-Dong;Kwon, Young-In
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.467-474
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    • 2010
  • Cheonggukjang is one of the traditional fermented soy-based foods in Korean diets. Studies in cell cultures, humans have revealed anti-hypertension, anti-stress, anticancer, antioxidant, immune enhancing effects. Angelica gigas, Rehmanniae radix, and Red ginseng are popular medicinal plants and widely used for oriental medicine. In this study a strategy had been developed to mobilize beneficial phenolics from Angelica gigas, Rehmanniae radix, and Red ginseng combined with fermented soy by Cheonggukjang fermentation for antioxidant and Type II diabetes management. The quality and functional characteristics of Chenggukjang fermented with Angelica gigas, Rehmanniae radix and Red ginseng. Cheonggukjang (CKJ), Angelica gigas Cheonggukjang (CKJ-DD), Rehmanniae radix Cheonggukjang (CKJ-RG), Angelica gigas and Rehmanniae radix Cheonggukjang (CKJ-DD+RG) and Red ginseng Cheonggukjang (CKJ-RED) were evaluated. The mobilized phenolic profile was evaluated for antioxidant activity and the potential to inhibit ${\alpha}$-amylase linked to hyperglycaemia. This research has important implications for the development of functional soy-based-fermented foods enriched with Angelica gigas, Rehmanniae radix and Red ginseng phenolics for oxidative stress - induced diabetic complications. Furthermore, Hunter's color values of 5 types cheonggukjang, lightness (L-values), redness (a-values) and yellowness (b-values) were evaluated. Free amino acid content of CKJ-RED (0.993 mg/gd. w.) showed higher than that of CKJ (0.205 mg/g-d.w.).

Effects of Cheonggukjang Powder Made with Black Foods on Liver Function and Lipid Composition in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats (블랙푸드로 만든 청국장분말 식이가 Streptozotocin으로 유도된 당뇨 쥐의 간 기능과 지질 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hyeon-Sook;Yang, Kyung-Mi
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.699-707
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects of Cheonggukjang powder made using black foods on liver function and lipid composition in streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The experimental animals were divided into 5 groups and fed the following for 7 weeks; normal diet(control), STZ+normal diet(Diabetic), STZ+50% soybean Cheonggukjang supplementation(DSC), STZ+44.5% yakkong Cheonggukjang supplementation(DYC), and STZ+supplementation with 50% yakkong black food(black rice, black sesame seeds, and sea tangle) Cheonggukjang(DYCB). The results showed that the body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of the STZ-induced diabetic groups were significantly lower than those of the control group. In the Diabetic group, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase(GPT) activities and total bilirubin content in serum were significantly greater than those in the control group. However, supplementation with Cheonggukjang reduced these values. In the Diabetic group, the triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol contents in the serum and liver tissue, as well as the atherogenic index(AI) and cardiac risk factors(CRF) were significantly higher than the corresponding values in the control group, although the high-density lipoprotein(HDL)-cholesterol and phospholipid contents were significantly lower than those in the control group. However, supplementation with Cheonggukjang normalized the changed lipid composition in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. Further, yakkong Cheonggukjang and black food contaning yakkong Cheonggukjang normalized AI and CRF.

Change of Isoflavone Content during Manufacturing of Cheonggukjang, a Traditional Korean Fermented Soyfood

  • Jang, Chan-Ho;Lim, Jin-Kyu;Kim, Jeong-Hwan;Park, Cheon-Seok;Kwon, Dae-Young;Kim, Yong-Suk;Shin, Dong-Hwa;Kim, Jong-Sang
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.643-646
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    • 2006
  • Cheonggukjang, a popular Korean traditional fermented soyfood, was manufactured by fermenting steamed soybeans in a temperature-controlled room by traditional methods in which steamed soy was exposed to rice straw naturally rich in Bacillus species. B. subtilus and B. licheniformis were found to be the major microorganisms present in cheonggukjang made by the traditional method. We analyzed the composition of 12 kinds of isoflavones and their glycosides present in cheonggukjang collected at various fermentation times. Total isoflavone content in raw soybeans was 2,867 mg/kg and this decreased by about 50% during cooking prior to cheonggukjang preparation. However, total isoflavone content changed slightly during 45 hr of fermentation. Total content of isoflavone glycosides, consisting mainly of daidzin, glycitein, and genistin, decreased by about 40% during 45 hr of fermenting cooked soybeans. The contents of tree isoflavones including daidzein, glycitein, and genistein showed a dramatic increase during fermentation in cheonggukjang preparation, with a 2.9-, 54.0-, and 20.6-fold increase in concentration, respectively, by the end of fermentation (45 hr). In conclusion, short-term fermentation of cooked soybeans with Bacillus species caused conspicuous changes in the composition of isoflavone derivatives, and its implication in terms of health benefits deserves further study.

Manufacturing and Quality Characteristics of the Cheonggukjang Fermented Using Starter Derived from Rice Straw Removed Bacillus cereus Selectively (Bacillus cereus가 선택적으로 제거된 볏짚유래 스타터를 이용한 청국장의 제조 및 품질특성)

  • Lee, Eun-Sil;Song, Ye-Ji;Kim, Kwang-Pyo;Yim, Eun-Jung;Jeong, Do-Yeon;Cho, Sung-Ho
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate quality characteristics of the Cheonggukjang produced using rice straw-derived Bacillus cereus free starter culture (RiBS1). The Cheonggukjang was prepared in 0.1 and 1.0% inoculum concentrations of starter culture and fermented from 12 hr to 72 hr at 40 and $50^{\circ}C$. Amino-nitrogen contents after 48 hr fermentation were 559.6~590.2 mg% and 393.8~494.0 mg% at 40 and $50^{\circ}C$, respectively. Sensory evaluation showed that the Cheonggukjang fermented using RiBS1 starter for 48 hr at $50^{\circ}C$ was better than the control. And we inspected on B. cereus and biogenic amine in the Cheonggukjang produced using RiBS1 starter. As a results, B. cereus was not detected and histamine and tyramine of biogenic amine were $5.53{\pm}0.13{\sim}39.96{\pm}0.62mg/kg$. This research results showed that rice straw-derived B. cereus free starter culture (RiBS1) will be produce the Cheonggukjang with good flavour and taste.