• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cheonggukjang

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Identification of Novel Bacillus subtilis IDCC 9204 Producing a High-Level Fibrinolytic Enzyme and Properties of NK-IL9204 (고농도 혈전용해효소를 생산하는 신규 Bacillus subtilis IDCC 9204의 분리 및 NK-IL9204의 효소학적 특성)

  • Lee, Seung-Hun;An, Gwangmin;Kim, Heu-Hang;Kang, Jae-Hoon;Kang, Dae-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.600-606
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    • 2012
  • A Bacillus sp. that produces fibrinolytic enzyme was isolated from Cheonggukjang, a traditional Korean soybean-fermented food. According to 16S rRNA gene base sequencing, the bacillus was identified as a variety of Bacillus subtilis, and named Bacillus subtilis IDCC 9204. Fibrinolytic enzyme NK-IL9204 was stable up to $60^{\circ}C$ and within pH range of 5-10. Purified NK-IL9204 was detected through fibrin zymography. The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the enzyme were estimated to be 27.7 kDa and 6.7 by SDS-PAGE and 2D electrophoresis, respectively. Its amino acid sequence was similar to that of nattokinase (identities 99.5%) and different from that of nattokinase BPN (identities 86.4%). The plasma fibrinolytic activity of NK-IL9204 was measured by euglobulin clot lysis times (ECLT). The NK-IL9204 was orally administered to SD rats for 3 weeks (1,000 FU/rat/day). The ECLT was significantly shortened by supplementation of NK-IL9204.

Enhancement of the Thermostability of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CH51 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CH51이 생산하는 혈전용해효소의 열안정성 개선)

  • Kim, Jieun;Choi, Kyoung-Hwa;Kim, Jeong Hwan;Song, Young-Sun;Cha, Jaeho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 2013
  • AprE51 from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CH51 is a 27 kDa subtilisin-like protease with fibrinolytic activity. AprE51-6 showing increased catalytic activity was produced previously. To enhance the thermostability of AprE51-6, 2 residues, Gly-166 and Asn-218 based on B. subtilis subtilisin E were mutated by site-directed mutagenesis. The results of the mutational analysis showed that substitution of arginine for Gly-166 (AprE51-7) increased the fibrinolytic activity 1.8-fold. An N218S mutant (AprE51-8) also increased the fibrinolytic activity up to 4.5-fold in a fibrin plate assay. Purified AprE51-7 and AprE51-8 mutants had a 1.9- and a 2.5-fold higher $k_{cat}$, respectively, and a 2.1-1.9-fold lower $K_m$, respectively. This resulted in a 3.8- and a 4.7-fold increase in catalytic efficiency ($k_{cat}/K_m$), respectively, relative to that of wild-type AprE51. AprE51-8 had a broader pH range than AprE51-6 and nattokinase, especially at an alkaline pH value. In addition, AprE51-8 showed higher thermostability than AprE51-6 at $60^{\circ}C$. The half-lives of AprE51-7 and AprE51-8 at $50^{\circ}C$ were 21.5 and 27.3 min, respectively, which are 2.0 and 2.6 times longer, respectively, than that of the wild-type AprE51.

Isolation and Identification of Bacteriocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria (유용 박테리오신을 생산하는 유산균의 분리와 동정)

  • Hong, Sung Wook;Bae, Hyo Ju;Chang, Jin Hee;Kim, So-Young;Choi, Eun-Young;Park, Beom Young;Chung, Kun Sub;Oh, Mi-Hwa
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.153-159
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    • 2013
  • Lactic acid bacteria are microorganisms that are closely associated with human and/or animal environments, and are categorized as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) organisms due to their ubiquitous appearance in foods and their contribution to the healthy microflora of mucosal surfaces. This study was performed to isolate and identify lactic acid bacteria with antagonistic effects against food-borne pathogens. A total of 3,000 acid-producing bacteria were isolated from infant feces, cattle feces, goat feces, dog feces, pig feces, vaginal tracts, vegetables, fruits, Kimchi, Jeotgal, fermented sausages, raw milk, cheese, yogurt, Cheonggukjang, Meju, and Makgeolli cultured on MRS agar with 0.05% bromocresol purple. For the isolation of bacteriocin-producing bacteria, the diameter of the clear zone was measured on MRS agar plates. Twenty-six isolates exhibited strong antibacterial activity against indicator strains such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Lactic acid bacteria were identified as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilactici by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results of this study suggest that the isolates could be used as potential probiotic starters for functional food applications.

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Characterization of Bacillus licheniformis SCK A08 with Antagonistic Property Against Bacillus cereus and Degrading Capacity of Biogenic Amines (Bacillus cereus에 대한 길항적 저해 작용과 biogenic amines 분해 능력을 지닌 Bacillus licheniformis SCK A08 균의 특성)

  • Lee, Eon Sil;Kim, Yong Sang;Ryu, Myeong Seon;Jeong, Do Yeon;Uhm, Tai Boong;Cho, Sung Ho
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.40-46
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    • 2014
  • We have screened Bacillus strains suitable for the fermentation of soybean products with respect to the control of Bacillus cereus and the reduction of biogenic amines. Of 26 isolates, a strain named as the SCK A08 carried antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and Staphylococcus aureus, major food poisoning species in soybean products. PCR analysis revealed that the SCK A08 strain did not contain genes for Bacillus cereus toxins including nonhemolytic enterotoxin, hemolytic enterotoxin, cytotoxin K, cereulide and certrax. The SCK A08 strain could degrade histamine, tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine by 67.41%, 76.59%, 57.32%, and 50.69%, respectively, during fermentation in cooked soybeans containing 0.5% (w/w) of each biogenic amine. The morphological and biochemical properties and phylogenetic relationships based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate was most closely related to Bacillus licheniformis. Use of the strain SCK A08 would be a potential measure to overcome two hygienic problems that were frequently faced during manufacture of traditionally fermented soybean products.

Properties of Antimicrobial Substances Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CJW15 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SSD8 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CJW15와 SSD8이 만드는 항균물질들의 특성)

  • Liu, Xiaoming;Shim, Jae Min;Yao, Zhuang;Lee, Jae Yong;Lee, Kang Wook;Kim, Hyun-Jin;Ham, Kyung-Sik;Kim, Jeong Hwan
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2016
  • Two Bacillus strains, CJW15 and SSD8, with strong antibacterial activities were isolated from cheonggukjang. Both were identified as B. amyloliquefaciens strains after gene sequencing of rRNA and recA. CJW15 strongly inhibited the growth of B. cereus (ATCC14579), Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC19111), and Lactococcus lactis (ATCC11454). In comparison, SSD8 inhibited the growth of B. cereus (ATCC14579) and Enterococcus faecium (ATCC19953). The antibacterial activities of the two strains were not affected when exposed to a temperature of $100^{\circ}C$ for 15 min and were quite stable in acidic (pH 3) and alkaline (pH 12) pH conditions. Enzymatic treatments (trypsin, pepsin, proteinase K, and protease) had no effect on the activity of CJW15, but reduced the activity of SSD8 by half. Both isolates possess genes involved in the synthesis of lipopeptides (e.g. surfactin, fengycin, iturin, and iturin A), and genes encoding subtilin, a bacteriocin. Moreover, both isolates have fibrinolytic activities as well.

α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity and protease characteristics produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens로부터 생산된 protease 특성 및 α-glucosidase 저해활성)

  • Lee, Rea-Hyun;Yang, Su-Jin;Hwang, Tae-Young;Chung, Shin-Kyo;Hong, Joo-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.727-734
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    • 2015
  • In this study, three GRAS (generally recognized as safety) strain was isolated from Doenjang and Cheonggukjang and identified as a protease-producing microorganism, following the appearance of a clear zone around its colony when cultured on a medium containing skim milk. Based on an analysis of the nucleotide sequence of 16S ribosomal RNA, the strains wereas identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and wereas therefore named Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CDD5, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CPD4, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CGD3. Here, we analyzed the protease and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the three B. amyloliquefaciens strains. Among the isolated strains, B. amyloliquefaciens CGD3 exhibited the highest protease activity (9.21 U/mL, 24 hr). The protease activities of B. amyloliquefaciens CDD5 and B. amyloliquefaciens CPD4 reached 1.14 U/mL and 8.02 U/mL, respectively, at 48 hr. The proteases from the three B. amyloliquefaciens strains showed the highest activities within a pH range of 8.0-9.0 at $50^{\circ}C$, and casein was found to be the preferred substrate on evaluating enzyme activity in the substrate specificity assay. The B. amyloliquefaciens strains exhibited maximal growth when the nutrient broth medium had an initial pH within the range of 5.0-10.0, 6-9% sodium chloride (NaCl), and 5% glucose. B. amyloliquefaciens CDD5 exhibited a low ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition rate (5.32%), whereas B. amyloliquefaciens CPD4 and B. amyloliquefaciens CGD3 exhibited relatively higher inhibition rates of 96.89% and 97.55%, respectively.

The Effect of $\gamma$-PGA on NC/Nga Mice, a Mouse Model for Mite Antigen-induced Atopic Dermatitis (집먼지 진드기 항원으로 아토피 피부염을 유발한 NC/Nga 생쥐에 미치는 $\gamma$-PGA의 효과)

  • Jang, Soon-Nam;Kim, Kum-Lan;Yun, Mi-Young;Kang, Sang-Mo
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.53-63
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    • 2010
  • As one of the mucous components of Cheonggukjang, traditional fermented soybean paste, $\gamma$-PGA is a natural substance with diverse functions. In this paper, an in-vivo experiment has been performed using NC/Nga mice in order to find out the efficacy of $\gamma$-PGA in human atopic dermatitis. The NC/Nga mice with BMAC-induced atopic dermatitis were administered $\gamma$-PGA (PGA-HM) with 300 kDa and low-molecular $\gamma$-PGA (PGA-LM), respectively. As a result, a significant decrease in clinical skin severity score was detected in the group that was administered PGA-LM. In terms of serum IgE levels, a significant decline was observed in PGA-LM, compared to the control group. The serum IgG1 levels also decreased more in PGA-LM than in the control group. However, no significant difference was observed in both groups. To witness the induction of $CD4^+CD25^+foxp3^+$ Treg cells, mRNA was sampled from the back of PGA-HM- and PGA-LM-administered NC/Nga mice with atopic dermatitis. In terms of the production amount of foxp3 mRNA, which was measured in real-time PCR, the group that was administered PGA-LM was twice as high as the control group. According to a biopsy on the skin on the backs of the mice, the experimental group was also far lower than the control group in terms of epidermis thickness, mast cell infiltration and the number of $CCR3^+$ cells. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the atopic dermatitis symptoms decreased more in the PGA-LM-administered NC/Nga mice than the PGA-HM-administered group by facilitating $CD4^+CD25^+foxp3^+$ Treg cells and suppressing the activity of eosinophils and production of IgE and pro-inflammatory cytokines.