• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cheonggukjang

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Compilation of volatile flavor compounds in Cheonggukjang and Doenjang (청국장과 된장의 휘발성 향기성분 데이터베이스)

  • Baek, Hyung Hee
    • Food Science and Industry
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.24-49
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    • 2017
  • Volatile flavor compounds of cheonggukjang and doenjang, which are the most representative Korean soybean fermented foods, were compiled throughout literature review. Total of 225 and 404 volatile flavor compounds were found in cheonggukjang and doenjang, respectively. The most characteristic volatile flavor compounds in cheonggukjang are thought to be pyrazine compounds. In addition, acids, such as 2-methyl propanoic acid, butanoic acid, 2-methyl butanoic acid, and 3-methyl butanoic acid, contribute to aroma characteristics of cheonggukjang. On the other hand, ester compounds are the most predominant volatile flavor compounds in doenjang. Ninety six ester compounds were detected in doenjang while 22 ester compounds were identified in cheonggukjang. Pyrazine compounds and acids also play an important role in the flavor of doenjang. Compilation of volatile flavor compounds from cheonggukjang and doenjang will provide basic information to food industry to understand and improve aroma characteristics of cheonggukjang and doenjang.

Study on Quality Characteristics of Fish Paste Containing Cheonggukjang Powder (청국장 분말을 첨가한 어묵의 품질 특성)

  • Park, Bock-Hee;Cho, Hee-Sook;Park, Seoung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.213-219
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to promote the utilization of fish paste containing four different amounts (0%: control, 2, 4, and 6%) of cheonggukjang powder. For Hunter color values, L values of samples decreased as concentration of cheonggukjang powder increased, and a and b values increased. Folding tests for all samples showed good flexibility. In the texture meter test, hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness increased according to increasing concentrations of cheonggukjang powder. However, gumminess and brittleness of fish paste were reduced upon addition of cheonggukjang powder. In the sensory evaluation, fish paste prepared with 2% cheonggukjang powder was more preferred over other fish pastes. This study suggests that addition of 2% cheonggukjang powder to fish paste could be a good way to increase cheonggukjang powder without decreasing texture acceptability.

Differences in Manufacturing Process and Quality between Cheonggukjang for Use in the Raw and Cheonggukjang for Stew

  • Seo, Byoung-Joo;Kim, Young-Ho;Kim, Jong-Kyu
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.1279-1284
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    • 2008
  • When cheonggukjgang was manufactured using a Bacillus subtilis CH10-1 starter culture, a short-term fermentation for 14-18 hr appeared to be the optimal for the raw cheonggukjang to avoid the formation of a bitter taste and to contain a high concentration of free sugars, whereas a long-term fermentation for more than 4 days was the optimal for the cheonggukjang for stew in order to contain a high concentration of free amino and organic acids, which are responsible for sweet, savory, and bitter tastes present in stewed cheonggukjang, During activation of murine splenic T cells with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the presence of either poly-$\gamma$-glutamic acid ($\gamma$-PGA) or partially hydrolyzed $\gamma$-PGA resulted in reduction in the level of interferon-$\gamma$ production and enhancement in the level of interleukin-5 production, possibly due to suppression of Th1 activity and augmentation of Th2 activity. Taken together these results indicate that the raw cheonggukjang and the cheonggukjang for stew are different in their quality and taste as well as immunomodulating activity.

Changes in Fatty Acid Composition and Sensory Characteristics of Cheonggukjang by Addition of Walnut (호두 첨가가 청국장의 지방산 조성 및 관능적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hwa-Young;Choi, Hee-Eun;Jo, Young-In;Choi, Ung-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.628-634
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this study was to determine the changes in fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of cheonggukjang containing walnuts at 0, 10, 20, or 30%. Amino nitrogen content was decreased with increasing content of walnuts. However, cheonggukjang containing 30% of walnuts met the standard of food sanitation act. Volatile basic nitrogen contents of cheonggukjang containing walnuts was lower than that of cheonggukjang containing no walnut. There was no significant difference in total amino acid content for cheonggukjang containing 0%, 10%, or 20% of walnuts. However, total amino acid content in cheonggukjang containing 30% of walnuts was significantly lower than that in cheonggukjang containing 0%, 10%, or 20% of walnuts. The content of essential amino acid in cheonggukjang containing 30% of walnuts was also significantly lower than that in cheonggukjang containing 0%, 10%, or 20% of walnuts. Saturated fatty acid content was decreased significantly from 16.7% to 3.6% when the content of was increased from 0% to 30%. Total unsaturated fatty acid contents was increased with increasing amounts of walnut added to cheonggukjang. Result of sensory evaluation revealed that the taste and overall quality of cheonggukjang made with 10~20% walnuts were significantly higher compared to those of ordinary cheonggukjang. These results suggest that cheonggukjang made with 10~20% walnuts could be developed as a novel fermented food.

Effects of Cheonggukjang on Immune Responses and Gastrointestinal Functions in Rats

  • Lee, Chang-Hyun;Yang, Eun-In;Song, Geun-Seoup;Chai, Ok-Hee;Kim, Young-Soo
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.19-23
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    • 2006
  • Effects of cheonggukjang on immunohistochemical reactions in gastrointestinal (GI) tract of rats were investigated. $CD4^+/CD8^+$ immunoreactive cells of cheonggukjang-fed diet groups were more strongly stained in lamina propria of mucosa and submucosa than those of basal diet group. Universal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive density in colon was mildly stained in surface epithelium and mucous secretory gland, and strongly stained in submucosa and myenteric plexus in muscle layers of all cheonggukjang-fed diet groups. Protein kinase C-${\alpha}$ immunoreactive cells in colons of 15 and 25% cheonggukjang-fed diet groups were more strongly stained in mucosa, submucosa, and muscle layers than those of basal diet group. These results indicate mucosal immune activity, gastrointestinal motility, blood circulation, and physiological activities of enteroendocrine cells in GI tract could be increased with cheonggukjang intake.

Effects of Cheonggukjang and Doenjang on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

  • Lee, Chang-Hyun;Song, Geun-Seoup;Kim, Young-Soo
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.553-557
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    • 2008
  • The effects of cheonggukjang and doenjang on bone mineral density, trabecular area and cortical thickness of the tibia, and serum osteocalcin level in ovariectomized rats were investigated. After 4 weeks, bone mineral density, bone trabecular area, the cortical thickness index, and serum osteocalcin level were analyzed. The cheonggukjang and doenjang diet groups showed significant prevention of ovariectomized (OVX)-related body weight gain. Whole body bone mineral density of the OVX group was significantly lower than that of the sham group, whereas the cheonggulgang and doenjang diets resulted in complete restoration of bone mineral density. Trabecular area in the proximal diaphysis and cortical thickness in the distal diaphysis of the tibia were increased significantly in the cheonggukjang and doenjang diet fed groups. The cheonggukjang and doenjang diets significantly reduced serum osteocalcin level in the OVX rats. These results suggest that cheonggukjang and doenjang might have inhibitory effects on osteoporosis, by showing accelerated bone formation in OVX rats.

Properties of Cheonggukjang Fermented with Bacillus Strains with High Fibrinolytic Activities

  • Jeong, Woo-Ju;Lee, Ae-Ran;Chun, Ji-Yeon;Cha, Jae-Ho;Song, Young-Sun;Kim, Jeong-Hwan
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.252-259
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    • 2009
  • We previously isolated Bacillus strains with high fibrinolytic activities (FAs) from cheonggukjang prepared by traditional ways. To test their potential as starters for cheonggukjang, soybean was fermented for 72 hr at $37^{\circ}C$ with each isolate and a control lab strain: B. subtilis CH3-25 (BS3-25), B. amyloliquefaciens CH51 (BA51), B. amyloliquefaciens CH86-1 (BA86-1), and B. subtilis 168 (BS168, control, lab strain). Viable cell numbers of all cheonggukjang samples rapidly increased and reached about $10^9$ CFU/g after 6 hr. During 72 hr, the initial pH of 6.3 rapidly increased to 8.1$\sim$8.2 for cheonggukjang fermented with BS3-25 or BA86-1, and 7.3 for those with BA51 or BS168. FAs and protease activities (acid, neutral, and alkaline) rapidly increased in cheonggukjang fermented with BS3-25, BA51, or BA86-1 during the first 12 hr. On the other hand, those of cheonggukjang fermented with BS168 slightly increased during the first 36 hr. There were significant changes in acid and neutral protease activities in cheonggukjang fermented with BA51 or BA86-1 during the 24 hr. Rapid increases of $\beta$-glucosidase activity corresponded well with rapid increases of $\alpha$-amylase and $\alpha$-galactosidase activities in addition to increases in antioxidant activities and the TPCs (total phenolic contents). The highest increase in the TPCs was observed in cheonggukjang fermented with BA86-1 while the least was that fermented with BS168.

Physicochemical Properties of Cheonggukjang with Fermentation Period for a Variety of Soybean Cultivars (콩 품종별 발효기간에 따른 청국장의 이화학적 특성)

  • Baek, Ji Eun;Choi, Yoon Hee;Song, Jin;Yun, Hong Tai;Choi, Hye Sun;Park, Shin Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.742-750
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    • 2014
  • This study was done in order to investigate the changes in quality of Cheonggukjang for soybean cultivars during fermentation. Cheonggukjang of 14 cultivars that were inoculated with Bacillus subtilis 15893 was produced, and, then, it was measured for hardness, proximate composition, amino nitrogen, enzyme activity, and total aerobic bacteria counts. In a raw bean, the highest hardness value was 16,975 g from Sunyu. In a steaming bean, Jangwon had the highest hardness value and the lowest aerobic bacteria counts of forty-eight hours fermented Cheonggukjang. Saedanbaek, whose protein contents was highest in raw bean, was also highest in Cheonggukjang. The amino nitrogen content of twenty-four hours fermented Cheonggukjang was highest in Saeol and Sunyu while forty-eight hours fermented Cheonggukjang was highest in Singi, Daol, and Milyang 231. In the protease activity, Saedanbaek had the highest and total aerobic bacteria count that were either increased or held as time went on ; twenty-four hours fermented Cheonggukjang was highest in Milyang 231 and Keunol while forty-eight hours fermented Cheonggukjang was highest in Chunsang.

The Effects of Methanol Extract from Cheonggukjang in T98G Cells and Early Stage of Focal Ischemia Rodent Models (청국장 메탄올 추출물이 T98G 세포와 허혈성 뇌졸중 백서에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Kyung-Hoon;Kim, Doh-Hee;Song, Kwan-Young;Lee, Seog-Won;Han, Sung-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.965-972
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Cheonggukjang extract in in-vitro and in-vivo models. T98G-human glioblastoma cells were pretreated with various concentrations (1~10 mg/mL) of Cheonggukjang extract for 24 h and then exposed to $H_2O_2$ (1 mM) for 3 h. The neuroprotective effects of Cheonggukjang extract were measured using a CCK-8 kit assay, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. The early stage focal ischemia rodent model was used as the in-vivo neurotoxicity model. Various concentrations (10~200 mg) of Cheonggukjang extract were administered to the animal models for 1 week. Peripheral blood was analyzed for glutathione peroxidase (GPx) expression by ELISA, and infarct volume reduction was analyzed by TTC staining. Cheonggukjang extract significantly (p<0.05) increased cell viability in T98G cells against $H_2O_2$ as well as against the induced neurotoxicity. Indeed, treatment with the Cheonggukjang extract induced a decrease in ROS and LDH expression and increased TAC significantly (p<0.05). However, Cheonggukjang extract did not induce a decrease in infarct volume or an increase in GPx expression in the in-vivo model. Despite the limitation in neuroprotection, Cheonggukjang extract may be useful for treating ROS injury.

Changes in the Quality Characteristics and Antioxidative Activities of Cheonggukjang prepared Using Hazelnut (개암 첨가가 청국장의 품질과 항산화 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Won-Seok;Lee, Nan-Hee;Choi, Ung-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1229-1234
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    • 2017
  • This study was carried out to investigate the changes in the antioxidant activity of Cheonggukjang with the addition of hazelnut. The number of Bacillus subtilis and the content of crude fat were increased with the addition of hazelnut. The addition of hazelnut made the color of Cheonggukjang lighter. The flavonoid and polyphenol content were sharply increased in proportion to the addition of hazelnut. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of Cheonggukjang was also increased with the addition of hazelnut. Taken together, it was found that the addition of hazelnut had a positive influence on Cheonggukjang by increasing the antioxidant activity.