• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chemoprevention

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The Cancer-Preventive Potential of Panax ginseng - A Review of Human and Experimental Evidence - (인삼(Panax ginseng) 항암 효과에 관한 문헌고찰 - 실험연구와 역학연구 결과를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Joon-Youn;Lee, Duk-Hee;Yun, Taik-Koo;Morgan, Gareth;Vainio, Harri;Shin, Hai-Rim
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.383-392
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    • 2000
  • Objective : We have reviewed the potential cancer preventive and other relevant properties of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, which has been traditionally used as a natural tonic in oriental countries. Data identification and study selection: Publications on Panax ginseng and its relation to cancer were obtained from the Medline database (1983-2000) and by checking reference lists to find earlier reports. The reports cover experimental models and human studies on cancer-preventive activity, carcinogenicity and other beneficial or adverse effects. In addition, possible mechanisms of chemoprevention by ginseng were also considered. Results : Published results from a cohort and two case-control studies in Korea suggest that the intake of ginseng may reduce the risk of several types of cancer. When ginseng was tested in animal models, a reduction in cancer incidence and multiplicity at various sites was noted. Panax ginseng and its chemical constituents have been tested for their inhibiting effect on putative carcinogenesis mechanisms (e.g., cell proliferation and apoptosis, immunosurveillance, angiogenesis); in most experiments inhibitory effects were found. Conclusion : While Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer has shown cancer preventive effects both in experimental models and in epidemiological studies, the evidence is currently not conclusive as to its cancer-preventive activity in humans. The available evidence warrants further research into the possible role of ginseng in the prevention of human cancer and carcinogenesis.

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Cancer Chemoprevention by Tea Polyphenols Through Modulating Signal Transduction Pathways

  • Lin, Jen-Kun
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.561-571
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    • 2002
  • The action mechanisms of several chemopreventive agents derived from herbal medicine and edible plants have become attractive issues in cancer research. Tea is the most widely consumed beverage worldwide. Recently, the cancer chemopreventive actions of tea have been intensively investigated. It have been demonstrated that the active principles of tea were attributed to their tea polyphenols. Recently, tremendous progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by tea and tea polyphenols. The suppression of various tumor biomarkers including growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, cytokine receptor kinases, P13K, phosphatases, ras, raf, MAPK cascades, NㆍFB, IㆍB kinase, PKA, PKB, PKC, c-jun, c-fos, c-myc, cdks, cyclins, and related transducing proteins by tea polyphenols has been studied in our laboratory and others. The IㆍB kinase (IKK) activity in LPS-activated murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) was found to be inhibited by various tea polyphenols including (-) epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), theaflavin (TF-1), theaflavin-3-gal-late (TF-2) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF-3). TF-3 inhibited IKK activity in activated macrophages more strongly than did the other tea polyphenols. TF-3 inhibited both IKK1 and IKK2 activity and prevented the degradation of IㆍBㆍand IㆍBㆍin activated macrophage cells. The results suggested that the inhibition of IKK activity by TF-3 and other tea polyphenols could occur by a direct effect on IKKs or on upstream events in the signal transduction pathway. TF-3 and other tea polyphenols blocked phosphorylation of IB from the cytosolic fraction, inhibited NFB activity and inhibited increases in inducible nitric oxide synthase levels in activated macrophage. TF-3 and other tea polyphenols also inhibited strongly the activities of xanthine oxidase, cyclooxygenase, EGF-receptor tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C. These results suggest that TF-3 and other tea polyphenols may exert their cancer chemoprevention through suppressing tumor promotion and inflammation by blocking signal transduction. The mechanisms of this inhibition may be due to the blockade of the mitogenic and differentiating signals through modulating EGFR function, MAPK cascades, NFkB activation as wll as c-myc, c-jun and c-fos expression.

Immunomodulatory Effects of Hexane Insoluble Fraction of Ficus septica Burm. F. in Doxorubicin-treated Rats

  • Nugroho, Agung Endro;Hermawan, Adam;Nastiti, Kunti;Suven, Suven;Elisa, Pritha;Hadibarata, Tony;Meiyanto, Edy
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5785-5790
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    • 2012
  • The use of chemotherapeutics induces cardiotoxicity and affects immune functions, therefore development of combinatorial agents against cardiotoxicity and immunosuppression needs to be explored. Previous studies of the hexane insoluble fraction (HIF) of an ethanolic extract of Ficus septica leaves showed anticancer effects singly and in combination with doxorubicin on T47D breast cancer cells. In this present study, it was evaluated for its immunomodulatory activities in doxorubicin-treated rats. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups consisting of six rats each as follows: Group 1, receiving oral saline 10 ml/kg BW (control group); Group 2, receiving HIF dose 750 mg/kg BW orally, once daily; Group 3, receiving HIF dose 1.500 mg/kg BW orally, once daily; Group 4, given oral saline 10 ml/kg BW (normal group); Group 5, receiving HIF dose 1.500 mg/kg BW orally, once daily. The rats of group 1-3 were intramuscularly administered with doxorubicin at a dose of 4.67 mg/kg BW at the days 1 and 4 to suppress immune functions. Concomitantly, the rats were treated with saline or HIF for seven consecutive days (1 to 7). Treatment of HIF succeeded in reducing side effects of doxorubicin based on increasing lymphocyte density and phagocytosis activity and capacity of macrophages, as well as increasing the CD8+ blood level and decreasing spleen IL-10 expression. Hexane insoluble fraction of of ethanolic extract of Ficus septica leaves has potential as a protective agent combined with doxorubicin.

Suppressive effects of Lithospermum erythrorhizon extracts on lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of AP-1 and NF-κB via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in mouse macrophage cells

  • Han, Kyu-Yeon;Kwon, Taek-Hwan;Lee, Tae-Hoon;Lee, Sung-Joon;Kim, Sung-Hoon;Kim, Ji-Young
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.328-333
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    • 2008
  • A variety of anti-inflammatory agents have been shown to exert chemopreventive activity via targeting of transcription factors such as NF-${\kappa}B$ and AP-1. Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE) has long been used in traditional oriental medicine. In this study, we demonstrated the inhibitory effects of LE extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated production of inflammatory cytokines. As an underlying mechanism of inhibition, LE extracts reduced LPS-induced transactivation of AP-1 as well as NF-${\kappa}B$ in mouse macrophage cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that LE extracts inhibited the DNA binding activities of AP-1 and NF-${\kappa}B$. In addition, phosphorylation of $I{\kappa}B-{\alpha}$ protein was suppressed by LE extracts. Moreover, LE extracts inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated signaling pathways. Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of LE extracts may be mediated by the inhibition of signal transduction pathways that normally lead to the activation of AP-1and NF-${\kappa}B$. These inhibitory effects may be useful for chemoprevention of cancer or other chronic inflammatory diseases.

Cancer Chemopreventive Effects of Korean Seaweed Extracts

  • Lee, Saet-Byoul;Lee, Joo-Young;Song, Dae-Geun;Pan, Cheol-Ho;Nho, Chu-Won;Kim, Min-Cheol;Lee, Eun-Ha;Jung, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Hyung-Seop;Kim, Yeong-Shik;Um, Byung-Hun
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.613-622
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    • 2008
  • Cancer chemopreventive effects can be exerted through the induction of phase II detoxification enzymes and the inhibition of inflammatory responses. In this study, the cancer chemopreventive effects and anti-inflammatory responses of 30 seaweed extracts were examined. The extracts of Dictyota coriacea and Cutleria cylindrica exhibited the high chemoprevention index, having 4.36 and 4.66, respectively. They also activated antioxidant response element at $100\;{\mu}g/mL$ by about 3-fold while did not activate xenobiotic response element. Seven seaweed extracts, Ishige okamurae, Desmarestia ligulata, Desmarestia viridis, Dictyopteris divaricata, D. coriacea, Sargassum horneri, and Sargassum yezoense, showed significant inhibition on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) production in a dose-dependant manner in $5-20\;{\mu}g/mL$. These seaweed extracts could be used as food materials for cancer chemoprevention. D. coriacea could contain potential chemopreventive agents not only that regulate genes via an ARE-dependent mechanism but also prevent the inflammation through inhibition of NO and $PGE_2$ production.

Chemoprevention of chemical-induced skin cancer by Panax ginseng root extract

  • Sharma, Jyoti;Goyal, Pradeep K.
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.265-273
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    • 2015
  • Background: Cancer has emerged as a major health problem globally as a consequence to the increased longevity of the population, changing the environment and life style. Chemoprevention is a new and promising strategy for reducing cancer burden. Recently, some natural products have been identified for their chemopreventive activity to reduce the cancer incidence. Ginseng is known for its potential to treat various ailments in human beings. The present study was designed to explore the anticancer and antioxidative potential of Panax ginseng against chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in mammals. Methods: Skin tumors were induced in Swiss albino mice by a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene ($100{\mu}g/100{\mu}L$ acetone) and, 2 wks later, promoted by repeated applications of croton oil (thrice in a wk in 1% acetone) till the end of the experiment (i.e., 16 wk). Hydroalcoholic ginseng root extract at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight/d was orally administered at the periinitiation, postinitiation, and peri-post-initiation stages. Results: Ginseng root extract treatment caused a significant reduction in tumor incidence, cumulative number of tumors, tumor yield, and tumor burden, as compared to the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-croton oil-treated control group. Further, biochemical assays revealed a significant enhancement in the levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, vitamin C, and total proteins but a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation levels in both the liver and skin with ginseng root extract treatment, as compared to carcinogen-treated control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that P. ginseng has the potential to become a pivotal chemopreventive agent that can reduce cancer in mammals.

American ginseng attenuates azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice

  • Yu, Chunhao;Wen, Xiao-Dong;Zhang, Zhiyu;Zhang, Chun-Feng;Wu, Xiao-Hui;Martin, Adiba;Du, Wei;He, Tong-Chuan;Wang, Chong-Zhi;Yuan, Chun-Su
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.14-21
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    • 2015
  • Background: Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death, and inflammatory bowel disease is a risk factor for this malignancy. We previously reported colon cancer chemoprevention potential using American ginseng (AG) in a xenograft mice model. However, the nude mouse model is not a gut-specific colon carcinogenesis animal model. Methods: In this study, an experimental colitis and colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis mouse model, chemically induced by azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was established and the effects of oral AG were evaluated. The contents of representative ginseng saponins in the extract were determined. Results: AG significantly reduced experimental colitis measured by the disease activity index scores. This suppression of the experimental colitis was not only evident during DSS treatment, but also very obvious after the cessation of DSS, suggesting that the ginseng significantly promoted recovery from the colitis. Consistent with the anti-inflammation data, we showed that ginseng very significantly attenuated azoxymethane/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis by reducing the colon tumor number and tumor load. The ginseng also effectively suppressed DSS-induced proinflammatory cytokines activation using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay array, in which 12 proinflammatory cytokine levels were assessed, and this effect was supported subsequently by real-time polymerase chain reaction data. Conclusion: AG, as a candidate of botanical-based colon cancer chemoprevention, should be further investigated for its potential clinical utility.