• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chemoprevention

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CHEMOPREVENTION OF SMOKE-RELATED DNA DAMAGE AND CANCER

  • Flora, Silvio-De;Roumen Balansky;Carlo Bennicelli;Anna Camoirano;Maria Bagnasco;Cristina Cartiglia;Elena Tampa;Mariagrazia Longobardi;Alberto Izzotti;Fransesco D Agostini
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.50-51
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    • 2001
  • DNA damage is an essential step in the pathogenesis of cancer and probably of other chronic degenerative conditions related to cigarette smoke (CS), such as atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathies, etc. Although the major goal of primary prevention is to refrain from smoking, chemoprevention by means of dietary and pharmacological agents provides a complementary preventive strategy. In spite of its overwhelming epidemiological importance, experimental studies evaluating CS as a complex mixture are relatively scanty.(omitted)

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CHEMOPREVENTION OF SMOKE-RELATED DNA DAMAGE AND CANCER

  • Flora, Silvio-De;Roumen Balansky;Carlo Bennicelli;Anna Camoirano;Maria Bagnasco;Cristina Cartiglia;Elena Tampa;Elena Tampa;Mariagrazia Longobardi;Alberto Izzotti
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.7-8
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    • 2001
  • DNA damage is an essential step in the pathogenesis of cancer and probably of other chronic degenerative conditions related to cigarette smoke (CS), such as atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathies, etc. Although the major goal of primary prevention is to refrain from smoking, chemoprevention by means of dietary and pharmacological agents provides a complementary preventive strategy. In spite of its overwhelming epidemiological importance, experimental studies evaluating CS as a complex mixture are relatively scanty.(omitted)

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The Effects on Quinone ReductaseInduction of Daucus carota L. (당근 추출 성분의 Quinone reductase 유도활성 효과)

  • 한은주;노승배;배송자
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2000
  • Chemoprevention is one of the major strategies for cancer control. It is well established that dietary factors play an important role in modulating the development of certain types of human cancer. The experiment was conducted to determine quinone reductase(QR) activity induction of Daucus carota L. on HepG2 cells. Among various partition layers of roots of Daucus carota L., the ethyl acetate partition layer(DCMEA) and the n-hexane partition layer(DCMH) tested to be most effective which resulted 2.1 and 1.6 respectively compared to the control value of 1.0. In the case of seeds of Daucus carota L. n-butanol partition layer (DCMB) on HepG2 cells at a dose of 200 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ showed the highest induction activity of QR which was 3.0. These results suggest that potentially useful cancer chemoprevention chemicals could be isolated from DCMEA and DCMH of the roots and DCMB of the seeds of Daucus carota L.

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Chemopreventive Effects of Ginseng on Rat Carcinogenesis

  • Wanibuchi Hideki;Ichihara Toshio;Morimura Keiichirou;Fukushima Shoji
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.277-287
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    • 2002
  • The chemopreventive effects of ginseng on rat carcinogenesis models were investigated, In the present study, the inhibitory effects of white and red ginseng on tumor development were examined using medium-term liver, initiation and medium-term multi-organ carcinogenicity bioassay systems. No modifying potential of the ginsengs was evident in terms of the numbers or areas of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST -P)-positive foci, which is a marker of preneoplastic lesion in rat livers. However, white ginseng, but not red ginseng was found to decrease the incidences of adenocarcinoma of the small intestine and colon in the medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis model. These results indicate that white ginseng may have inhibitory effects on progression stage of rat intestinal carcinogenesis, but the influence is not strong. Ginseng is unlikely to have promoting or inhibitory effects in other organs under the present type of experimental conditions. Possible application on ginseng for chemoprevention of colon cancer in humans, can be concluded given the lack of obvious adverse effects.

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S-(N,N-Diallyldithiocarbamoyl)-N-acetylcysteine: Synthesis and Biochemical Properties Associated with Chemoprevention (S-(N,N-Diallyldithiocarbamoyl)-N-acetylcysteine의 합성 및 발암억제와 관련된 생화학적 특성)

  • 이병훈
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.177-181
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    • 1998
  • Dithiocarbamate and mixed disulfide containing allyl functions were designed and synthesized as putative chemopreventive agents, i.e. N,N-diallyldithiocarbamate (DATC) and S-(N,N-diallyldithiocarbamoyl)-N-acetylcysteine (AC-DATC). DATC and AC-DATC were administered and the activities of cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and microsomal N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) deethylase were assayed in order to test the effects of these organosulfur com-pounds on the detoxification and metabolic activation system of NDEA. The amounts of hepatic glutathione (GSH and GSSG) was also determined. The administration of DATC to rats led to an increase in the activity of GR and to an inhibition of CYP2E1-mediated NDEA deethylation. AC-DATC induced the activity of GR and GST, increased the hepatic GSH content and inhibited the rate of NDEA deethylation. The level of GSSG was decreased as a consequence of the increased activity of GR. These effects may contribute to possible antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic action of the dithiocarbamates investigated.

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Cancer Chemopreventive Potential of Procyanidin

  • Lee, Yongkyu
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.273-282
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    • 2017
  • Chemoprevention entails the use of synthetic agents or naturally occurring dietary phytochemicals to prevent cancer development and progression. One promising chemopreventive agent, procyanidin, is a naturally occurring polyphenol that exhibits beneficial health effects including anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antitumor activities. Currently, many preclinical reports suggest procyanidin as a promising lead compound for cancer prevention and treatment. As a potential anticancer agent, procyanidin has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of various cancer cells in "in vitro and in vivo". Procyanidin has numerous targets, many of which are components of intracellular signaling pathways, including proinflammatory mediators, regulators of cell survival and apoptosis, and angiogenic and metastatic mediators, and modulates a set of upstream kinases, transcription factors, and their regulators. Although remarkable progress characterizing the molecular mechanisms and targets underlying the anticancer properties of procyanidin has been made in the past decade, the chemopreventive targets or biomarkers of procyanidin action have not been completely elucidated. This review focuses on the apoptosis and tumor inhibitory effects of procyanidin with respect to its bioavailability.

Tumor suppressor $p16^{INK4a}$ in Cancer

  • Lee, Mee-Hyun;Choi, Bu-Young;Surh, Young-Joon
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.87-96
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    • 2005
  • [ $p16^{INK4a}$ ] is a tumor suppressor that belongs to the INK4 family of the cyclin D-dependent kinases (cdk) inhibitors. It plays regulatory roles in cell proliferation and in tumorigenesis by interacting with Rb signaling. Abnormally elevated $p16^{INK4a}$ protein expression causes cell cycle arrest (G1/S transition) and loss of cyclin-cdk activity. In many cancers, $p16^{INK4a}$ is altered by mutation, deletion, and promoter methylation. This review summarizes the function of p16 as an important regulator of cancer pathobiology and a promising target fer developing cancer therapeutic and chemopreventive agents.

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