• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chemoprevention

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Sodium Salicylate(NaSaL) Induces Apoptosis of NCI-H1299 Lung Carcinoma Cells via Activation Caspase-3 Protease (NCI-H1299 폐암 세포주에서 Caspase-3 Protease 활성을 통한 Sodium Salicylate(NaSaL)의 세포고사)

  • Shim, Hyeok;Yang, Sei-Hoon;Bak, Sang-Myeon;Jeong, Eun-Taik
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.485-496
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    • 2002
  • Background : Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are useful in the chemoprevention of colon cancers. Continuous NSAID use results in a 40% to 50% reduction in the relative risk of colorectal cancer. The precise mechanism by which NSAIDs prevent and/or cause the regression of colorectal tumors is not known. Some investigators have reported that certain NSAIDs induce apoptosis and alter the expression of the cell cycle regulatory genes in some carcinoma cells when administered at a relatively high concentration. However, the possibility of NSAIDs application as chemopreventive agents in lung cancers remains to be elucidated. To address this question, the human lung cancer cell line NCI-H1299 was used to investigate whether or not NSAIDs might induce the apoptotic death of NCI-H1299 cells. Methods : A viability test was carried out using a MTT assay. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometric analysis and unclear staining(DAPI). The talytic activity of the caspase family was measured by the fluirigenic cleavage of biosubstrates. To define the mechanical basis of apoptosis, western blot was performed to analyze the expression of the death substrates(PARP and ICAD). Results : NaSaL significantly decreased the viability of the NCI-H1299 cells, which was revealed as apoptosis characterized by an increase in the $subG_0/G_1$ population and unclear fragmentation. The catalytic activity of caspase-3 protease began to increase after 24 Hr and reached a peak 30 Hr after treatment with 10 mM NaSaL. In contrast, caspase-6, 8, and 9 proteases did not have a significantly altered enzymatic activity. Consistent with activation of caspase-3 protease, NaSaL induced the cleavage of the protease biosubstrate. Conclusion : NaSaL induces the apoptotic death of NCI-H1299 human lung cancer cells via the activation of caspase-3 protease.

Cancer Chemopreventive Effects of Ginsenoside $Rg_3,\;Rg_5,\;Rh_2$ and BST from Enzymatically Fermented Korean Ginseng Extract

  • Yun Taik-Koo
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.35-46
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    • 2002
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer has been one of the most highly recognized medicinal herbs in the Orient. Previous experiments have demonstrated that $Rg_3,\;and\;Rg_5$ statistically significantly decreased the incidence of benzo(a)pyrene-induced mouse lung tumor, $Rh_2$ showed tendency of decrease and $Rh_1$ showed no effect. It was, therefore, concluded that $Rg_3,\;Rg_5\;and\;Rh_2$ are active cancer chemopreventive components in red ginseng and they either singularly or synergistically act in the prevention of cancer. This study was undertaken to compare the cancer chemopreventive effects of $Rg_3,\;Rg_5\;and\;Rh_2$(purity: more than $60\%$) isolated from fermented ginseng extract and BST fermented ginseng with fortified ginsenoside $Rg_3\;and\;Rh_2$. The cancer chemopreventive effects were investigated in experimental groups treated with benzo(a)pyrene(BP) with ginsenoside $Rg_3,\;Rg_5\;Rh_2\;or\;BST$ at three doses of $50^{\circ}C/ml,\;100^{\circ}C/ml\;and\;200^{\circ}C/ml$ When mice given with $50^{\circ}C/ml$ concentration of ginsenoside $Rg_3$ combined with BP for 6 weeks after BP administration, $Rg_3\;showed\;60\%$ of lung tumor incidence, where as $100^{\circ}C/ml\;and\;200^{\circ}C/ml\;of\;Rg_3$ combined with BP groups had significant decrease of incidence $(40.0\%)$ respectively, with the inhibition rate being $35.5\%.$ While the tumor incidence was not decreased in the group treated with BP and 50 of $Rg_5,$ the incidence was $34.0\%\;and\;32.0\%$ in the group treated with BP and 100 and 200 of $Rg_5$, respectively. These incidences were significantly less than the group treated with BP alone, with the inhibition rate being $45.2\%\;and\;48.4\%,$ respectively. On the other hand, in the group treated with BP and 50 of ginsenoside $Rh_2,$ the tumor incidence was not decreased. However, the incidence was $40.0\%\;and\;38.8\%$ in the experimental treated with BP and 100 and 200 of $Rh_2,$ respectively, with the inhibition rate being $45.2\%\;and\;48.4\%,$ respectively. In addition, the incidence showed the tendency to decrease in the experimental group treated with BP and 50 of BST which contained $16.2\%\;of\;Rh_2,\;15.4\%\;of\;Rg_3\;and\;2.5%\;of\;Rg_5.$ The tumor incidence was $54.0\%$ in this group. In the group treated with 100 and 200 of EST, the incidence was $34.0\%\;and\;30.0\%,$ respectively, the incidences significantly being lower than the group treated with BP alone, with the inhibiting rate being $45.2\%\;and\;51.6\%,$ respectively. The results of this study strongly suggested that ginsenoside $Rg_3,\;Rg_5\;and\;Rh_2$ are the active components of red ginseng having a cancer chemopreventive activity and $Rg_5$ is the strongest cancer chempopreventive among them. On the other hand, the results demonstrating that the incidence of lung tumor was more markedly reduced by BST fermented ginseng with fortified ginsenoside $Rh_2\;or\;Rg_3$ compared to the single component alone, suggest that the combination of these components may remarkablely improve the cancer preventive effect

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Mechanism of Anti-Invasive Action of Docosahexaenoic Acid in SW480 Human Colon Cancer Cell (인체 대장암 세포주 SW480에서 docosahexaenoic acid에 의한 침윤억제 기전)

  • Shin, So-Yeon;Kim, Yong-Jo;Song, Kyoung-Sub;Jing, Kaipeng;Kim, Na-Yeong;Jeong, So-Yeon;Park, Ji-Hoon;Seo, Kang-Sik;Heo, Jun-Young;Kwon, Hyun-Joo;Park, Jong-Il;Park, Seung-Kiel;Kweon, Gi-Ryang;Yoon, Wan-Hee;Hwang, Byung-Doo;Lim, Kyu
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.561-571
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    • 2010
  • Colon cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the western world and the second leading cause of cancer death in Korea. Epidemiology studies have shown a reduced incidence of colon cancer among populations consuming a large quantity of ${\omega}3$-polyunsaturated fatty acids (${\omega}3$-PUFA) of marine origin. Recently, it has been found that ${\omega}3$-PUFA has an antineoplastic effect in several cancers. This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of the anti-invasive effect of ${\omega}3$-PUFA in colon cancer. ${\omega}3$-PUFA, docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) treatment resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth in SW480 human colon cancer cells. In contrast, arachidonic acid (AA), a ${\omega}6$-PUFA, exhibited no significant effect. This action likely involves apoptosis, given that DHA treatment increased apoptotic cells in TUNEL assay. Moreover, invasiveness of SW480 cells was inhibited following treatment of DHA in a dose-dependent manner; in contrast, AA had no effect. The levels of MMP-9 and MMP-2 mRNA decreased after DHA pretreatment. MMP-9 and MMP-2 promoter activities were also inhibited by DHA treatment. The levels of NF-kB and p-IkB protein were down-regulated by DHA pretreatment in a dose dependent manner. In addition, DHA inhibited NF-kB promoter reporter activities. These findings suggest that ${\omega}3$-PUFA may inhibit cancer cell invasion by inhibition of MMPs via reduction of NF-kB in colon cancer. In conclusion, ${\omega}3$-PUFA could be used for chemoprevention and treatment of human colon cancer.

A Retrospective Study of Invasive Bacterial Infections in Children with Asplenia (18세 이하 무비증 환자에서 발생한 침습성 세균 감염증에 대한 후향적 연구)

  • Choe, Yong-Joon;Seo, Euri;Lee, Jina
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.160-167
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Because children with asplenia have an increased risk of fulminant infection associated with a high fatality, chemoprophylaxis, and vaccinations against encapsulated bacteria are recommended. However, there have been few reports of the burden of severe bacterial infection and the current status of chemoprophylaxis and immunization among children with asplenia in Korea. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study including children with asplenia who were treated at our institute between January 1997 and December 2016. Results: From a total of 213 children with asplenia, 114 (53.5%) had congenital asplenia and 58 (27.2%) had functional asplenia. The remaining 41 (19.3%) had acquired asplenia with the median age at splenectomy being 12.2 years (range, 5.0 to 16.9 years); the most common cause of splenectomy was hereditary spherocytosis (39.0%). The chemoprophylaxis rate was 16.4%. The immunization rates were 44.1% for pneumococcus, 53.0% for Haemophilus influenzae type B, and 10.7% for meningococcus. The incidence of invasive bacterial infection among children with asplenia was 0.28/100 person-year; a total of six episodes (2.8%) were observed in five patients with congenital asplenia and one patient with functional asplenia. The median age for these infections was 15 months (range, 4 to 68 months). Five of the six episodes were bacteremia, and the other was meningitis. The most common pathogen was Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=3), followed by H. influenzae (n=1). Three of the six patients (50.0%) died, all of whom had pneumococcal bacteremia. None of the six had chemoprophylaxis or proper vaccinations. Conclusions: Although there is an increased risk of a severe infection proper vaccinations and chemoprophylaxis are still lacking. Physicians should be encouraged to implement appropriate chemoprophylaxis and immunizations for patients with asplenia.

Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ethanol Extract of Malus micromalus Makino in Jeju Island (제주도 자생 제주아그배 (Malus micromalus Makino) 추출물의 항산화와 항염증 활성)

  • Lee, Ju-Yeop;Kang, Min-Chul;Lee, Jung-A;Ko, Kwang-Hyo;Kim, Bong-Seok;Han, Jong-Heon;Kim, Se-Jae;Kim, Gi-Ok
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.327-333
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    • 2009
  • The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract of Malus micromalus were studied in vitro. Ethanol extract of M. micromalus showed scavenging effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radicals. In addition, ethanol extract of M. micromalus inhibited the generation of superoxide anion ($O_2^-$) radical and uric acid by xanthine oxidase. We also investigated the effect of ethanol extract of M. micromalus on NO production in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Ethanol extract of M. micromalus significantly inhibited NO production and this inhibitory action was not due to the cytotoxicity. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was markedly down-regulated by ethanol extract of M. micromalus. These results indicate that the inhibitory action of ethanol extract of M. micromalus on NO production in LPS-stimulated macropages might be due in part to abrogation of iNOS and COX-2 protein induction. Taken together, this study suggests that ethanol extract of M. micromalus could contribute to the chemoprevention and therapy of oxidative stress and inflammation.

Cytotoxic Mechanism of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Human Oral Cancer Cells (인체 구강암 세포주에서 Docosahexaenoic acid에 의한 세포독성 기전)

  • Hong, Tae-Hwa;Kim, Hoon;Shin, Soyeon;Jing, Kaipeng;Jeong, Soyeon;Lim, Hyun;Yun, Donghyuk;Jeong, Ki-Eun;Lee, Myung-Ryul;Park, Jong-Il;Kweon, Gi-Ryang;Park, Seung Kiel;Hwang, Byung-Doo;Lim, Kyu
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.689-697
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    • 2013
  • In the United States, about 40,000 new cases of oral cancer are diagnosed each year and nearly 7,800 patients died from it in 2012. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been found to have anticancer effects in a variety of cancer cell lines and animal models, but their effect in oral cancer remains unclear. This study was designed to examine the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a kind of omega-3 fatty acid) on oral cancer cells and the molecular mechanism of its action. We found that exposure of squamous cell carcinoma-4 (SCC-4) and squamous cell carcinoma-9 (SCC-9) human oral cancer cells to DHA induced growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, in addition to the elevated levels of apoptotic markers, such as cleaved PARP, subG1 portion and TUNEL-positive nuclei, DHA led to autophagic vesicle formation and an increase in autophagic flux, indicating the involvement of both apoptosis and autophagy in the inhibitory effects of DHA on oral cancer cells. Further experiments revealed that the apoptosis and autophagy induced by DHA were linked to inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling by AKT inhibition and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in SCC-9 cells. Together, our results suggest that DHA induces apoptosis- and autophagy-associated cell death through the AMPK/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in oral cancer cells. Thus, utilization of omega-3 fatty acids may represent a promising therapeutic approach for chemoprevention and treatment of human oral cancer.

Effect of Hog Millet Supplementation on Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet (고지방식이로 유도한 지방간 마우스에서 기장 첨가식이가 지방간 및 인슐린 저항성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Mi-Young;Jang, Hwan-Hee;Lee, Jin-Young;Lee, Young-Min;Kim, Jae-Hyun;Park, Jae-Hak;Park, Dong-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.501-509
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    • 2012
  • The dietary intake of whole grains is known to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In our previous study, hog millet (HM, $Panicum$ $miliaceum$ L.) water extract showed the highest anti-lipogenic activity among nine cereal types in 3T3-L1 cells. In this study, the effect of hog millet water extract on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism in mice fed a high fat diet was investigated. Mice were fed a normal-fat diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% or 2% (w/w) HM for 7 weeks. Body weight and food intake were monitored during the study period. Insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), fasting lipid profile, hepatic fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression determined, and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IGTT) were performed at the study's end. The results indicated that 1% and 2% HM diets effectively decreased liver weights, blood TG and T-cholesterol levels (p<0.05), while the HDL-cholesterol level was increased (p<0.05) compared to HFD-induced steatotsis mice. Hepatic lipogenic-related gene ($PPAR{\alpha}$, L-FABP, and SCD1) expressions decreased, whereas lipolysis- related gene (CPT1) expression increased in animals fed the 2% PME diet (p<0.05). In addition, mice fed 1% or 2% HM diet had markedly decreased IGTT and HOMA-IR, compared to the those of the HFD-induced hepatic steatosis control group (p<0.05). These results indicated that HM inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation by regulating fatty acid metabolism, and suggested that HM is useful in the chemoprevention or treatment of high fat-induced hepatic steatosis and hepatic steatosis-related disorders including hyperlipidemia, glucose sensitivity, and insulin resistance.

CHEMOPREVENTION OF COLON CANCER BY THE KOREAN FOOD STUFFS COMPONENTS

  • Kim, Dae-Joong;Shin, Dong-Hwan;Ahn, Byeong-Woo;Jang, Dong-Deuk;Hiroyuki Tsuda;Shoji Fukushima
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.106.2-132
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    • 2002
  • 형질전환 (유전자 결핍; Knockout) Min 마우스를 이용하여 대장암 발생에서 배추, 양배추 주성분인 indole-3-carbinol (I3C)의 대장암 예방효과를 규명하고자 하였다. 실험동물로는 C57BL/6J-Apc$^{min/+}$(Min 마우스)계의 5내지 6주령의 수컷 이형접합체 형질전환 마우스 70마리와 C57BL/6J계의 동일 산자, 동일 주령의 수컷 wildtype 비형질전환 마우스 10kfl를 The Jackson Laboratory 사 (Bar harber, ME, USA)로부터 직접 구입하였다. C57BL/6J-Apc$^{min/+}$계 수컷 이형접합체 형질전환 (Min)마우스 70마리를 각 군 20내지 25마리씩 세군으로 나누었다. Group 1에는 20마리, Group 2에는 25마리, Group 3에는 25마리를 배치하고, I3C 투여 실험군 (Group 1과 2)에는 실험시작시에 AIN-76A 분말사료에 I3C가 각각 100 및 300ppm이 함유되도록 조제하여 공급하였다. 그리고 실험군(Group 3)에는 실험시작부터 종료시까지 AIN-76A 정제고형사료(Teklad사, WI, USA)를 자유로이 급이하였다. 각군간의 체중, 사료 및 음수소비량을 매 2주마다 측정하였고, 10주간 (16주령)의 실험종료시에는 최종체중과 간장, 신장, 비장 등의 장기무게를 측정하여 상대장기 무게비를 산출하였다. 대조군으로서 C57BL/6J계의 동일 산자, 동일 주령의 수컷 wildtype 비형질전환 마우스 10마리는 같은 조건의 사육실에서 AIN-76A 정제고형사료를 33주간 자유로이 급이하였다. 실험동물은 부검전에 하룻밤 동안 절식하고 이산화탄소 흡입 마취하에서 흉대동맥을 절단하여 방혈하고 각 장기(심장, 폐, 위)를 적출하여 생리심염수에 넣어 장기무게를 측정하고 포르말린에 고정하였다. 소장과 대장의 검사를 위하여 위의 식도부위와 직장을 실로 결찰하여 적출하고 생리심염수를 주입하여 팽창시켜, 십이지장, 공장, 및 회장, 그리고 대장으로 나누어 여과지에 펼친 후 포르말린에 고정하였다. 소장과 대장은 육안 및 자동 영상분석길ㄹ 이용한 분석이 끝난 후에 각 부위별로 4-6개의 절편을 작제하여 포르말린에 재고정하고, 통상적인 조직처리과정, 파리핀 포매 및 3-4$\mu$m 두께의 조직절편을 제작하여 H&E 염색을 실시하여 현미경으로 검경하였다. 약 1주일간의 포르말린 고정이 끝난 소장 및 대장을 부위별, 별 종양개수 및 분포를 자동영상분석기(Kontron Co. Ltd., Germany)로 분석하였다. 체의 변화, 장기무게, 사료소비량 및 마리당 종양의 개수에 대한 통계학적 유의성 검증을 위하여 Duncan's t-test로 통계처리 하였고, 종양 발생빈도에 대하여는 Likelihood ration Chi-square test로 유의성을 검증하였다. C57BL/6J-Apc$^{min/+}$계 수컷 이형접합체 형질전환 마우스에 AIN-76A 정제사료만을 투여한 대조군의 대장선종의 발생률은 84%(Group 3; 21/25례)로써 I3C 100ppm 및 300ppm을 투여한 경우에 있어서는 각군 모두 60%(Group 1; 12/20 례, Group 2; 15/25 례)로 감소하는 경향을 나타내었다. 대장선종의 마리당 발생개수에 있어서는 C57BL/6J-Apc$^{min/+}$계 수컷 이형접합체 형질전환 마우스에 AIN-76A 정제사료만을 투여한 대조군은 1.40$\pm$0.24(100%)에 비하여 I3C 저농도 투여 실험군(Group 1; 0.85$\pm$0.23; 61%, P<0.01), 그리고 I3C 고농도 투여 실험군(Group 2 ; 1.32$\pm$0.29 ; 94%)의 순으로 감소하였다. 선종의 크기별 종양의 발생개수의 분포에 있어서 I3C 저농도 투여 실험군에 있어서는 선종의 크기가 3mm이하의 수가 현저하게 감소하였다. C57BL/6J-Apc$^{min/+}$계 수컷 이형접합체 형질전환 마우스에 AIN-76A 정제사료만을 투여한 대조군의 부위별 소장선종의 발생수는 십이지장부위를 제외하고 각 군에서 유의한 변화는 관찰되지 않았다. 십이지장 종양의 발생개수에서만 I3C 저농도 투여 실험군(Group 1 ; 3.11$\pm$0.85)이 대조군 (Group 3: 1.48$\pm$0.35) 및 I3C 고농도 투여 실험군(Group 2: 1.56$\pm$0.47)에 비하여 유의성 있게 증가하였다. (P<0.05). 따라서 I3C은 소장에서는 암예방 효과가 뚜렷하지 않으나, 대장에 대한 암에방 효과가 있을 것으로 생각된다. 소장 및 대장을 제외한 간장, 신장, 비장, 심장, 폐 그리고 위 등의 기타 장기에서의 조직병리학적 변화는 관찰되지 않았다. 소장 및 대장의 종양은 선종(polyps)으로 관찰되었다. 지난 10여년간 형질전환 및 유전자 결핍 실험동물의 종류가 기하 급수적으로 증가하여 이용되고 있다. 가족성 대장 선종성 용종증(FAP)의 대표적인 모델로 이용되고 있는 C57BL/6J-Apc$^{min/+}$계 수컷 이형접합체 형질전환 마우스를 사용하여 배추나 양배추의 주요성분인 Indole-3-carbinol(I3C)의 대장암 예방효과가 있는지를 검색하여 본 결과 AIN-76A정제사료만을 투여한 대조군의 대장선종의 발생률 84%에 비하여 I3C 100 및 300ppm을 투여한 실험군에 있어서 각군 모두 60%로서 감소하는 경향을 나타내었으며, 대장선종의 마리당 발생개수에 있어서는 대조군의 1.40$\pm$1.041를 100%로 환산하였을 경우 I3C 저농도 및 고농도 투여 실험군에서는 각각 약 61%와 94%를 나타내여 감소하였다. 특히 대장선종의 크기별 분포에 있어서 선종의 크기가 3mm이하의 수가 현저하게 감소하였다. 따라서 저농도 I3C의 투여는 실험적 유전성 가족성 대장 선종성 용종증 모델에 있어서 어느정도 암 예방효과가 있는 것으로 생각된다. 그러나 소장 선종의 발생에는 별 영향이 없는 것으로 생각된다. 그러나 본 실험에 사용된 C57BL/6J-Apc$^{min/+}$계 수컷 이형접합체 형질전환 마우스는 실험개시 시점이 7내지 8주령이 경과하여 이미 태생기부터 소장 및 대장의 선종 발생이 진행되어 온 것을 감안하고 특히 비스테로이드계 항염증 소염제(NSAIDS)와 같은 강력한 COX-2억제제가 아님을 고려하면, 상당한 선종의 발생을 억제할 수 있는 가능성이 매우 높다고 생각한다. 또한 이제까지 배추나 양배추 성분의 복합성분들에 대한 실험적 대장암 모델에서의 촉진효과 등에 대한 보고들이 있어 온 점을 고려할 때 위암(Kim 등, 1994) 간암(Kim 등, 1994), 유방암(Grubbs, 등, 1995; Bradlow 등, 1995)에 대한 예방효과가 있을 것으로 생각된다. 앞으로 이러한 종양조직내에서의 COX-2 및 iNOS mRNA와 단백질의 발현정도를 분자병리학적으로 연구중에 있으며, 향후 십자화과식물 성분인 indole-3-carbinol이 마우스뿐 만 아니라 랫드의 화학발암물질에 의한 대장종양에 대한 억제효과 있는지 연구 필요가 있다. Min 마우스와 같은 형질 전환(유전자결핍;knockout) 실험동물을 이용한 새로운 중기 발암성 시험범의 확립을 통한 각종 환경 유해물질의 발암성 유무 및 COX-2 억제작용이 있는 식품인자의 암예방 후보물질을 체계적으로 검색하는데 유용하게 활용될 수 있을 것으로 생각한다.

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Regulatory Mechanism of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (비소세포성 폐암에서 인슐린 양 성장 인자 결합 단백질-3의 발현 조절 기전)

  • Chang, Yoon Soo;Lee, Ho-Young;Kim, Young Sam;Kim, Hyung Jung;Chang, Joon;Ahn, Chul Min;Kim, Sung Kyu;Kim, Se Kyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.56 no.5
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    • pp.465-484
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    • 2004
  • Background : Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) inhibits the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells by inducing apoptosis. Methods : In this study, we investigated whether hypermethylation of IGFBP-3 promoter play an important role in the loss of IGFBP-3 expression in NSCLC. We also studied the mechanisms that mediate the silencing of IGFBP-3 expression in the cell lines which have hypermethylated IGFBP-3 promoter. Results : The IGFBP-3 promoter has hypermethylation in 7 of 15 (46.7%) NSCLC cell lines and 16 (69.7%) of 23, 7 (77.8%) of 9, 4 (80%) of 5, 4 (66.7 %) of 6, and 6 (100%) of 6 tumor specimens from patients with stage I, II, IIIA, IIIB, and IV NSCLC, respectively. The methylation status correlated with the level of protein and mRNA in NSCLC cell lines. Expression of IGFBP-3 was restored by the demethylating agent 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5'-aza-dC) in a subset of NSCLC cell lines. The Sp-1/ Sp-3 binding element in the IGFBP-3 promoter, important for promoter activity, was methylated in the NSCLC cell lines which have reduced IGFBP-3 expression and the methylation of this element suppressed the binding of the Sp-1 transcription factor. A ChIP assay showed that the methylation status of the IGFBP-3 promoter influenced the binding of Sp-1, methyl-CpG binding protein-2 (MeCP2), and histone deacetylase (HDAC) to Sp-1/Sp-3 binding element, which were reversed by by 5'-aza-dC. In vitro methylation of the IGFBP-3 promoter containing the Sp-1/Sp-3 binding element significantly reduced promoter activity, which was further suppressed by the overexpression of MeCP2. This reduction in activity was rescued by 5'-aza-dC. Conclusion : These findings indicate that hypermethylation of the IGFBP-3 promoter is one mechanism by which IGFBP-3 expression is silenced and MeCP2, with recruitment of HDAC, may play a role in silencing of IGFBP-3 expression. The frequency of this abnormality is also associated with advanced stages among the patients with NSCLC, suggesting that IGFBP-3 plays an important role in lung carcinogenesis/progression and that the promoter methylation status of IGFBP-3 may be a marker for early molecular detection and/or for monitoring chemoprevention efforts.