• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chemoprevention

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Amelioration of 1,2 Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) Induced Colon Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Tumor Promotion Response by Tannic Acid in Wistar Rats

  • Hamiza, Oday O.;Rehman, Muneeb U.;Tahir, Mir;Khan, Rehan;Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom;Lateef, Abdul;Ali, Farrah;Sultana, Sarwat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4393-4402
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    • 2012
  • Colon cancer is the third most common malignant neoplasm in the world and it remains an important cause of death, especially in western countries. The toxic environmental pollutant, 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), is also a colon-specific carcinogen. Tannic acid (TA) is reported to be effective against various types of chemically induced toxicity and also carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of TA against DMH induced colon toxicity in a rat model. Efficacy of TA against the colon toxicity was evaluated in terms of biochemical estimation of antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, histopathological changes and expression of early molecular markers of inflammation and tumor promotion. DMH treatment induced oxidative stress enzymes (p<0.001) and an early inflammatory and tumor promotion response in the colons of Wistar rats. TA treatment prevented deteriorative effects induced by DMH through a protective mechanism that involved reduction of oxidative stress as well as COX-2, i-NOS, PCNA protein expression levels and TNF-${\alpha}$ (p<0.001) release. It could be concluded from our results that TA markedly protects against chemically induced colon toxicity and acts plausibly by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities.

Curcumin and its Analogues (PGV-0 and PGV-1) Enhance Sensitivity of Resistant MCF-7 Cells to Doxorubicin through Inhibition of HER2 and NF-kB Activation

  • Meiyanto, Edy;Putri, Dyaningtyas Dewi Pamungkas;Susidarti, Ratna Asmah;Murwanti, Retno;Sardjiman, Sardjiman;Fitriasari, Aditya;Husnaa, Ulfatul;Purnomo, Hari;Kawaichi, Masashi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.179-184
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    • 2014
  • Chemoresistance of breast cancer to doxorubicin is mediated mainly through activation of NF-kB and over expression of HER2. Curcumin and its analogues (PGV-0 and PGV-1) exert cytotoxic effects on T47D breast cancer cells. Suppression of NF-kB activation is suggested to contribute to this activity. The present study aimed to explore the effects of curcumin, PGV-0, and PGV-1 singly and in combination with doxorubicin on MCF-7/Dox cells featuring over-expression of HER2. In MTT assays, curcumin, PGV-0, and PGV-1 showed cytotoxicity effects against MCF-7/Dox with IC50 values of $80{\mu}M$, $21{\mu}M$, and $82{\mu}M$ respectively. These compounds increased MCF-7/Dox sensitivity to doxorubicin. Cell cycle distribution analysis exhibited that the combination of curcumin and its analogues with Dox increased sub G-1 cell populations. Curcumin and PGV-1 but not PGV-0 decreased localization of p65 into the nucleus induced by Dox, indicating that activation of NF-kB was inhibited. Molecular docking of curcumin, PGV-0, and PGV-1 demonstrated high affinity to HER2 at ATP binding site. This interaction were directly comparable with those of ATP and lapatinib. These findings suggested that curcumin, PGV-0 and PGV-1 enhance the Dox cytotoxicity to MCF-7 cells through inhibition of HER2 activity and NF-kB activation.

Natural Products for Cancer-Targeted Therapy: Citrus Flavonoids as Potent Chemopreventive Agents

  • Meiyanto, Edy;Hermawan, Adam;Anindyajati, Anindyajati
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.427-436
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    • 2012
  • Targeted therapy has been a very promising strategy of drug development research. Many molecular mechanims of diseases have been known to be regulated by abundance of proteins, such as receptors and hormones. Chemoprevention for treatment and prevention of diseases are continuously developed. Pre-clinical and clinical studies in chemoprevention field yielded many valuable data in preventing the onset of disease and suppressing the progress of their growth, making chemoprevention a challenging and a very rational strategy in future researches. Natural products being rich of flavonoids are those fruits belong to the genus citrus. Ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata and Citrus aurantiifolia peels showed anticarcinogenic, antiproliferative, co-chemotherapeutic and estrogenic effects. Several examples of citrus flavonoids that are potential as chemotherapeutic agents are tangeretin, nobiletin, hesperetin, hesperidin, naringenin, and naringin. Those flavonoids have been shown to possess inhibition activity on certain cancer cells' growth through various mechanisms. Moreover, citrus flavonoids also perform promising effect in combination with several chemotherapeutic agents against the growth of cancer cells. Some mechanisms involved in those activities are through cell cycle modulation, antiangiogenic effect, and apoptosis induction.Previous studies showed that tangeretin suppressed the growth of T47D breast cancer cells by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. While in combination with tamoxifen, doxorubicin, and 5-FU, respectively, it was proven to be synergist on several cancer cells. Hesperidin and naringenin increased cytotoxicitity of doxorubicin on MCF-7 cells and HeLa cells. Besides, citrus flavonoids also performed estrogenic effect in vivo. One example is hesperidin having the ability to decrease the concentration of serum and hepatic lipid and reduce osteoporosis of ovariectomized rats. Those studies showed the great potential of citrus fruits as natural product to be developed as not only the source of co-chemotherapeutic agents, but also phyto-estrogens. Therefore, further study needs to be conducted to explore the potential of citrus fruits in overcoming cancer.

Signal Transduction Network Leading to COX-2 Induction: A Road Map in Search of Cancer Chemopreventives

  • Surh Young-Joon;Kundu Joydeb Kumar
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2005
  • Cancer is still a major global health concern even after an everlasting strive in conquering this dread disease. Emphasis is now given to chemoprevention to reduce the risk of cancer and also to improve the quality of life among cancer afflicted individuals. Recent progress in molecular biology of cancer has identified key components of the cellular signaling network, whose functional abnormality results in undesired alterations in cellular homeostasis, creating a cellular microenvironment that favors premalignant and malignant transformation. Multiple lines of evidence suggest an elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is causally linked to cancer. In response to oxidative/pro-inflammatory stimuli, turning on unusual signaling arrays mediated through diverse classes of kinases and transcription factors results in aberrant expression of COX-2. Population-based as well as laboratory studies have explored a broad spectrum of chemopreventive agents including selective COX-2 inhibitors and a wide variety of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, which have been shown to target cellular signaling molecules as underlying mechanisms of chemoprevention. Thus, unraveling signaling pathways regulating aberrant COX-2 expression and targeted blocking of one or more components of those signal cascades may be exploited in searching chemopreventive agents in the future.

Indomethacin Induces Apoptosis in NCI-H1299 Human Lung Carcinoma Cells

  • Kim, Bum-Shik;Kim, Soon-Ae;Kim, Mi-Ja;Lee, Hee-Jae;Park, Seung-Joon;Jung, Jee-Chang;Kim, Chang-Ju;Yim, Sung-Vin;Chung, Joo-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.177-181
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    • 2001
  • Recently, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been found to be useful in the chemoprevention of colon cancer. To investigate whether indomethacin, an NSAIDs, induces apoptosis and thus assess the possibility of its application in the chemoprevention of human lung cancer, we have performed MTT assay, TUNEL assay, DAPI staining, and flow cytometric analysis using human lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H1299. Through morphological and biochemical analyses, it was demonstrated that NCI-H1299 cells treated with indomethacin (0.5 mM) exhibit classical apoptotic features. These results suggest that indomethacin induces apoptosis in NCI-H1299 cells and that NSAIDs, including indomethacin, may be a useful tool for the chemoprevention of human lung cancer.

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Cancer Chemoprevention by Dietary Proanthocyanidins

  • Jo, Jeong-Youn;Lee, Chang-Yong
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.501-508
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    • 2007
  • Proanthocyanidins (PACs), also named condensed tannins, are polymers of flavan-3-ols such as (+ )-(gallo)catechin and (-)-epi(gallo)catechin. A proper analysis of the PACs, with difficult challenges due to their complex structures, is crucial in studies of cancer chemoprevention. Cancer is a leading cause of mortality around the world. Many experimental studies have shown that dietary PACs are potential chemopreventive agents that block or suppress against multistage carcinogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo models. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary PACs has been shown effective through different mechanisms of action such as antioxidant, apoptosis-inducing, and enzyme inhibitory activities. Good sources of dietary PACs are nuts, fruits, beans, chocolate, fruit juice, red wine, and green tea. The chemopreventive potential of dietary PACs should be considered together with their bioavailability in humans. The safety issues regarding carcinogenesis and gastrointestinal disorder are also reviewed.

Chemoprevention and Chemoprotection Through Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms (Heme oxygenase-1 유도를 통한 화학 암예방 및 세포보호와 그 분자생물학적 기전)

  • Kim, Eun-Hee;Kim, Sung-Hwan;Na, Hye-Kyung;Surh, Young-Joon
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.97-112
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    • 2006
  • Heme oxygenase(HO)-1 is an important antioxidant enzyme that plays a pivotal role in cellular adaptation and protection in response to a wide array of noxious stimuli. Thus, HO-1 induction has been associated with prevention or mitigation of pathogenesis of various diseases, including acute inflammation, atherosclerosis, degenerative diseases, and carcinogenesis. Recent progress in our understanding of the function of molecules in the cellular signaling network as key modulators of gene transcription sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlyuing HO-1 gene expression. A panel of redox-sensitive transcription factors such as activator protein-1, nuclear factor-kB, and nuclear factor E2-related factor-2, and some of the upstream kinases have been identified as prime regulators of HO-1 gene induction. This review summarizes molecular mechanisms underlying HO-1 expression and the significance of targeted induction of HO-1 as a potential chemopreventive or chemoprotective strategy.

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