• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chemical solution deposition

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Oxygen Control in CdS Thin Film by UV Illumination in Chemical Bath Deposition (용액성장법에서 자외선 조사를 이용한 CdS의 산소함량 제어)

  • Baek, Hyeon-ji;Oh, Ji-A;Seo, Young-Eun;Shin, Hye-Jin;Cho, Sung-Wook;Jeon, Chan-Wook
    • Current Photovoltaic Research
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 2019
  • In this paper, we compared the performance of $Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)_2$ (CIGSSe) thin film solar cell with CdS buffer layer deposited by irradiating 365 nm UV light with 8 W power in Chemcial Bath Deposition (CBD) process. The effects of UV light irradiation on the thin film deposition mechanism during CBD-CdS thin film deposition were investigated through chemical and electro-optical studies. If the UV light is irradiated during the solution process, the hydrolysis of Thiourea is promoted even during the same time, thereby inhibiting the formation of the intermediate products developed in the reaction pathway and decreasing the pH of the solution. As a result, it is suggested that the efficiency of the CdS/CIGSSe solar cell is increased because the ratio of the S element in the CdS thin film increases and the proportion of the O element decreases. This is a very simple and effective approach to control the S/O ratio of the CdS thin film by the CBD process without artificially controlling the process temperature, solution pH or concentration.

Dependence of reaction temperature on the properties of CdS thin films grown by Chemical Bath Deposition (Chemical Bath Deposition으로 성장한 CdS 박막의 반응온도에 대한 특성)

  • Lee, Ga-Yeon;Yu, Hyeon-Min;Lee, Jae-Hyeong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.805-808
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    • 2010
  • In this paper, CdS thin films, which were widey used window layer of the CdS/CdTe and the CdS/$CuInSe_2$ heterojunction solar cell, were grown by chemical bath deposition, and effects of temperature of reaction solution on the structural properties were investigated. Cadmium acetate and thiourea were used as cadmium and sulfur source, respectively. And ammonium acetate was used as the buffer solution. The reaction velocity was increased with increasing temerature of reaction solution. For temperature <= $85^{\circ}C$, as increasing temperature of solution, deposition rate of CdS films was increased by ion-by-ion reaction in the substrate surface, and the crystallinity of the films was improved. However, for temperature <= $55^{\circ}C$, deposition rate was decreased resulting from smaller Cd2+ ion, and the grain size was decreased.

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In-Situ Optical Monitoring of Electrochemical Copper Deposition Process for Semiconductor Interconnection Technology

  • Hong, Sang-Jeen;Wang, Li;Seo, Dong-Sun;Yoon, Tae-Sik
    • Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.78-84
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    • 2012
  • An in-situ optical monitoring method for real-time process monitoring of electrochemical copper deposition (CED) is presented. Process variables to be controlled in achieving desired process results are numerous in the CED process, and the importance of the chemical bath conditions cannot be overemphasized for a successful process. Conventional monitoring of the chemical solution for CED relies on the pH value of the solution, electrical voltage level for the reduction of metal cations, and gravity measurement by immersing sensors into a plating bath. We propose a nonintrusive optical monitoring technique using three types of optical sensors such as chromatic sensors and UV/VIS spectroscopy sensors as potential candidates as a feasible optical monitoring method. By monitoring the color of the plating solution in the bath, we revealed that optically acquired information is strongly related to the thickness of the deposited copper on the wafers, and that the chromatic information is inversely proportional to the ratio of $Cu$ (111) and {$Cu$ (111)+$Cu$ (200)}, which can used to measure the quality of the chemical solution for electrochemical copper deposition in advanced interconnection technology.

Ferroelectric Properties and Microstructure of Pr-Substituted Bismuth Titanate Prepared by Chemical Solution Deposition (화학 용액 증착법으로 얻어진 $Bi_{4-x}Pr_{0.7}Ti_3O_{12}$ 박막의 강유전성과 미세구조에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Dong-Kyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.290-291
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    • 2006
  • The effect of praseodymium substitution on the ferroelectric properties of $Bi_4Ti_3O_{12}$ thin films have been investigated. Ferroelectric Pr-substituted $Bi_4Ti_3O_{12}$ thin films were fabricated by chemical solution deposition onto Pt/Ti/$SiO_2$/Si substrates. The structure and morphology of the films were analyzed using Xray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. About 200-nm-thick BPT films grown at $720^{\circ}C$ exhibited a polycrystalline structure and showed excellent ferroelectric properties with a remanent polarization ($2P_r$) of $28.21\;{\mu}C/cm^2$ at an applied voltage of 5 V. The films a1so demonstrate fatigue-free behavior up to $10^{11}$ read/write switching cycles with 1 MHz bipolar pulses at an electric field of ${\pm}5\;V$.

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Chemical Solution Deposition 방법으로 증착된 $Bi_{0.8}A_{0.2}FeO_3$ (A=Pb, Co) 박막의 자기적 특성에 대한 연구

  • Cha, Jeong-Ok;An, Jeong-Seon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.245-245
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    • 2011
  • $BiFeO_3$ (BFO)박막에 전위금속 Pb와 Co를 각각 치환환 박막을 chemical solution deposition 방법으로 Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) 기판위에 증착하였다. Bi 자리에 Pb와 Co를 20 at.% 치환하였으며, 치환된 $Bi_{0.8}Pb_{0.2}FeO_3$ (BPFO), $Bi_{0.8}Co_{0.2}FeO_3$ (BCFO) 박막의 구조적, 자기적 특성 변화를 BFO 박막과 비교하여 조사하였다. XRD 패턴을 분석한 결과 BPFO, BCFO 박막들은 모두 rhombohedrally distorted perovskite 구조였으며 불순물인 pyrochlore 상이 약하게 관측되었다. 치환이 이루어진 BPFO, BCFO 박막들의 자기 이력곡선은 안정된 포화곡선을 나타냈으며 BFO의 포화값(5 emu/$cm^3$)에 비해 크게 증가된 55 emu/$cm^3$, 35 emu/$cm^3$의 값을 나타냈다. 또한 보자력장(coercive field, Hc)값도 BFO의 500 Oe보다 크게 증가된 1,200 Oe, 800 Oe의 값을 보였다.

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Effect of Reaction Temperature on Properties of CdS Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (화학적으로 증착된 CdS 박막의 반응온도에 따른 물성)

  • Song, Woo-Chang
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.112-117
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, CdS thin films, which were widely used as a window layer of the CdS/CdTe and the $CdS/CuInSe_2$heterojunction solar cell, were grown by chemical bath deposition, and the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films on reaction temperatures were investigated. Cadmium acetate and thiourea were used as cadmium and sulfur source, respectively. And Ammonium acetate was used as the buffer solution. As the reaction temperatures were increased, the deposition rate of CdS fllms prepared by CBD was increased and the grain size was large due to increasing reaction rate in solution, also optical transmittance of the films in visible lights was increased on rising reaction temperatures.

Aerosol Jet Deposition of $CuInS_2$ Thin Films

  • Fan, Rong;Kong, Seon-Mi;Kim, Dong-Chan;Chung, Chee-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.159-159
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    • 2011
  • Among the semiconductor ternary compounds in the I-III-$VI_2$ series, $CulnS_2$ ($CulnSe_2$) are one of the promising materials for photovoltaic applications because of the suitability of their electrical and optical properties. The $CuInS_2$ thin film is one of I-III-$VI_2$ type semiconductors, which crystallizes in the chalcopyrite structure. Its direct band gap of 1.5 eV, high absorption coefficient and environmental viewpoint that $CuInS_2$ does not contain any toxic constituents make it suitable for terrestrial photovoltaic applications. A variety of techniques have been applied to deposit $CuInS_2$ thin films, such as single/double source evaporation, coevaporation, rf sputtering, chemical vapor deposition and chemical spray pyrolysis. This is the first report that $CuInS_2$ thin films have been prepared by Aerosol Jet Deposition (AJD) technique which is a novel and attractive method because thin films with high deposition rate can be grown at very low cost. In this study, $CuInS_2$ thin films have been prepared by Aerosol Jet Deposition (AJD) method which employs a nozzle expansion. The mixed fluid is expanded through the nozzle into the chamber evacuated in a lower pressure to deposit $CuInS_2$ films on Mo coated glass substrate. In this AJD system, the characteristics of $CuInS_2$ films are dependent on various deposition parameters, such as compositional ratio of precursor solution, flow rate of carrier gas, stagnation pressure, substrate temperature, nozzle shape, nozzle size and chamber pressure, etc. In this report, $CuInS_2$ thin films are deposited using the deposition parameters such as the compositional ratio of the precursor solution and the substrate temperature. The deposited $CuInS_2$ thin films will be analyzed in terms of deposition rate, crystal structure, and optical properties.

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Diamond Crystal Growth Behavior by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition According to Pretreatment Conditions

  • Song, Chang Weon;You, Mi Young;Lee, Damin;Mun, Hyoung Seok;Kim, Seohan;Song, Pung Keun
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.241-248
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    • 2020
  • The change of the deposition behavior of diamond through a pretreatment process of the base metal prior to diamond deposition using HFCVD was investigated. To improve the specific surface area of the base material, sanding was performed using sandblasting first, and chemical etching treatment was performed to further improve the uniform specific surface area. Chemical etching was performed by immersing the base material in HCl solutions with various etching time. Thereafter, seeding was performed by immersing the sanded and etched base material in a diamond seeding solution. Diamond deposition according to all pretreatment conditions was performed under the same conditions. Methane was used as the carbon source and hydrogen was used as the reaction gas. The most optimal conditions were found by analyzing the improvement of the specific surface area and uniformity, and the optimal diamond seeding solution concentration and immersion time were also obtained for the diamond particle seeding method. As a result, the sandblasted base material was immersed in 20% HCl for 60 minutes at 100 ℃ and chemically etched, and then immersed in a diamond seeding solution of 5 g/L and seeded using ultrasonic waves for 30 minutes. It was possible to obtain optimized economical diamond film growth rates.

Electrodeposition of SnO2-doped ZnO Films onto FTO Glass

  • Yoo, Hyeonseok;Park, Jiyoung;Kim, Yong-Tae;Kim, Sunkyu;Choi, Jinsub
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2019
  • Well aligned $SnO_2$-doped ZnO nanorods were prepared by single step or 2-step electrochemical depositions in a mixture solution of zinc nitrate hexahydrate, ammonium hydroxide solution and 0.1 M tin chloride pentahydrate. The morphologies of electrochemically deposited $SnO_2$-doped ZnO were transformed from plain (or network) structures at low reduction potential to needles on hills at high reduction potential. Well aligned ZnO was prepared at intermediate potential ranges. Reduction reagent and a high concentration of Zn precursor were required to fabricate $SnO_2$ doped ZnO nanorods. When compared to results obtained by single step electrochemical deposition, 2-step electrochemical deposition produced a much higher density of nanorods, which was ascribed to less potential being required for nucleation of nanorods by the second-step electrochemical deposition because the surface was activated in the first-step. Mechanisms of $SnO_2$ doped ZnO nanorods prepared at single step or 2-step was described in terms of applied potential ranges and mass-/charge- limited transfer.